The University of Brighton (UoB) received a grant from the American-based Atlantic Philanthropies Foundation to create an institutional infrastructure for supporting community-based research (CBR) in Brighton and the surrounding counties of East and West Sussex. Community-University Partnership Programme's (CUPP) role was to act as a nexus between academics and community groups, promoting CBR on both sides of the town-gown line. Many of the CUPP staff came from voluntary sector backgrounds rather than from university roles, which helped them to liaise between the two different cultures, establishing trusted, longstanding relationships with community partners. Although initial projects were based on existing relationships, CUPP took lessons from the science shop model and soon created a helpdesk for fielding community inquiries. Community and Personal Development module (CPD) has been a significant force in helping to bridge the gap between student volunteerism and CBR.
A project on alcohol and older people in Brighton
Juliet Millican and Angie Hart
The Cheers!? project has resulted in further collaboration between Age Concern Brighton, Hove and Portslade, and the University of Brighton, who are now working together on an 'innovative research project' about older people and well-being. The concern was an increase in the number of older people using their services who may have problems with alcohol. Partners were aware of a lack of local evidence and also a lack of services specifically for older people with alcohol problems. They commissioned the university to conduct a scoping study, with further funding from the Brighton and Sussex Community Knowledge Exchange (BSCKE). From the perspective of the Brighton and Hove Drug and Alcohol Action Team (DAAT), the project offered potential for thinking about work with the voluntary sector.
The PRIA experience
This chapter provides an account of community education methods which Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA) uses in its efforts to make development and democracy equitable and inclusive. It uses select and representative cases to provide an overview of PRIA's community education experiences. PRIA's community education and training programme is based on the principles of collaboration and partnership with local grass-roots organizations. In its cognitive role, PRIA has provided the participatory research framework for education and training. It has been the main source of information around which training programmes are built. The participatory research framework has a citizenship perspective, too. The education and training of marginalized communities in leadership, for instance, emphasizes nurturing independent, rights-bearing citizens who articulate their concerns and priorities, access resources and opportunities and, with increased capacities, make strategic life choices. Governance should be concerned with the restoration of citizenship rights equally and equitably.
Lessons from case studies from the South and North
Rajesh Tandon and Edward T. Jackson
Community-university research partnerships can enable the co-production of valuable, actionable new knowledge, especially in the areas of livelihoods, environment and governance and their intersection. International cooperation can provide financial and methodological support for community-university partnerships. This chapter presents lessons from case studies from the South and North, which demonstrates the vitality, creativity and relevance of local community-university research partnerships. A main theme addressed by the Southern case studies is strengthening local governance. The Southern cases underscore the central role that participatory methods for inquiry and engagement play in the success of community-university research partnerships. Participatory methods are at the core of successful community-university research partnerships. The Southern cases show that community-university research partnerships can advance government policies to promote better livelihoods, environmental sustainability and indigenous culture.
Health and social welfare of disadvantaged families in Brighton and Hastings
Kim Aumann and Angie Hart
The Bouncing Back Project leader, Angie Hart, has a longstanding interest in building resilience that spans her research and practice development career in community health issues with roots in personal history as a mother of three children with complex needs. Angie is also the former Academic Director of the Community-University Partnership Programme at the University of Brighton. The partnership which works through a 'communities of practice' (CoP) model focuses on improving health and well-being by building resilience with disadvantaged children, young people and their families, through resilience therapy (RT). The CoP included a subgroup involved in planning training and evaluation activities. Subsequent development has resulted in a second CoP in Hastings (eighteen members). The CoP model brings together people who are eager to improve the health and well-being of children, young people and families experiencing tough times.
Effective support structures for community– university partnerships
Edward T. Jackson, Letlotlo M. Gariba and Evren Tok
Good architectural design is fundamental to the successful construction, maintenance and liveability of a home. Likewise, the appropriate architecture is necessary in instituting policies and programmes that deepen, broaden, improve and sustain community-university research partnerships. The good news is that much is known about how to design effective support structures to foster and nurture these partnerships. This chapter reviews ten proven examples of such structures, all drawn from the Global North. These structures operate variously at the macro (national or multinational), meso and micro levels. The chapter discusses strategies and tools for evaluating partnerships that can be used by support structures. Finally, the chapter addresses the question of how the Global South can institute support structures to promote community-university research partnerships in poor emerging countries, building on the experience of the North.
Budd L. Hall, Edward T. Jackson, Rajesh Tandon, Jean-Marc Fontan and Nirmala Lall
Community-university research partnerships can be critically important locations of transformative energy in the larger effort to understand and use knowledge and its construction and co-construction in ways that are authentically linked to the struggles of people for a better world. The global neo-liberal economic agenda that has produced a kind of market utopia has been supported by a canon of western, largely male, elite knowledge systems and practices. The field of community-university research and engagement partnerships represents just one of the elements in an emerging knowledge democracy movement. The longer-term prospects of the world economy pose their own set of challenges to civil society and to knowledge partnerships. As the new economic powers of China, Brazil and other nations continue their ascendance, and as the West struggles to regain its economic equilibrium, universities and communities across the world will face new threats and opportunities in their work together.
Aboriginal transitions research project was initiated by the University of Victoria, Office of Community-Based Research (OCBR), Office of Indigenous Affairs (INAF) and Indigenous Adult and Higher Learning Association (IAHLA). The three partners proposed to jointly conduct comprehensive community-based research to investigate the transition of Aboriginal students from Aboriginal-controlled post-secondary education institutes to public post-secondary education institutes. Aboriginal students face a number of barriers to attaining a post-secondary education in Canada. The aboriginal transitions research project has validated the role of Aboriginal-controlled learning institutes and has added to a growing body of theory that discusses Aboriginal student success. The project adopted a community-based participatory research framework and employed several methods, including a literature review, interviews and focus groups for data collection. It has also made an important contribution to the theory and practice of community-based research, generally.
Liberalism, realism, and constructivism
James W. Peterson and Jacek Lubecki
Chapter 1 sets up conceptual and theoretical frameworks for understanding divergence and convergence in Czech, Slovak, Polish, and Hungarian (“Visegrád Four” countries) defense policies in the post-communist era. The chapter’s central argument is that post-communist convergence between Visegrád Four defense policies is best understood as a result of the universal adoption of liberal democratic political systems and ideologies by the countries in question. However, the chapter argues, post-communist divergence in the respective countries’ defense policies, made especially visible by their post-2014 differential reactions to the Russo-Ukrainian Crisis and its fallout cannot be understood within the framework of liberalism as both a political system and a theory of international relations. Different schools and concepts of realism and constructivism are therefore evoked as necessary for illuminating the noted divergence between Poland, which responded robustly and in militaristic fashion to the perception of Russian threat, and the rest of the Visegrád countries, with their lukewarm responses. Within realism, the chapter draws attention to Poland’s distinctive geopolitical position. Within constructivism, the chapter evokes the notions of “role theory” and “strategic cultures” as key for understanding the countries’ diverging polices.
Politics from the periphery
James W. Peterson and Jacek Lubecki
Slovakia had been on the periphery of the region due to its historic role in the Hungarian Empire prior to the 1918 formation of the Czechoslovak state. However, the state moved into a more Western orbit after the First World War and then asserted its own national autonomy after achieveing independence from the Czechoslovak state in 1993. Debates about the size of its armed forces were crucial in light of its aspirations for membership in NATO, a hope that came to fruition in 2004. Their troops did play a role in the alliance involvements in Afghanistan, Iraq, Kosovo, and Bosnia just before and after their entry into the Western military alliance. In spite of their small size, their perceptions of themselves as a small nation or “tiger”on the move made them a significant player in regional defense strategies.