International Relations

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Journalism practice, risk and humanitarian communication
Jairo Lugo-Ocando and Gabriel Andrade

The news media creates regimes of pity in order to mobilise the public towards humanitarian causes. Such regimes of pity tend to obviate the power relations between those who suffer and the spectators. This chapter proposes a type of news coverage that creates a specific type of political solidarity and which does not reproduce the power relations that have been prevalent until now in most news narratives and humanitarian campaigns. It argues that journalism practice must adopt a view of ‘shared risk’ in which people embrace equally concerns about a common future. The notion of societal risk tends to create the type of collective uncertainty that brings about political action in ways that pity regimes do not.

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Cinema, news media and perception management of the Gaza conflicts
Shohini Chaudhuri

This chapter examines media coverage of the Gaza conflicts and considers what occurs when humanitarian images of Palestinian casualties take centre stage. The chapter argues that a media outcome that appears to be favourable to the Palestinians, in that it focuses on their suffering, can actually have the opposite effect. Addressing UK, US and Israeli news media, as well as popular television and the documentary films Waltz with Bashir (Ari Folman, 2008) and Where Should the Birds Fly (Fida Qishta, 2013), the chapter addresses the ways ‘perception management’ can serve to divorce the public from realities of state violence through a kind of cinematic derealisation that enables states to reduce perceptions of blame for their atrocities and act with impunity.

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
The United States Peace Corps in the early 1960s
Agnieszka Sobocinska

This chapter focuses on the United States Peace Corp and explores the nature and effects of the Peace Corps’ publicity, media and popular culture portrayals during the 1960s. It shows how the Peace Corps rendered international development into a topic for mainstream discussion and public engagement, and traces some of the political outcomes of this publicity. By focusing on volunteers’ altruistic intentions Peace Corps publicity portrayed international development as a humanitarian project. Presenting US intervention as a positive expression of American altruism, the Peace Corps helped popularise the view that America had a responsibility to modernise the ‘underdeveloped’ nations of the world. This chapter argues that, by privileging American viewpoints and eliding competing visions, Peace Corps publicity helped normalise the logic of intervention.

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
Michael Lawrence

This chapter examines specific ideological and aesthetic dimensions of the representation of children in American films produced during and directly after the Second World War in relation to the promotion and operations of the United Nations. It analyses how vulnerable children from the world’s war zones appeared and functioned in four Hollywood studio pictures. These films presented groups of children to harness humanitarian sentiment in support of the ideology and activities of the UN. While the figure of the child acquired new cultural and political significance in the era of the United Nations’ wartime and post-war endeavours in humanitarianism, the presentation and performances of Hollywood’s juvenile actors simultaneously became subject to new modes of moral apprehension and aesthetic evaluation.

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
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Television and the politics of British humanitarianism
Andrew Jones

This chapter focuses on how television coverage of major disasters in the global South shaped the historical and political trajectory of humanitarian aid in Britain, through a case study of British television coverage of the deadly famine in Ethiopia in 1973. ITV’s The Unknown Famine shaped the trajectory of British humanitarianism in three important ways: it provided an empathic demonstration of the power of televised images of human suffering to mobilise the public; it was an important signpost for wider critiques of media representation and disaster fundraising imagery emerging within the aid community; and it contributed towards significant changes in the British government’s approach to disaster relief policy.

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Thomas S. Wilkins

This chapter examines the relationship between Canberra and Tokyo from a distinctly Australian perspective by disaggregating the Australia-Japan bilateral relations from the simplistic ‘allies of the US’ context (‘quasi-alliance’) to demonstrate how the two countries have developed a hugely strengthened bilateral security relationship to a significant degree independent of the US context. It argues, that this so-called ‘strategic partnership’ is a new form of security alignment that does not neatly fit traditional alliance paradigms, before analysing the wider contexts within which the bilateral strategic partnership exists.

in Japan's new security partnerships
Abstract only
Wilhelm Vosse and Paul Midford
in Japan's new security partnerships
Stephen R. Nagy

This chapter analyses Japan’s Southeast Asian security partnerships from a Southeast Asian perspective. Japan’s re-entering East Asia with a combination of increasing trading ties and economic development (ODA) initiatives in the 1970s and 1980s, slowly furthered economic growth and prosperity in many East-Asian countries as well as Japan - a mutually beneficial relationship that largely remained un-securitized. Beginning with the second Abe administration in 2012, Japan began to include security components in a number of bilateral relations with countries in the region. This chapter divides countries in Southeast Asian countries by their level of economic dependence on China and their threat perception vis-à-vis China, which is the core factor in explaining the rationale for why and how they engage with Japan, and shapes Southeast perspectives of Japanese-Southeast Asian security partnerships.

in Japan's new security partnerships
Wilhelm Vosse

This chapter analyses a practical case of EU-Japan out-of-area security cooperation, and the first example of operational security cooperation between the EU and Japan, namely the counter-piracy mission off the coast of Somalia. This chapter introduces the main reasons and different stages of involvement of the Japanese government, the MSDF and JCG in the Somalia counter-piracy mission. It then analyses the extent to which this mission provided opportunities for closer EU-Japan security cooperation, and what significance this case has for future EU-Japan security cooperation more broadly. It argues that this mission provided an ideal opportunity for Japanese government representatives and SDF personnel to learn the complexities of multilateral security coordination, and operational cooperation between European and Japanese forces, while simultaneously producing a deepening of trust and understanding.

in Japan's new security partnerships
Axel Berkofsky

This chapter analyses the recent intensification of EU-Japan security relations from a European perspective. While recognizing shortcomings, including the expectations gap between the EU and Japan that has frequently been problematized, this chapter emphasizes the significance of the recent changes in Japanese security policy, such as the 2013 National Security Strategy, as evidence that Japan does consider the EU and NATO to be important security partners. The chapter analyses the domestic debate and government initiatives, as well as Japan’s expectations for the EU-Japan Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA), and the enablers and inhibitors of closer security ties. This chapter argues that while Japan Europe security cooperation has so far excluded hard security, the changing international security environment and a narrowing perceptions gap should allow deeper cooperation in non-traditional security fields, because Japan would benefit from the European experience of forging consensus in shaping international rules and norms.

in Japan's new security partnerships