This chapter offers a brief outline of Gurwitsch’s career in the first half of his life, in Germany until 1932 and in France between 1932 and 1938. It then considers in detail the texts, published and unpublished at the time, which he produced in this period. It provides detailed analysis of his doctoral and Habilitation theses and of the texts which he produced in the period when he was mentor to Merleau-Ponty. It concludes with a summary of the correlations between these social and intellectual trajectories.
The chapter outlines the scope of the book, indicating that it reflects generally on the function of intellectual tradition in shaping empirical research through detailed consideration of the development of the work of Bourdieu in relation to some phenomenological antecedents. It offers brief summaries of the philosophical terminology used in the book as well as a specific brief sketch of the meaning and implications of phenomenology. It offers a note on the method adopted in its presentation, mentions some disclaimers in terms of the inherent limitations of its analysis, and invites a particular response from readers to the ‘paradigm’ which it offers.
This chapter focuses on the career and work of Merleau-Ponty. During the 1930s he worked with Gurwitsch and was also responsible for publicizing some of the late work of Husserl which, during the war, was held in archives in Louvain. He was involved, with Sartre, in attempting to conceptualize post-war social construction. He tried to integrate his phenomenological thinking with political engagement in a way which had not been done by either Schutz or Gurwitsch but, finally, commitment to philosophy prevailed. Consideration of the work of Merleau-Ponty provides a link between the a-political orientation of the productions in America of Schutz and Gurwitsch, and Bourdieu’s transposition of Merleau-Ponty’s thinking from the field of philosophy to that of sociology.
The chapter asks whether Bourdieu prolonged the dilemma of the activist intellectual which Merleau-Ponty had articulated and which derived from the Western tradition indicatively absorbed and reproduced by Schutz and Gurwitsch. It suggests three possible responses to Bourdieu’s work. It prefers a particular response but concludes that the merit of the book is that it provides information to enable readers themselves to assess the value of the Bourdieu paradigm in their socio-cultural contexts.
This chapter considers the social and intellectual adjustments made by Schutz and Gurwitsch as a consequence of their migrations to the United States. It does so by examining elements of their correspondence in the 1940s and by considering the development of their original views in the new cultural context. It highlights Schutz’s exchange with Parsons and Gurwitsch’s critique of the political consequences of the German philosophical tradition. It suggests that their change of context had the effect of consolidating their intellectual detachment from socio-political issues.
This chapter offers a brief outline of Schutz’s career in the first half of his life and then considers in detail the texts, published and unpublished at the time, which he produced in this period. It concludes with a summary of the correlations between these social and intellectual trajectories, both in relation to the Viennese context.
Beautyscapes explores the rapidly developing global phenomenon of
international medical travel, focusing specifically on patient-consumers seeking
cosmetic surgery outside their home country and on those who enable them to
access treatment abroad, including key figures such as surgeons and
facilitators. Documenting the complex and sometimes fraught journeys of those
who travel for treatment abroad, as well as the nature and power relations of
the transnational IMT industry, this is the first book to focus specifically on
cosmetic surgery tourism. A rich and theoretically sophisticated ethnography,
Beautyscapes draws on key themes in studies of globalisation and
mobility, such as gender and class, neoliberalism, social media, assemblage,
conviviality and care, to explain the nature and growing popularity of cosmetic
surgery tourism. The book challenges myths about vain and ill-informed
travellers seeking surgery from ‘cowboy’ foreign doctors, yet also demonstrates
the difficulties and dilemmas that medical tourists – especially cosmetic
surgery tourists – face. Vividly illustrated with ethnographic material and with
the voices of those directly involved in cosmetic surgery tourism,
Beautyscapes is based on a large research project exploring cosmetic
surgery journeys from Australia and China to East Asia and from the UK to Europe
and North Africa.
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the book and of the
research project on which it is based. It grounds the analysis of cosmetic
surgery tourism through a detailed discussion of framing ideas – such as
defensive subjects and identity knowledges – that shaped the epistemological
approach of the research. It provides detailed accounts of two ethnographic
fieldwork encounters, and reflects on how these were experienced by everyone
involved, including the researchers. In so doing, it foregrounds the value
of experience as a research resource. The chapter ends with outlines of the
chapters of the book.
This chapter examines cosmetic surgery tourist communities in ‘real life’ and
on social media. It examines the socialising, bonding and support networks
that circulate around and within the practice of cosmetic surgery tourism,
showing how a distinct form of sociality arises from – and also constitutes
– this phenomenon. Group tours are analysed as particularly illustrative of
this distinctive sociality. The chapter argues that bodies transformed by
cosmetic surgery tourism are ‘worked upon’ by both surgery and by social
media because these media provide platforms for vital interactions that
facilitate caring human relationships and supportive communities that could
otherwise not exist. Social media platforms such as Facebook are shown to be
part of the networks and assemblages that create both cosmetic surgery
tourism and cosmetically altered bodies. Our discussion here centres around
temporality, using the familiar time slices of before, during and after that
structure many cosmetic surgery and tourism narratives.
Our conclusion summarises our principal arguments and addresses the role of
the neoliberalism and austerity in producing a globalising healthcare
market. The chapter draws on one case in detail, that of Leigh from
Australia who sadly died from medical complications after returning home
from Malaysia, having undergone multiple procedures. Leigh’s case highlights
some of the risks of travelling abroad for treatment. But it also
illustrates many of the reasons that patient-consumers are prepared to take
that risk in a neoliberal culture of declining national healthcare where
health and happiness is constructed as being in our own hands.