History

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Roger Spalding and Christopher Parker

The ability to construct a clear coherent case, supported by argument, evidence and references is an obviously valuable skill, as is recognised in the subject benchmarking statement for History, drawn up by the Quality Assurance Agency. This chapter focuses on the issues of planning and structuring in the process of writing an essay and explains what plagiarism is. It offers a guide to the writing of academic history at undergraduate level, to the skills involved, and contrasts this with the non-academic uses of history. A crucial starting point when approaching an essay question is to identify the historical debate to which it directly or indirectly refers. The chapter examines the wider benefits of developing an aptitude for writing essays. The knowledge gained by history students and the skills and aptitudes that they develop as they learn to write historically have a significance that extends well beyond the seminar room.

in Historiography
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Roger Spalding and Christopher Parker

Gender history presents gender identities, of both men and women, as cultural and social constructs, as, in other words, bundles of meanings usually embodied in language. The reference to semiotics is indicative of the influence of postmodernism on gender historians. This chapter notes that gender historians share the broadly oppositional stance of Women's History. Denise Riley argues that her interest in the gender construction of women flows from her belief that language is the location of women's oppression. The chapter cites some gender historians who viewed gender identities as expressions of social change within a wider society, that, to put it another way, such changes were the product of processes within a wider, external world. It also argues that women will logically continue to grapple with the past and out of that situation will come conflicting interpretations.

in Historiography
Stanley R. Sloan

Illiberalism has not yet brought the West to the brink of collapse. This chapter provides suggestions about how a radical centrist populist Western strategy could be applied to deal with the threats and challenges, reinvigorating the Western system. Radical centrist populists should promote creative and constructive approaches as important tools for reducing the future threat of Islamist terrorism. While it is critically important for the United States to remain actively involved in NATO's defenses against Russian threats, Europeans can also take steps to maintain transatlantic values and cooperation while they are being questioned in Washington. The chapter also touches upon other suggestions relating to illiberalism in Europe, Turkey's drift away from the West, and the Brexit referendum. A key goal of those Americans who believe in Western values should be to protect freedom of the press unlike President Trump's assault of press sources that do not support his goals.

in Transatlantic traumas
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An introduction

History in the historiographical sense is made by us, not by people in the past, nor by the record of their actions. This book facilitates the critical reading of works of history. It looks at the historical profession, its predilections and traditions. The Whig interpretation of history has been chosen to illustrate the relationship between historiography and a prevalent culture because of its central role in the period when the historical profession began to establish itself in England and because of its continuing popular and political influence. The book acts as a guide to reading historiographical texts, looking at the relationship between 'facts' and 'theories', and at 'meta-narrative' and causation. The book examines the issues of planning and structuring in the process of writing an essay. It offers a guide to the writing of academic history at undergraduate level and to the skills involved, and contrasts this with the non-academic uses of history. The book talks about some gender historians who viewed gender identities as expressions of social change within a wider society. It explores the unique fascination that the Nazis has exercised on both academic and popular historiography, along with the allied study of the Holocaust. The book also explores the works of Marxist historians associated with the Communist Party Historians' Group and considers the earlier approaches to cultural history, as influences on the Group, and the development of newer theoretical positions that developed both out of and in opposition to Marxism. The developments in British historiography are discussed.

Roger Spalding and Christopher Parker

In 2005, the Historical Association published a government-sponsored report, which attacked what it referred to as the 'Hitlerisation' of history. The report's positive reference to what The Spectator called 'Our shameful Nazi fetish', helped to conjure a picture of the mindless anti-German 'patriotism' that characterises elements of British society. This chapter takes a look at the unique fascination that the Nazis has exercised on both academic and popular historiography, along with the allied study of the Holocaust. Christopher R. Browning rejects the 'intentionalist' view that the Holocaust was the fulfilment of a long-term plan formulated by Adolf Hitler in the 1920s, but he has argued that Hitler played a much more direct role in the process leading to the Holocaust. The chapter demonstrates that historiographical issues are intimately connected with political and social developments in the Nazi regime.

in Historiography
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History and historiography
Roger Spalding and Christopher Parker

The term 'history' is often used to mean the past. It also means that which is written about the past, historiography or a description of the past. Another popular term 'historic', designating something that is worthy of record, suggests not only that some events or actions are more important than others, but that a principle of selection has to be applied. The philosopher Michael Oakeshott thought that historians had legitimately created a form of historical experience that dealt with 'a dead past' which was 'unlike the present' and was 'the past for its own sake' without practical application. History in the historiographical sense is made by us, not by people in the past nor by the record of their actions. Contrary to another popular usage, history does not speak to us directly, even if the source is oral testimony. This chapter also presents an overview of in this book.

in Historiography
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The West, its ideas and enemies
Stanley R. Sloan

The West of which we speak is defined by the values of liberal democracy, individual freedom, human rights, tolerance and equality under the rule of law. Donald Trump's formulation threatens to close the door of the West to those of different cultures, faiths and traditions who, while differing in many ways, nonetheless accept and practice Western values. This concept of the West has been shaped largely since the end of World War II. . The transatlantic traumas of 2016 and 2017 have put the West in jeopardy. The combination of external threats from Russia, disruptive radical Islamist terror and internal weaknesses in Western social, economic and political systems has formed a perfect storm. That storm endangers the security of Western democracies and the values that have shaped the West since the end of the War.

in Transatlantic traumas
Stanley R. Sloan

In the time of transatlantic traumas, the Islamist terrorist threat and the Russian threat have worked diligently and with some success. This chapter analyses how did these threats develop. It provides the answers for the hatred of Islamists towards Western democracies, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) for their involvement in the Middle East politics for several decades. The chapter also looks into the internal divisions in Islam, the Sunni and Shia factions, and the conflicts between them which has given rise to turmoil in the Middle East and fleeing of refugees to other countries. It examines the NATO and EU responses to the refugees problem and explains that the Islamist and Russian threats converge in Syria, which had been a Soviet ally since 1956.

in Transatlantic traumas
Abstract only
Stanley R. Sloan

There is no single explanation for the rising popularity of illiberalism in the Western democracies; a combination of factors has produced a general sense of malaise. This chapter highlights the sources of discontent prevailing in the Western countries such as the 2008 Great Depression and the inflow of refugees from the Middle East. It looks at the rise of Trumpism and the reasons of his victory in the 216 US elections and discusses the rise of populist radical right in several European countries: France, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, Greece, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland. The surge of refugees from the war-torn Middle East has put dramatic new focus on the existing concerns related to visa-free movement of people inside the EU's Schengen zone. Many Eastern Europeans are dissatisfied not only with the post-communist transformation, but also with immigrants.

in Transatlantic traumas
Has illiberalism brought the West to the brink of collapse?
Series: Pocket Politics

The West of which we speak is defined by the values of liberal democracy, individual freedom, human rights, tolerance and equality under the rule of law. This book explores how Islamist terror and Russian aggression as companion threats to the West when terrorists target Russia as well as the United States and its allies. The threats posed by Islamist terror and Russian aggression present themselves in very different ways. In the time of transatlantic traumas, the Islamist terrorist threat and the Russian threat have worked diligently and with some success. The book examines the hatred of Islamists towards Western democracies, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union for their involvement in the Middle East politics for several decades. There is no single explanation for the rising popularity of illiberalism in the Western democracies; a combination of factors has produced a general sense of malaise. The book discusses the sources of discontent prevailing in the Western countries, and looks at the rise of Trumpism, Turkey and its Western values as well as the domestic tensions between Turkey's political parties. It suggests a radical centrist populist Western strategy could be applied to deal with the threats and challenges, reinvigorating the Western system. The book also touches upon suggestions relating to illiberalism in Europe, Turkey's drift away from the West, and the Brexit referendum.