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Laura Cahillane

This book challenges the myths surrounding the Irish Free Constitution by analysing the document in its context, by looking at how the Constitution was drafted and elucidating the true nature of the document. It examines the reasons why the Constitution did not function as anticipated and investigates whether the failures of the document can be attributed to errors of judgment in the drafting process or to subsequent events and treatment of the document.

As well as giving a comprehensive account of the drafting stages and an analysis of the three alternative drafts for the first time, the book considers the intellectual influences behind the Constitution and the central themes of the document.

This work constitutes a new look at this historic document through a legal lens and the analysis benefits from the advantage of hindsight as well as the archival material now available.

Given the fact that the current Constitution substantially reproduces much of the 1922 text, the work will be of interest to modern constitutional scholars as well as legal historians and anyone with an interest in the period surrounding the creation of the Irish State.

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Laura Cahillane

This chapter provides a comprehensive examination of the debates on the constitution in the constituent assembly. The tenor of the debates is considered and the major controversies are discussed and examined. The finished document is then reflected upon.

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Laura Cahillane

This chapter is concerned with the work of the committee; it explains the role played by each member as well as the nature of the meetings. The freedom of the committee is considered in relation to the instructions given them by Collins and Griffith. The preliminary structure of the constitution and the early discussions are examined.

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Laura Cahillane

This chapter looks at the fate of the drafts once they had been presented to the provisional government. The criticisms provided by T.M. Healy and George O’Brien are analysed.

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Laura Cahillane

This chapter examines the negotiations with the British government on the draft which was brought to London. It considers the approaches of both sides as well as their differing interpretations and the manner in which agreement was eventually reached. The impact of these discussions on the final constitution is explored.

Open Access (free)

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Laura Cahillane

This chapter explores the theme of anti-party politics in the Irish Free State Constitution and the various devices included in the constitution to prevent the advent of a party-focused political system in Ireland. PR-STV, the external ministers scheme, functional representation and the Seanad are all examined. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the failure of this theme

Open Access (free)

Jean-Marc Dreyfus

From 1945 until around 1960, ceremonies of a new kind took place throughout Europe to commemorate the Holocaust and the deportation of Jews; ashes would be taken from the site of a concentration camp, an extermination camp, or the site of a massacre and sent back to the deportees country of origin (or to Israel). In these countries, commemorative ceremonies were then organised and these ashes (sometimes containing other human remains) placed within a memorial or reburied in a cemetery. These transfers of ashes have, however, received little attention from historical researchers. This article sets out to describe a certain number of them, all differing considerably from one another, before drawing up a typology of this phenomenon and attempting its analysis. It investigates the symbolic function of ashes in the aftermath of the Second World War and argues that these transfers – as well as having a mimetic relationship to transfers of relics – were also instruments of political legitimisation.

Open Access (free)

Anouche Kunth

Braving the Ottoman‘s ban on capturing any images of the persecuted Armenians, witnesses dodged censorship and photographed pictures that would later be branded as proofat the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–20. Despite the challenge of these images to representations of the Armenian genocide, they were soon forgotten after the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne erased the Armenian Question, while time took care of destroying the corpses abandoned in the desert. This article will examine the image-disappearance dialectic through distinct temporalities of remembrance,and commemoration, each of which mobilises its own specific, iconographical semantics. In response to contemporary challenges, the repertoire of images has not remained sealed; over the last decade it has been reopened through depictions of bare landscapes and stretches of desert and bones,that suddenly pierce through the earth. The article will show how these images implicitly speak of the disappearance and seek meaning through emptiness.

Open Access (free)

Sévane Garibian