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Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
Tom Scott-Smith

Humanitarian innovation has come under considerable fire in recent years for its uncritical technophilia, its links with the private sector and its tendency to fetishise objects rather than focusing on politics and process. There are many examples of these issues in the shelter sector, yet this article argues that a clear distinction should be made between innovation and architecture. By comparing the Ikea-funded Better Shelter with the series of architectural interventions in Vienna, collectively known as Places for People, this paper argues that architecture can productively engage with humanitarianism not by constructing shelters but by designing at a smaller scale in a way that does not involve any building at all.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Rethinking Digital Divides by Linda Leung
Antonio Díaz Andrade
Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Planned Obsolescence of Medical Humanitarian Missions: An Interview with Tony Redmond, Professor and Practitioner of International Emergency Medicine and Co-founder of HCRI and UK-Med

In this interview with editors Tanja R. Müller and Gemma Sou, Tony Redmond reflects on his long career as a professor and practitioner of international emergency medicine and founder of UK-Med, an NGO that provides international emergency humanitarian medical assistance and which hosts the UK International Emergency Trauma Register (UKIETR) and UK International Emergency Medical Register (UKIEMR). He questions the usefulness of prioritising innovation in medical humanitarianism and advocates aiming for the same duty of care that one would offer in one’s everyday practice at home. In this, Tony is also critical of the term ‘humanitarian space’, as it by definition proclaims an imagined geographical entity where normal rules should not apply.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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The promise and pitfalls of studying foreign policy as public policy
Juliet Kaarbo

Chapter 10, by Juliet Kaarbo, summarizes the main findings of the preceding chapters on the selected public policy approaches and draws out key insights from public policy research that can be transferred to FPA. The chapter argues that bringing public policy approaches into FPA holds the promise of theoretical and methodological innovation in the field, widens the scope of FPA, helps exploring novel connections between the internal and the external in policy-making and invites reflections on the nature of foreign policy. At the same time, the conclusion discusses possible pitfalls of linking the fields of Public Policy and FPA, for example the dangers of adding to the theoretical incoherence in FPA and of further distancing the subfield from International Relations. Finally, the chapter provides suggestions for future research at the interface between public and foreign policies.

in Foreign policy as public policy?
Jonathan J. Pierce and Katherine C. Hicks

Chapter 4, by Jonathan J. Pierce and Katherine C. Hicks, covers the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). The ACF was developed by Paul Sabatier and Hank Jenkins-Smith in the 1980s to help explain the policy process during contentious policy-making. The main insight the theory has provided is how actors collaborating together in coalitions seek to transform their beliefs into policy by using their resources and various strategies. More specifically, this chapter discusses how the components of the ACF such as policy subsystem, policy core beliefs, coalitions, and policy change are identified and operationalized in order to demonstrate the strengths and the weaknesses of applying the ACF to foreign policy. In its empirical section, the chapter analyzes coalition stability among competing international coalitions over time by applying the ACF to the US government’s decision to support the partition of Palestine under United Nations (UN) Resolution 181 in 1947.

in Foreign policy as public policy?
Promises and pitfalls

This edited volume examines how and under which conditions foreign policy analysis can be enriched by “domestic realm” public policy approaches, concepts, and theories. Public policy scholars dealing with the analysis of domestic policy fields, such as social and economic policy, interior affairs, or environmental policy, use a broad array of heuristics, concepts, and theories, including, for example, multiple streams, advocacy coalition or punctuated equilibrium approaches. However, the possible contribution of such approaches to the analysis of foreign policy has yet to be fully explored. With this purpose in mind, this edited volume devotes a chapter each on a selection of arguably the most important domestic public policy approaches and examines their transferability and adaptability to foreign policy analysis. Thereby the book points out how bridging the intra-disciplinary divide between the analysis of public policy and foreign policy can enrich foreign policy studies and shows how exactly foreign policy analysis can benefit from broadening its instruments for analysis. The edited volume also discusses under what conditions such a transfer is less promising due to the “sui generis” character of foreign policy.

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Foreign policy as public policy
Klaus Brummer, Sebastian Harnisch, Kai Oppermann, and Diana Panke

The introductory chapter outlines the rationale behind the edited volume, defines core concepts, introduces the analytical template along which the individual chapters are structured, and provides brief summaries of the individual chapters. Its point of departure is that foreign policy has in many ways become more similar to (and intertwined with) “ordinary” public policies. This is true for the actors involved in the policy-making process as well as for the scope of domestic political contestation around policy-making. Nonetheless, a divide still persists regarding the analysis of policy-making processes and substantive policies in foreign affairs on the one hand and virtually all other public policies on the other hand. Against this background, this chapter argues that FPA has much to benefit from more systematically taking on board scholarship in Public Policy. This allows to broaden the conceptual toolbox for the analysis of state policies toward external events and topics, and to capture the real-world shifts and developments in the domestic and international environment of foreign policy.

in Foreign policy as public policy?
Spyros Blavoukos

Chapter 2, by Spyros Blavoukos, covers the multiple streams approach (MSA). The core objective of this contribution is to examine how MSA fares in the foreign policy realm and whether it is relevant and appropriate for the study of foreign policy. Kingdon’s seminal work on public policy-making conceptualizes public policy as the intersection of three different streams (problem, policy, politics). Against this background, the theoretical component of this chapter provides an overview of the approach and discusses its transferability. The empirical thrust of the contribution derives from the analysis of two major foreign policy shifts, namely the first ever substantial Israeli–Palestinian agreement in the early 1990s that led to the Oslo Accords and the Greek–Turkish rapprochement in the late 1990s, which resulted in the substantial upgrading of the EU–Turkish relationship.

in Foreign policy as public policy?
Christopher Ansell and Jacob Torfing

Chapter 7, by Christopher Ansell and Jacob Torfing, introduces the Network Approach. This chapter first defines the network concept, sets out the core features of the network approach and explains how and why it has emerged as an alternative lens for understanding policy-making in dispersed and interactive settings that defy description in terms of the traditional hierarchy–market dichotomy. It then compares different theories and methods for understanding policy and governance networks and discusses how these networks can be instrumental for enhancing knowledge sharing, improving inter-organizational and cross-sector coordination, and solving wicked and unruly problems in ways that both increase effectiveness and democratic legitimacy. Subsequently, the chapter describes how and why the network approach is applicable to foreign policy-making and assesses the scope conditions and merits and limits of applying the approach. It argues that the network approach is useful for analyzing how states formulate, implement, and diffuse foreign policy in response to domestic interests and global problems and events. Finally, the chapter provides a more extended example of how the network approach is applicable to core concerns of foreign policy. The example illustrates the role of networks in facilitating political cooperation to prevent nuclear proliferation.

in Foreign policy as public policy?
Siegfried Schieder

Chapter 6, by Siegfried Schieder, covers new institutionalism (NI). The purpose of this chapter is to bridge the gap between the sub-discipline of FPA and NI, providing new insights into how the former can benefit from the various strands of the latter. To do so, this chapter examines NI as one of the most prominent research program in the field of public policy analysis and presents an overview of how NI in its rational, sociological, historical, and discursive variants have been applied to research on FPA and what their contribution is to this field. While FPA can be enriched by all four forms of NI, much of the relevant literature employs either rational institutionalism or a more sociological approach. To bring out the promise of NI in FPA, the chapter then looks at how historical institutionalism may be able to explain the United States’ decision to impose sanctions on Russia in response to the Ukraine crisis in 2014.

in Foreign policy as public policy?