International Relations

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European borderscapes

The management of migration between care and control

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Pierluigi Musarò

The representation strategies and discursive practices enacted by a wide range of state and non-state actors present the Mediterranean Sea as the setting of a perpetual emergency. European and national political agencies, military authorities, humanitarian organisations and activists have been representing migrants crossing borders as a significant problem to be managed in terms of a wider social, cultural and political ‘crisis’. This chapter focuses on the ambiguities and contradictions that bedevil discourses and practices around control and care of human mobility in the Mediterranean. It addresses the role of ‘crisis’ narratives and the hyper-visibility of the ‘military-humanitarian spectacle of the border’ in obscuring the political stakes surrounding European borders.

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The corporate karma carnival

Offline and online games, branding and humanitarianism at the Roskilde Festival

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Lene Bull Christiansen and Mette Fog Olwig

This chapter asks whether it is possible to harness the powers of ‘the popular’ and media culture in the service of humanitarianism. There is a need to critically balance an analysis of the potentially progressive and/or problematic aspects of a popularised humanitarian event. Exploring the energies that are at play in the popular ‘carnival’ of the Danish Roskilde Festival, this chapter examines how the carnivalesque can function both as a form of corporate branding and as a means to destabilise the status quo identified with a negatively branded segment of the population. The chapter also analyses the expansion of the festival into cyberspace, and the offline–online interconnectivity of the festvial’s humanitarian events

Open Access (free)

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Laura Suski

This chapter considers the limitations of political consumerism as a channel for a humanitarian impulse and explores whether the everyday practice of consumption can be a space of care and concern for international justice. Analysing the consumption of children’s toys and the online discussions of boycotting ‘unsafe’ toys, the chapter explores how a neoliberal parenting culture in the West, which promotes a highly individualised and intensive model of parenting, affects a more universal and collective call for a global international humanitarianism. While social media provides opportunities to share and discuss information about toy safety, it is argued that emotion is an important part of humanitarian mobilisation, and that the emotions of consumption are often thwarted by the identity politics of consumption.

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Classical antiquity as humanitarian narrative

The Marshall Plan films about Greece

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Katerina Loukopoulou

This chapter examines how Marshall Plan documentary films about reconstruction in Greece mobilised national culture and identity politics in their audio-visual rhetoric. Addressing the films’ humanitarian narratives, the chapter suggests Marshall Plan documentaries inaugurated a visual politics of neo-humanitarianism. It analyses how classical antiquity is evoked in the films to stand not only for Greece’s reconstruction but also for Western Europe’s future and its alignment with the US vision of a geopolitical ‘pax Americana’. Focusing on Humphrey Jennings’ The Good Life (1952), the chapter explores a historical dialectic between modern and classical Greece that positions the Marshall Plan aid within a dual perspective of national reconstruction and universal necessity.

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Swee Lean Collin Koh

This chapter analyses the recent intensification of Japan-Vietnam security relations from the Vietnamese perspectives. It argues that for Vietnam, Chinese maritime expansion and territorial claims in the South China Sea are an important motivation to deepen security ties with Japan. This chapter examines how Vietnam has dealt with post-Cold War and contemporary maritime security challenges, and discusses Japan’s role in developing their bilateral maritime security partnership, before assessing the future trajectory of the Vietnam-Japan maritime security partnership.

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Renato Cruz De Castro

This chapter analyses Philippine-Japan security ties from the Philippine perspective. It examines the external and domestic factors behind their increased security cooperation and explores the status of this security partnership. It argues that China’s maritime expansion in East Asia negatively affected both Japan and the Philippines, which in turn led to a deepening of their security partnership. The chapter predicts that despite recent changes in the Philippine government, the Philippines has a strong interest in further deepening the security partnership with Japan.

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Bjørn Elias Mikalsen Grønning

This chapter analyses the recent intensification of Japan-Vietnam security relations from a Japanese perspective. It demonstrates that the relationship has grown beyond a security talk shop since 2011, when relations began to develop markedly toward substantial cooperation, especially on maritime security, and today are on the verge of becoming militarily significant. This chapter argues that Japan’s incentive to develop this partnership is primarily to assist and induce Vietnam’s continued resistance against the rise of Chinese maritime power. The recent changes in Japan’s domestic security legislation potentially open new opportunities to further broaden and deepen bilateral maritime security cooperation, because they legally enable Japan to assist Vietnam militarily in some respects.

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Akiko Fukushima

This chapter analyses the recent intensification of EU-Japan security relations from a Japanese perspective. After two decades of relatively slow progress and a focus on economic and non-security ties, this chapter focuses on the potential impact of the most ambitious initiative to substantially deepen their security ties, namely the EU-Japan Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA). With the SPA still under negotiation, this chapter asks how this agreement will most likely influence EU-Japan security cooperation, Japan’s potential contribution to EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions, EU-Japan cooperation on banning anti-personnel mines and limiting the illicit trade in small arms, and the significance of defence cooperation between France and the UK with Japan. It also assesses how China’s growing role in international affairs might impact the EU and Japan, and their current and future security cooperation.

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Satoru Nagao

This chapter analyses the recent intensification of India-Japan security ties from the Japanese perspective. The chapter stresses the importance of the deepening dialogue between foreign and defence ministers and Japan’s now regular participation in naval exercises in the last few years. It argues that for Japan, the main rationale is geo-strategic, namely the changing US-China balance, because Japan is no longer certain that the US will continue to balance against China and support Japan’s interests in the region. This makes India a central ally initially for burden sharing with the United States in the Indian Ocean, for protecting sea-lanes of communication and eventually for collaborating with Japan to support South China Sea littoral countries. The shared values between the two countries, and the expectation that India is a status-quo power in South Asia, and has a long history of cooperation in international institutions, makes India a natural regional security partner.

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Yusuke Ishihara

This chapter analyses the Japan-Australia bilateral security ties from a Japanese perspective. It argues, that for Japan, the trust towards Australia has begun to deepen during the years of bi- and multilateral cooperation on non-traditional security issues such as Peacekeeping Operations and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief, for example the support of the Australian forces in protecting the Japanese GSDF during their deployment to Samawah (Southern Iraq) in 2006, which provided the basis for the “second evolution” of Japan-Australia Japan security relations with the signing of the Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation in 2007 and further intensification of security ties since 2012. The chapter argues that the deepening strategic convergence of Japan’s and Australia’s regional policies towards a more assertive direction is a response to the perceived challenges posed by the rise of China, as well as their shared views on the rules-based international order and the U.S. role in the Asia-Pacific region.