Politics

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 492 items for :

  • Manchester International Relations x
  • All content x
Clear All
The Norwegian Red Cross and Biafra, 1967–1970
Eldrid Mageli

This chapter addresses the issue of humanitarian aid during a conflict that today is largely forgotten, the Biafra civil war of the late 1960s, and in doing so re-examines the question of whether humanitarian aid can do harm in times of war, by prolonging the conflict. When the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), complying with international rules, grounded its planes because federal Nigerian authorities demanded it, the Nigerian Red Cross (NRC) objected to the decision. This created considerable tension between the NRC and the ICRC. The chapter discusses the impact of Red Cross aid to Biafra, the role of the NRC in the conflict and its objection to ICRC policy in the Biafra crisis.

in The Red Cross Movement
A comparison between the Dutch Red Cross 1940–1945, and the Dutch East Indies Red Cross, 1942–1950
Leo van Bergen

This chapter is a case study of the activities of, contexts for and influences upon Red Cross actions and thinking, specifically within the context of war, colonialism and power, and of how, theoretically at least, neutral Red Cross assistance to sick and wounded soldiers was undertaken. This problem is explored through a comparative analysis of the Nederlandse Rode Kruis (Dutch Red Cross) in the years when Nazi Germany occupied the Netherlands (1940–5), and the Nederlands-Indische Rode Kruis (Dutch Indies Red Cross) through the years of Japanese occupation and the following war of decolonisation (1942–50).

in The Red Cross Movement
The British Order of St John of Jerusalem and the Red Cross in the Spanish civil wars of the 1870s
Jon Arrizabalaga, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, and J. Carlos García-Reyes

The Third Carlist War confronted the Spanish liberal Government’s troops with legitimist rebels between 1872 and 1876, and was a baptism of fire for both the Spanish Red Cross and other, non-Spanish Red Cross organisations that committed resources to the humanitarian relief effort. Though the British National Aid Society appears to have refrained from involvement in this long and bloody war, several members of the British Order of St John of Jerusalem were active in the theatre of war as volunteer humanitarians. While some of them, such as Vincent Kennett-Barrington (1844–1903), went to Spain on behalf of a Society for the Relief of the Sick and Wounded of the Spanish War, others, such as John Furley (1836–1919), chose to work on behalf of the Société des Secours aux Blessés Espagnols – a committee settled in Paris with the unofficial support of the Spanish and French Red Cross. This chapter examines the mixed motives, activities and ideas of these international humanitarian volunteers, offering a snapshot of the confused – and far from unified – ‘spirit of Geneva’ at work in the years immediately following the signing of the Geneva Convention in 1864.

in The Red Cross Movement
The League of Red Cross Societies, the Australian Red Cross and its Junior Red Cross in the 1920s
Melanie Oppenheimer

This chapter examines the League of Red Cross Societies, founded in 1919, and focuses on one national society, the Australian Red Cross, and how it realigned itself as part of the transition from war to peace in the 1920s. It did this, in part, through the emerging global programme of the Junior Red Cross. To allow children to gather together under the auspices of the Red Cross to foster and extend its work beyond national borders and into the international spaces was led by the League of Red Cross Societies. Emerging national Red Cross societies such as the Australian Red Cross found value and guidance from the Movement’s new federated body, and played a part in ensuring its survival and success.

in The Red Cross Movement
Helena F. S. Lopes

In 1943 the Macau delegation of the Portuguese Red Cross was established in the South China enclave at the height of the Second World War. Two years later its president was assassinated in the streets of Macau and the following year the delegation ended its activities. It was not the first time a Macau delegation had existed, nor would it be the last, but the brief period (1943–6) during which this Red Cross delegation operated reveals many important features of wartime Macau, the activities of a small Red Cross delegation under extreme circumstances and the challenges of neutrality during the same period. Surrounded by Japanese conquests, wartime Macau became a haven of neutrality and sanctuary, with a population swollen by refugees from across Asia. This chapter explores a range of issues and shows how the Red Cross in Macau was, simultaneously, a local creation, a delegation integrated into a national/colonial context, an inter-imperial structure and part of a transnational institution with global reach.

in The Red Cross Movement
Continuities, changes and challenges
Neville Wylie, Melanie Oppenheimer, and James Crossland

This chapter introduces the subject of humanitarianism, outlines the various constituent elements that make up the Red Cross Movement and gives an overview of the current state of scholarship on the subject. It introduces the three themes, and summarises the contributions made to these themes by the chapters brought together in the volume. Finally, it indicates avenues for future research.

in The Red Cross Movement
Myths, practices, turning points

This book offers new insights into the history of the Red Cross Movement, the world’s oldest humanitarian body originally founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland. Incorporating new research, the book reimagines and re-evaluates the Red Cross as a global institutional network. It is the first book of its kind to focus on the rise of the Red Cross, and analyses the emergence of humanitarianism through a series of turning points, practices and myths. The book explores the three unique elements that make up the Red Cross Movement: the International Committee of the Red Cross; the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent, formerly known as the League of Red Cross Societies (both based in Geneva); and the 191 national societies. It also coincides with the centenary of the founding of the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, formed in May 1919 in the aftermath of the First World War. The book will be invaluable for students, lecturers, humanitarian workers, and those with a general interest in this highly recognizable and respected humanitarian brand. With seventeen chapters by leading scholars and researchers from Europe, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and America, the book deserves a place on the bookshelves of historians and international relations scholars interested to learn more about this unique, complex and contested organisation.

Abstract only
Umberto Tulli

The Conclusion discusses the failure of what Carter had envisioned as a virtuous circle between the human rights campaign and bipolar détente. It argues that the rationale for such a failure was threefold. First, the White House underestimated Soviet resistance to the human rights campaign. Second, the domestic consensus for a human rights-based foreign policy was illusory, precarious and short-lived. Finally, Carter’s strategy was based on a negotiation process with partners – the Soviet Union and American opponents of détente – who had no interest in negotiating on their counterparts’ terms.

in A precarious equilibrium
Abstract only
The choice in favour of quiet diplomacy, 1978
Umberto Tulli

The chapter focuses on 1978, when the Carter administration’ decided to discuss Soviet violations of human rights through quiet diplomacy and private channels. The chapter explains this shift through a twofold rationale. First, it argues that the administration was satisfied with the early achievements of its campaign. Moving human rights from open to quiet diplomacy would strengthen both what the White House identified as positive trends in the Soviet record on human rights and the conclusion of SALT II negotiations. Second, the Carter administration tried to confine human rights to backchannels to address growing protests within the United States. To many liberals within the United States, the human rights campaign was becoming a new anti-Soviet crusade. This shift, however, occurred at a time when the Soviets condemned many prominent dissidents and the White House left its flank exposed to conservative critics, who accused the White House of being too soft on Soviet violations of human rights.

in A precarious equilibrium
Abstract only
Quiet diplomacy, SALT II and the invasion of Afghanistan, 1979–1980
Umberto Tulli

The chapter focuses on the decline and collapse of bipolar détente in 1979 and the domestic backlash against Carter’s equilibrium between human rights and détente. Since late 1978, the conclusion of SALT II dominated both bipolar relations and the political debate within the United States, and human rights were relegated to quiet diplomacy channels. This brought a backlash against Carter’s foreign policy, led by neoconservative critics, such as Jeane Kirkpatrick. After the December 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, détente was finally over and Carter’s difficult balance between arms control and human rights ended. Human rights remained on the American agenda but the issue became a mere propaganda tool to be used against the Soviets.

in A precarious equilibrium