International Relations

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Andreas Immanuel Graae and Kathrin Maurer

The Introduction describes the scope of the book and gives an overview of each chapter. It also discusses key terms including drone imaginaries, vision, aesthetics, social imaginaries and communities.

in Drone imaginaries
Thomas Stubblefield

In their focus on possible identities, meanings and events, the martial networks of US drones enact a shift from producing a definitive world picture to overseeing the ground from which such representations emerge. The mobilization of data that makes this possible, conflicts with the historical goals of surveillance and reconnaissance operations. Rather than identifying discrete individuals, the kill chain collects the partial traces of metadata in order to produce the actors necessary for a strike. These relations allow drones to penetrate the world directly, to work through and as instead of upon its objects. In this way, drone power shifts from the symbolic to the ontological; its operations become one of world-making. Using work by Trevor Paglen, Noor Behram and others, this chapter examines the ways in which the above relations resurface in the context of drone art and the larger attempt of this genre to reimagine its subject by way of this convergence.

in Drone imaginaries
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A techno-bestiary of drones in art and war
Claudette Lauzon

If the advent of the drone wars in the early twenty-first century was largely accompanied by narratives of virtuality and disembodiment, recent years have witnessed a renewed attention to the human dimensions of drone warfare – from Hollywood’s fascination with the lived experience of UAV pilots to theoretical examinations of the agential capacities of the drone. But what are the stakes of such representational strategies in a context that arguably relies on the dehumanization of drone targets and victims? This chapter draws on feminist theory and critical posthumanism to explore both the objectification of human subjects in contemporary warfare and the anthropomorphisation of the drone in popular culture. In conversation with a series of recent artworks, the chapter examine the figure of the drone through three rhetorical filters – the swarm, the blob and the corpse. Together, these filters help to elucidate an aesthetics of estrangement that might paradoxically cultivate a praxis of solidarity and care among the ‘stranger things’ of drone warfare.

in Drone imaginaries
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Insects, drones and swarming in Ernst Jünger’s The Glass Bees
Andreas Immanuel Graae

Since ancient times, insect swarms have triggered uncanny emotions such as anxiety, paranoia and panic within human communities. During the twentieth century, this imagination revived as it merged with fantasies of autonomation and emergent behaviour among intelligent machines. As an eager entomologist with a keen eye for technology’s impact on the human, the German author Ernst Jünger put these ambivalent emotions into literary form in his futuristic novel The Glass Bees (1957), which features advanced robotic bees hardly distinguishable from today’s micro-drones. This chapter investigates Jünger’s novel as an early literary work on drone technology and situates it in the proper historical context as it arrives in a dawning era of computers, networks and automation. The drone swarms in the novel can be seen as something inherently uncanny, which evokes feelings such as paranoia and anxiety – emotions that are easily associated with the authoritarian community where this drone technology is used. Focusing on the figure of the swarm, the chapter thus discusses how Jünger’s artificial bees foreshadow today’s drone technologies and the prospects of swarming robots in warfare as well as everyday life.

in Drone imaginaries
The view from New Delhi
Rajesh Rajagopalan

Cooperation between the U.S. and India on nuclear stability in the region remains fairly low, and there is little prospect that it will improve dramatically in the near future. The two disagree about the intensity of nuclear instability on the region and its source. India sees the danger as stemming from Pakistan’s use of terrorism as a strategy and from its first-use nuclear doctrine. The U.S., on the other hand, is worried about the potential for escalation in a nuclearized environment. There is some shared anxiety about the problem of “loose nukes”, specifically as it relates to Pakistan and its use of terrorism as state strategy, but little beyond. In addition, there are also some common worries about Pakistan’s dependence on tactical nuclear weapons (TNWs) and early nuclear escalation strategy. But it is unclear that these can lead to any viable cooperation between the two sides. Moreover, the U.S. and India have more important common strategic concerns, and nuclear stability is a hindrance to this. Limited nuclear stability cooperation might still be possible between the U.S. and India in three areas: cybersecurity related to the nuclear sector, securing Pakistan’s nuclear materials and weapons, and reducing the dangers associated with Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal and policy.

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
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U.S.–India military cooperation in the twenty-first century
Abhijnan Rej

Over the past two decades, the U.S.–India strategic relationship has consolidated to become one of the defining elements shaping the future of Asian security. While the relationship has made significant leaps in face of considerable obstacles during that period, significant impediments remain that prevent it from achieving its full potential. In this chapter, the current state of the U.S.–India military relationship is examined in terms of a conceptual schema, where political congruence between two countries leads to shared political-military objectives which would then drive military interoperability between the sovereign forces. It explicates the state of play from an Indian perspective when it comes to all of these three dimensions through a study of policy statements and prognoses, both official as well as those emanating from the country’s strategic elite. The chapter concludes that domestic determinants of India’s foreign and security policy– both ideational as well as structural – adversely affect all three. Noting that these factors are unlikely to dissolve soon, the chapter looks at alternative pathways for U.S.–India defense cooperation for the future.

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
Challenges in cyberdefense cooperation for the U.S. and India
Bedavyasa Mohanty

A strategic bilateral partnership in cyberspace between India and the United States holds great promise. Delinked from the legacy of a larger strategic relationship, it opens up the possibility of defining a new normal in how the two states cooperate in the transfer of both skills and technology. This chapter highlights the convergence of economic and strategic interests between India and the U.S.. In doing so, it draws attention to questions around the gap of capacity and political will that have ailed cybersecurity cooperation between the two nations. The chapter analyses two things: first, the principled points of divergence that often act as a hurdle for cooperation between the U.S. and India; and second, common threats that the two countries currently face in the cyber realm, which make it critical for them to set aside differences and work together. The chapter makes a case for addressing the underlying economic concerns such as data localization to fully realize the potential for strategic cooperation in cyberspace.

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation

This book deals with the evolution, current status and potential of U.S.–India strategic cooperation. From very modest beginnings, the U.S.–India strategic partnership has developed significantly over the decade 2010–20. In considerable part this growth has stemmed from overlapping concerns about the rise and assertiveness of the People’s Republic of China as well as the instability of Pakistan. Despite the emergence of this partnership, however, significant differences remain. Some of them stem from Cold War legacies, others from divergent global strategic interests and from differences in institutional design. Despite these areas of discord, the overall trajectory of the relationship appears promising. Increased cooperation in several sectors of the relationship and closer policy coordination underscore a deepening of the relationship, while fundamental differences in national approaches to strategic challenges demand flexibility and compromise in the future.

A bumpy road
Manoj Joshi

India and the U.S. confronted terrorism in its modern form at around the same time, in the early 1980s. Yet, it took them an uncommonly long time to cooperate on counterterrorism measures. The reason for this has been their differing perceptions of how terrorism affects them. For the U.S., it has a largely international dimension, for India, it is a regional, even Pakistan problem. Domestic counterterrorism strategies, too, have varied. The U.S. has used straightforward military strategies along with the institutional mechanisms based on domestic law which has an international reach. India has used orthodox police methods combined with an intelligence effort. The two countries have created a working structure of cooperation but a great deal more needs to be done to generate trust between their intelligence and security machineries. But this can only happen if they are able to evolve a common perspective on what is “terrorism” and how it impacts on both of them.

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
The future of U.S.–India strategic cooperation
Šumit Ganguly and M. Chris Mason

This introduction provides an overview of the contributions from a range of American and Indian scholars and strategic analysts on the origins, evolution and prospects of the U.S.–Indian strategic partnership. It covers a gamut of bilateral issues ranging from cybersecurity, counterterrorism, military-to-military cooperation and defense technology transfers to space cooperation and intelligence

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation