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Ulf Zander

Some musical works that build on Raoul Wallenberg’s actions and fate form the point of departure for an argument aimed at problematizing a previously predominant view of the Americanization of the Holocaust. According to that view, adaptation to the conceptions of US audiences mostly involves simplification and a reduction of nuance. With an eye on increasing interest in Wallenberg in the 1970s, the chapter analyses how he became an important factor in American foreign policy and popular culture. The chapter discusses examples of creative negotiation between information about his life drawn from scholarly studies on the one hand and representations of Wallenberg on the other, especially with reference to the American television serial Wallenberg: A Hero’s Story and the Swedish-Hungarian feature film Good Evening, Mr. Wallenberg.

in Raoul Wallenberg
Ulf Zander

The final chapter summarizes the main findings of the study. A vital aspect of that study is that scholarship and popular culture are interrelated, as the Raoul Wallenberg example demonstrates. Another realization becomes apparent: while secret/silent diplomacy is in many respects directly opposed to public diplomacy, the two have become increasingly interdependent. How views on Wallenberg have changed in Sweden, Hungary, and the US is shown in a partly different light as comparative aspects are given increased attention. Finally, the chapter addresses the question of how the memory of Wallenberg’s achievements can and should be passed on to future generations.

in Raoul Wallenberg
Ulf Zander

Monuments and memorial sites are at the heart of this chapter. After an introductory discussion about the functions fulfilled by statues, both in the past and in the present, a number of monuments erected to the memory of Raoul Wallenberg are analysed. These monuments are located in Hungary and Sweden. The Hungarian statue projects are discussed in close relation to developments in that country’s politics during the Second World War and the Cold War, and after the fall of the Berlin Wall.

in Raoul Wallenberg
Open Access (free)
An evolving history
Ulf Zander

Beginning with the formal announcement in 2016 of Raoul Wallenberg’s death, more than 71 years after his disappearance, the chapter presents some of the speculations as to why he was arrested and probably murdered by Soviet security services. There is also a detailed discussion of previous research on Raoul Wallenberg, and on how the story of the missing Swede may be understood from scholarly historical perspectives. That view is held up against a more comprehensive understanding associated with the forming of myths and legends. The chapter also deals with questions arising from the various materials and methods applied in the investigation.

in Raoul Wallenberg
Open Access (free)
Life and legacy
Author:

Raoul Wallenberg: Life and Legacy examines important events in the life of the Swedish diplomat, but this is not a traditional biography. Starting from Wallenberg’s time in Budapest during 1944–1945, the book analyses how Wallenberg went from being a highly sensitive topic in Swedish politics to becoming a personification of humanitarian effort during the Holocaust, as well as a ‘brand’ in Swedish foreign politics. Fictional portrayals of Wallenberg are another essential feature. Looking at the many ways in which his life has been represented in monuments, on opera stages, in a television serial, and in a feature film, it becomes apparent that scholarly historical perspectives have not set the agenda for engagement with Wallenberg. Finally, this study raises a vital issue: how can Wallenberg’s memory be kept alive as the distance to those events with which he was so powerfully connected recede into the background?

From bone of contention to brand
Ulf Zander

This chapter analyses the initially sparse but later comprehensive efforts made by the Swedish Foreign Office to find out what happened to Raoul Wallenberg. It also examines the many and extensive debates during and after the Cold War about the Swedish handling of the so-called Wallenberg case, often with representatives of the Swedish government and Foreign Office on one side and representatives of the Wallenberg Association, as well as of his family, on the other. The chapter demonstrates how and why Wallenberg went from embodying a difficult issue in Swedish politics to becoming a symbol, or rather a foreign-policy brand, for the country. The latter mindset was especially predominant in 2012, in connection with the celebration of the centenary of his birth. At that point, the express aim was to reduce emphasis on his disappearance in the Soviet Union, and on the way Swedish governments handled that disappearance, so as to lay greater stress on his achievements in Budapest during 1944–1945.

in Raoul Wallenberg
Ulf Zander

The chapter is divided into three components, interlinked by Raoul Wallenberg’s operations in Budapest during 1944–1945. The first section supplies a brief biography of his life before the Second World War and during the early war years. The second outlines the history of Hungary from the mid-1850s onwards, with an emphasis on the period 1918–1945 and a focus on the development from antisemitism to Holocaust. The third describes the American political discussion that resulted in the founding of the War Refugee Board, the organization which was arguably Wallenberg’s chief employer, and the efforts made by the Swede during his time in Budapest.

in Raoul Wallenberg
Ulf Zander

The chapter starts from the Scarlet Pimpernel as a stage play, a book, and a film. It draws attention to the effect of the film Pimpernel Smith, featuring Leslie Howard, on Raoul Wallenberg. The dual basis for the history-cultural investigation is provided by Emmuska Orczy’s play and book about the English hero who, in disguise, saves French people from the Terror of the French Revolution in conjunction with Leslie Howard’s representations of the Scarlet Pimpernel and his ‘updated’ counterpart in the 1940s, Horatio Smith, who helps persecuted scientists and intellectuals escape from Nazi Germany. The chapter also examines the Swedish film Pimpernel Svensson and deals with another diplomat, Harald Edelstam, who, like Wallenberg, has been referred to as a latter-day Scarlet Pimpernel.

in Raoul Wallenberg
Open Access (free)
Psychoanalytic therapy of psychoses in 1950s clinical psychiatry
Marietta Meier

After World War II, several psychiatrists in the USA began treating schizophrenic patients psychoanalytically. Various methods were applied. However, all approaches were based on the assumption that people with schizophrenia had suffered severe trauma in their early childhood. The therapy was intended to give the patients some of the love and care they had previously missed, and heal them in this way. In the early 1950s, the Psychiatric University Hospital of Zurich was likely the first state hospital in Europe to apply and study analytical psychotherapy for psychoses. Although clinical psychiatry was usually suspicious of, if not radically opposed to, the psychotherapy of schizophrenia, these trials attracted wide international interest. By pursuing a cultural-historical praxeological approach, the contribution examines the psychotherapeutic attempt and its consequences in Zurich and beyond. Based on medical records, further internal clinic documents, correspondence and contemporary specialist articles, it identifies the patterns of perception, interpretation and action in the analysed context. The focus is on the interaction processes between the new method and the relations among various groups of actors, the clinical setting as well as institutional routines. Analytic psychotherapy resulted, so the argument goes, in a fundamental, largely unintended, change in psychiatric practices, which was driven by many other factors that influenced each other.

in Doing psychiatry in postwar Europe
Practices, routines and experiences

This collective volume looks at European psychiatry in the second half of the twentieth century through a variety of practices that were experienced and routinised in the mental health field after World War II. Case studies from across Europe allow one to appreciate how new ‘ways of doing’ contributed to transform the field, beyond the watchwords of deinstitutionalisation, the introduction of neuroleptics, centrality of patients, humanisation of spaces and overcoming of asylum-era habits. Through a variety of sources and often adopting a small-scale perspective, the chapters closely examine the way new practices took shape and how they installed themselves, eventually facing resistance, injecting new purposes and contributing to enlarging psychiatry’s fields of expertise, therefore blurring its once-more-defined boundaries. The book has four sections: visions, experimentation, reflections and crossing boundaries. The first focuses on experiences that were viewed, lived and narrated by the protagonists as unique and utopian. This character of novelty is also questioned through the patient’s perspective. The following section focuses on some cases whose protagonists were aware that they were trialling new ways of doing. Although these did not necessarily become mainstream, new frameworks of therapeutic intervention were shaped, and feebler protocolar procedures and eclectic appropriations were allowed for. The third section shows how the actors were called to reflect on practices and give them meaning, adopting a reflective habit that questioned the very role of each protagonist of the therapeutic scene. The last section analyses how psychiatry entered fields of expertise other than those usually assumed.