Literature and Theatre

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John Forrester

Fliess was not only Freud's first reader; he was also his first censor. Indeed, the very idea of the censorship, so important in Freud's theory of the dream, seems to develop hand in hand with Fliess's interventions, at Freud's invitation, in the composition of the dream book. It would, at first blush, have been possible for Freud to use the dreams of others, principally his patients, as the material upon which his dream book was based. Ignorance of the Traumdeutung was treated by Freud's followers as a sure index of stupidity and resistance. Sparingly, but with judicious timing, Freud would share self-analytic insights with his disciples, often using elements from The Interpretation of Dreams as a common code, knowing full well the followers knew his dreams and these personal references by heart.

in Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams
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Othello and the mulberries
Richard Wilson

The notion of Othello as 'Protestant propaganda' is simply not sufficiently acute. But in fact the text is keyed very closely to the revulsion from Roman tribalism as an apocalyptic mischief expressed by the Catholic loyalists with most to gain from the Spanish negotiations. From the point of view of Appellant gentlemen such as Thomas Tresham, Othello would be completely recognisable as a reminder of the dire need 'to get rid of the Jesuits'. Written in the 'heady months' between 'the high-water of Catholic hopes', when the Catholic elite was 'ecstatic that concessions were not far off', and the cruel discovery that these 'soaring expectations' were betrayed, Shakespeare's play begins and ends not with marriage but with the excess of Iago's execution, and a picture from the Catholic 'theatre of cruelties': of the 'bruised heart' torn from the body of the condemned, for jackdaws to devour.

in Secret Shakespeare
End-orientation and the discourses of power
Maggie Günsberg

The study of Machiavelli's The Prince takes as its starting-point the notion of the 'end', using this as a means of entry into the text which allows access to a specific series of interacting narrative and discursive processes. This chapter examines Machiavelli's text precisely from the point of view of narrative, as questions are posed concerning the textual typologies of The Prince. It focuses primarily on the text as an end-oriented, product-led narrative showing an allegiance to linearity and cohesion. With action man as its main protagonist, the narrative embodies stereotypical masculine values and positions the reader accordingly. Reader positioning is then examined in the text read as realist narrative. Informing these narrative considerations is a set of assumptions concerning the processes and effects of power relations in interconnecting areas, particularly those of gender and class.

in Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince
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Criticism, history, subjectivity
Author:

The title of this book - The ends of Ireland - brings together a number of closely entwined subjects and themes. The chapters in the book are concerned with the work of a generation of critics emerging from Ireland from the 1980s onwards whose work examines the idea of the 'ends of Ireland' in the sense of a focus on the purpose and consequences of a range of concepts of the nation and national identity. Yet these critics - Luke Gibbons, David Lloyd, Seamus Deane, W.J. McCormack, Gerardine Meaney and Emer Nolan - have the notion of 'ends' and 'endings' as their object in other ways. As the main representatives of the turn to theory in Irish Studies that occurred in the late 1980s and the 1990s, they have tracked and catalysed the dissolution of an unreflective and ideological notion of national identity as a matrix of critical analysis. The book examines the margin between Ireland and its others in order to elaborate a sense of what it might mean to speak of Ireland in the wake of the new ideas that began to circulate in the 1980s: deconstruction, psychoanalytic theory, feminism, subaltern studies, postcolonialism and not least the revisionist approaches that have revolutionized Irish historiography.

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The wisdom of Montaigne and Shakespeare
Robert Ellrodt
in Montaigne and Shakespeare
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Richard Wilson

The modern aesthetic that values art to the extent that it defies its time, and originates without commission, was so alien to Renaissance culture, however, that we may suspect Jonson of special pleading when he insisted that Shakespeare's work was never dictated by the headlines of 'the years'. For in 1603, when, according to Thomas Dekker's eulogistic almanac of 'The Wonderful Year', the grieving poets of England 'rained showers of tears' over the body of Queen Elizabeth,' Shakespeare's refusal to mourn became conspicuous as the result of a concerted campaign to out his allegiance and blow his religious cover. Historians such as John Bossy have forced us to recognise, more clearly than ever before, that Shakespeare's recurring dramatic scenario articulated the predicament of this Catholic fronde of 'victims of the state, enthusiasts and malcontents, vindictive exiles, conspirators and potential assassins'.

in Secret Shakespeare
Heidegger, Lyotard, and Gerhard Richter
Hugh J. Silverman

The project of capturing and holding reality in a painting is a bold and adventurous enterprise. Of course, in one sense, paintings are already part of reality - they are not as such imaginary. The Heideggerian Ereignis is an event, a happening, an occurrence, an advent even of grand proportions. It is a colossus that is bigger than can be conceived, and yet it has no dimensions at all, no content, no shape, no materiality, no substance. The Heideggerian Ereignis happens in the ontico-ontological difference. When Jean-Francois Lyotard defined the postmodern in an interview with Regis Durand, he said that it involves the "presentation of the unpresentable in presentation itself." An Ereignis is effectively a "presentation" in Lyotard's sense. Gerhard Richter's Ereignisse are postmodern sites constituted by their deferrals and displacements. Richter's Ereignisse of the appearances of reality are Lyotard's postmodern sublime in action.

in Postmodernism. What Moment?
Mikhail Bakhtin's dissertation defence as real event, as high drama and as academic comedy'
Nikolai Pan'kov

On 15 November 1946 the Academic Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences' Institute of World Literature convened for Bakhtin's defence of his Candidate's dissertation 'F. Rabelais in the history of realism'. This was far from the first and far from the last time the Council had met, and it met as it usually did on the days of traditional routine dissertation defences. Unfortunately, for some reason Rabelais was not published in France at that time either. And there was by now no alternative to a dissertation defence. Yet the defence will be interesting first and foremost as a major event in Bakhtin's personal destiny and in twentieth-century Russian academic life. Let us try, as though following in Jean Vilar's footsteps, to present the documentary record of the defence as a stage production - as high drama, but partly also as scholarly comedy and even farcical spectacle.

in Bakhtin and Cultural Theory
Joanne Hollows

Although feminist critics have disagreed over the significance of fashion and beauty practices, they all tend to share an interest in the ways in which fashion and beauty practices produce gendered identities. This chapter explores the ways in which fashion and beauty practices should be understood as part of debates about consumption and consumer cultures. It offers an overview of feminist approaches to the relationship between fashion and beauty practices and femininity. The chapter explores feminist cultural criticism which moves beyond the anti-fashion position of second-wave feminism and engages with the contradictions and possibilities of fashion and beauty practices. Feminist criticism has moved from thinking about the possibility of getting outside of fashion and throwing off a feminine 'mask' to thinking about fashion as a site of struggle over the meaning of gendered identities.

in Feminism, Femininity and Popular Culture
Joanne Hollows

This chapter explores the movement of feminism into academic life in general and the study of popular culture in particular. It explores main ways in which feminist research into popular culture entered academic life. By the mid-1970s, the study of women and popular culture across a range of disciplines often centered on questions about 'images of women'. Cultural studies have often been dominated by questions of how 'popular culture' has been defined. The ways in which the 'popular' is conceptualised shapes the ways it is studied and analysed, and, in tum, shapes different ideas about cultural politics. The chapter draws on Stuart Hall's discussion of the four different ways in which 'the popular' has been conceptualised, and explores the ways in which each conception of 'the popular' implies a different notion of feminist cultural politics.

in Feminism, Femininity and Popular Culture