This chapter offers a brief outline of Gurwitsch’s career in the first half of his life, in Germany until 1932 and in France between 1932 and 1938. It then considers in detail the texts, published and unpublished at the time, which he produced in this period. It provides detailed analysis of his doctoral and Habilitation theses and of the texts which he produced in the period when he was mentor to Merleau-Ponty. It concludes with a summary of the correlations between these social and intellectual trajectories.

in The Bourdieu paradigm
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The chapter outlines the scope of the book, indicating that it reflects generally on the function of intellectual tradition in shaping empirical research through detailed consideration of the development of the work of Bourdieu in relation to some phenomenological antecedents. It offers brief summaries of the philosophical terminology used in the book as well as a specific brief sketch of the meaning and implications of phenomenology. It offers a note on the method adopted in its presentation, mentions some disclaimers in terms of the inherent limitations of its analysis, and invites a particular response from readers to the ‘paradigm’ which it offers.

in The Bourdieu paradigm

This chapter focuses on the career and work of Merleau-Ponty. During the 1930s he worked with Gurwitsch and was also responsible for publicizing some of the late work of Husserl which, during the war, was held in archives in Louvain. He was involved, with Sartre, in attempting to conceptualize post-war social construction. He tried to integrate his phenomenological thinking with political engagement in a way which had not been done by either Schutz or Gurwitsch but, finally, commitment to philosophy prevailed. Consideration of the work of Merleau-Ponty provides a link between the a-political orientation of the productions in America of Schutz and Gurwitsch, and Bourdieu’s transposition of Merleau-Ponty’s thinking from the field of philosophy to that of sociology.

in The Bourdieu paradigm
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The chapter asks whether Bourdieu prolonged the dilemma of the activist intellectual which Merleau-Ponty had articulated and which derived from the Western tradition indicatively absorbed and reproduced by Schutz and Gurwitsch. It suggests three possible responses to Bourdieu’s work. It prefers a particular response but concludes that the merit of the book is that it provides information to enable readers themselves to assess the value of the Bourdieu paradigm in their socio-cultural contexts.

in The Bourdieu paradigm

This chapter considers the social and intellectual adjustments made by Schutz and Gurwitsch as a consequence of their migrations to the United States. It does so by examining elements of their correspondence in the 1940s and by considering the development of their original views in the new cultural context. It highlights Schutz’s exchange with Parsons and Gurwitsch’s critique of the political consequences of the German philosophical tradition. It suggests that their change of context had the effect of consolidating their intellectual detachment from socio-political issues.

in The Bourdieu paradigm

This chapter offers a brief outline of Schutz’s career in the first half of his life and then considers in detail the texts, published and unpublished at the time, which he produced in this period. It concludes with a summary of the correlations between these social and intellectual trajectories, both in relation to the Viennese context.

in The Bourdieu paradigm
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Mapping cosmetic surgery tourism

Beautyscapes explores the rapidly developing global phenomenon of international medical travel, focusing specifically on patient-consumers seeking cosmetic surgery outside their home country and on those who enable them to access treatment abroad, including key figures such as surgeons and facilitators. Documenting the complex and sometimes fraught journeys of those who travel for treatment abroad, as well as the nature and power relations of the transnational IMT industry, this is the first book to focus specifically on cosmetic surgery tourism. A rich and theoretically sophisticated ethnography, Beautyscapes draws on key themes in studies of globalisation and mobility, such as gender and class, neoliberalism, social media, assemblage, conviviality and care, to explain the nature and growing popularity of cosmetic surgery tourism. The book challenges myths about vain and ill-informed travellers seeking surgery from ‘cowboy’ foreign doctors, yet also demonstrates the difficulties and dilemmas that medical tourists – especially cosmetic surgery tourists – face. Vividly illustrated with ethnographic material and with the voices of those directly involved in cosmetic surgery tourism, Beautyscapes is based on a large research project exploring cosmetic surgery journeys from Australia and China to East Asia and from the UK to Europe and North Africa.

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Researching cosmetic surgery tourism

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the book and of the research project on which it is based. It grounds the analysis of cosmetic surgery tourism through a detailed discussion of framing ideas – such as defensive subjects and identity knowledges – that shaped the epistemological approach of the research. It provides detailed accounts of two ethnographic fieldwork encounters, and reflects on how these were experienced by everyone involved, including the researchers. In so doing, it foregrounds the value of experience as a research resource. The chapter ends with outlines of the chapters of the book.

in Beautyscapes

This chapter examines cosmetic surgery tourist communities in ‘real life’ and on social media. It examines the socialising, bonding and support networks that circulate around and within the practice of cosmetic surgery tourism, showing how a distinct form of sociality arises from – and also constitutes – this phenomenon. Group tours are analysed as particularly illustrative of this distinctive sociality. The chapter argues that bodies transformed by cosmetic surgery tourism are ‘worked upon’ by both surgery and by social media because these media provide platforms for vital interactions that facilitate caring human relationships and supportive communities that could otherwise not exist. Social media platforms such as Facebook are shown to be part of the networks and assemblages that create both cosmetic surgery tourism and cosmetically altered bodies. Our discussion here centres around temporality, using the familiar time slices of before, during and after that structure many cosmetic surgery and tourism narratives.

in Beautyscapes
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Our conclusion summarises our principal arguments and addresses the role of the neoliberalism and austerity in producing a globalising healthcare market. The chapter draws on one case in detail, that of Leigh from Australia who sadly died from medical complications after returning home from Malaysia, having undergone multiple procedures. Leigh’s case highlights some of the risks of travelling abroad for treatment. But it also illustrates many of the reasons that patient-consumers are prepared to take that risk in a neoliberal culture of declining national healthcare where health and happiness is constructed as being in our own hands.

in Beautyscapes