Liberal alternatives
The liberalism of fear and modus vivendi
in Liberal realism
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This chapter examines two possible alternative liberal theories that prima facie have the possibility to overcome the realist challenge to liberal theory without having to abandon the consensus vision of the political: the liberalism of fear and modus vivendi. The strategy of both approaches would be to reduce the content of the consensus required to maintain the liberal vision of the political to very minimal and hence universal commitments such as the avoidance of fear and the desire for peace. Both approaches are explored in detail but ultimately rejected as still being vulnerable to the realist challenge insofar as they rely upon notions of consensus that are inconsistent with political realism.

Liberal realism

A realist theory of liberal politics

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