Index
in Royals on tour

INDEX

Note: Page references followed by tab indicate tables; those in bold type indicate illustrations.

Abd el-Kader 42
Abdul Hamid 27, 29, 32, 35
Abdülhamid II, Sultan 110, 120
Aceh 2325
Aceh embassy
composition 2728
funeral of Abdul Hamid 2930, 32
presentation of envoys 3033
as royal tour by proxy 26, 2934
subsequent significance 3436
tour of Dutch provinces 3334
voyage to Europe 2829
Acland, Henry Wentworth 101
Afghanistan 10
Africa Italiana 212228
Afrikaners see Cape Dutch
air travel 18, 174175
Alauddin Riayet, Sultan of Aceh 2627, 34, 35
Albert, Prince Consort 64
Albert Edward, Prince see Edward VII, King
Albert I, King 171, 174, 176, 179180, 203
Albert Victor, Prince 56, 59, 63, 6466, 68, 70, 73
Alexander I, King 13
Alfred, Prince (Duke of Edinburgh)
assassination attempt 13, 8081
Australian visit 13, 56, 67, 8081
global tours 56, 59, 6061tab, 62, 64, 68, 7172
sets precedent for princely tours 5657, 59, 62, 64, 68, 7072, 74
Algeria
1871 insurrection 51
as ‘Arab kingdom’ 45
citizenship issues 4748, 51
French dominion over 4142
Napoléon III’s visits 4451
Anglo-Boer Wars
Cape Dutch and 87
Irish and 83, 90
Anglo-Chinese War 41
Angola 152154
Annam
kingship in 127, 138
anti-colonialism 138139, 171, 206, 251
Ardemagni, Mirko 118, 220
Armenian massacres 113
Asian royal tours
Emperor Khai Dinh 130132
French reactions to 132139
Indonesian official delegations 236241, 247
King Chulalongkorn 125, 130
King Sisowath 128130
Vietnamese nationalists’ criticisms 138139
see also Aceh embassy
assassination attempts 13, 8081, 114, 206, 215
assassinations 13, 148, 152, 205
L’Assiette au beurre 133, 134, 135, 137
Australian visits
1868 13, 56, 60tab, 67, 8081
1881 56, 60tab
1901 61tab, 6667
1927 61tab
Bacchante HMS 6061tab, 65, 6869
Baghdad railway 117118
Balbo, Italo 219
banquets see food and banquets
Bao Dai, Emperor 131, 142
batuque (drum performance) 154158, 155, 156
Baudouin, King
1955 visit to the Congo 177, 181183
1959 visit to the Congo 184185
accession to throne 172, 181
at Congo independence ceremony 173, 178, 185
portrait 182
Bechuanaland 910
Belgian Congo see Congo
Belgium
Hirohito’s visit 203
list of royal visits to the Congo 173tab
royal dynasty 171172
royal influence on colonial policy 169, 171, 179180
royal question 172, 181
Beresford, Lord Charles 71, 74
Berlin-to-Baghdad railway 117118
Bhagvatsinh, Thakur Sahib
education 9699, 101
European tour 104105
guided tour of Britain 98104
medical studies in Scotland 102, 106
portrait 97
progressive attitudes 106107
publications 106
visits Queen Victoria 102, 106
Bhopal, Begum of 11
Boer Wars see Anglo-Boer Wars
Boers see Cape Dutch
Bonaparte, Charles-Louis Napoléon see Napoléon III, Emperor
Bonaparte, Eugène Louis Napoléon (French Prince Imperial) 52
British national identity / Britishness 8183, 253255
see also empire loyalism
British royal tours
by royal couples 8, 57, 61tab, 66, 74, 8791, 250
by royal princes
dates and destinations 56, 59, 6061tab, 64, 65, 68
entourages 6567
objectives 5859
precedents set by Prince Alfred 5657, 59, 62, 64, 68, 7072, 74
preparatory training for 64, 68
role of Royal Navy 59, 62, 6970
‘British Ultimatum’ (1890) 146
Bülow, Bernhard von 112, 118120
Burma 10, 72
Burne, O.J. 100
Bwana Kitoko (film) 177
Cadbury, William 146, 153
Cambodia
Khmer dancers 12, 130, 135
kingship in 127
see also Sisowath, King
Cape Dutch 8388
Cape Town Agreement 255
Carlos I, King 148, 149
cartoons and caricatures 133, 134, 135, 137
Catholics and Catholicism
German Catholics 115116, 120
Portugal’s ‘civilising mission’ 157
Cauvin, André 177
ceremony, performance and spectacle
Cannadine on 4
French 125126, 132, 139140
Indian durbars and investitures 8, 13, 71
under Italian fascism 215
Khmer dancers 130, 135
Mozambican batuque 154158, 155, 156
Wilhelmina’s fortieth regnal anniversary 237, 238
chaperones and guardians 6567
Charles (Belgian prince regent) 172, 181
Charles X, King 41
Christian IX, King 8
Christianity and European colonialism 46, 49, 157
Christie, John 66
Chulalongkorn, King 125, 130
Church of Christ the Redeemer (Jerusalem) 110, 114
Cirenaica 212, 221, 223
citizenship issues 51
Clanwilliam, Earl of 66, 73
Clearly, Henry William 8891
commemorative books and albums 56, 68, 151, 171, 176, 235, 237, 239
Congo
itinerary of royal tours 175
list of Belgian royal visits 173tab
reporting and filming royal visits 175177
significance of royal visits 177186
social and economic conditions 179180
as ’tenth province’ 181
Congo Free State 169, 171
Congo Museum 203
Cornwall and York, Duke and Duchess of 57, 61tab, 87, 254
coronation oath 9091
coronations 71, 95, 142, 254, 256
Corriere della Sera 218, 223224, 227
costs of royal tours 58, 111, 128, 158, 236, 240
Cowell, Major John 66, 73
Crete 113114
Dalton, John Neale 66, 73
decorations see triumphal arches
Décret Crémieux 51
Delhi durbar 8, 13
Devi, Sunity 96
diarchy, Italy as 211212, 214215, 217219, 224, 225, 227228
diplomatic aspects of tours 910, 68, 112, 117118, 160
Domenica del Corriere 212, 213, 214, 217, 224, 225, 227, 230n12
Duce see diarchy, Italy as; Mussolini, Benito
Durban 250, 252, 254, 255, 257, 259260, 264265
durbars 8, 13, 71
Dutch court
Indonesian delegations to 236241, 247
serimpi performance at 233234
Edward, Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII) 67, 205, 254256
Edward VII, King 4, 64, 67, 7073, 9091
Egypt 114, 212, 221
Elisabeth, Queen (of Belgium) 180, 184
embassies and delegations to Europe 1011, 236241, 247
see also Aceh embassy
Emma, Queen 11
empire loyalism
Cape Dutch 8388
Chinese in New Zealand 91
in the Congo 186187
ethnic outsiders and 8183, 91
Irish Catholics 80, 8591
O’Farrell and 8081
in Portuguese African colonies 162163
South African Indians 250, 252256, 264
entertainments (informal)
hunting tigers and elephants 7071, 151, 160, 225, 226
visiting brothels 67
entourages 7
for Begum of Bhopal 11
for Belgian royals 179
for British princes 57, 6567
for Hirohito 197
for Indonesian royalty 239240
for Sisowath 129
for Victor Emanuel 216, 221
women members 12
Eritrea 212, 219221
ethnic outsiders and empire loyalty 8183
Cape Dutch 8388
Chinese in New Zealand 91
Irish Catholic Australians 8081
Irish Catholic New Zealanders 8891
South African Indians 250, 252256, 260
Taiwanese under Japanese rule 206207
Eugénie, Empress (wife of Napoléon III)
Asian art collection 41
friendship with Queen Victoria 52
marriage 39
at opening of Suez Canal 43
pilgrimage to South Africa 5253
visit to Algeria 11, 44
voyages as widow 52
Europe: non-Western royal visitors 12, 911
Euryalus HMS 6061tab, 62, 65
Fallières, Armand 135
fascism, Italian
colonisation in Africa 220, 223224
position of monarchy under 211212, 213, 214215, 217219, 224, 225, 227228
use of film for propaganda 218, 219220, 227
Fayrer, Joseph 71
female royals on tour 11
Fenians 8081
Figaro, Le 133
filming of royal tours
Congo 177
in Italian Africa 218, 219221, 223
food and banquets 9, 33, 47, 128129
France
Asian embassies to 10
citizenship issues 51
frequency of royal visits to 2
non-Western royal visits to 11, 125131, 129, 135137, 202203
overseas colonies and empire 4142
press coverage of Asian royal visits to 132133, 134, 135
protectorate rights in Palestine 115
protectorates in Southeast Asia 125128
reaction to Kaiser’s Ottoman visit 114115
Franco, João 149
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke 13
Fuad, King 221
Futara Yoshinori, Count 197, 203
Galatea HMS 6061tab, 65, 6869, 70
Gamboa (ex-Sergeant) 161
game hunting 7071, 151, 160, 225, 226
Gandhi, Manilal 254, 261, 263
gender issues 1112, 127, 244
George, Prince (Duke of Kent) 255256
George, Prince (later Duke of Cornwall and York, then George V) 56, 59, 6366, 68, 70, 73, 74
portrait 63
tours as Duke of Cornwall and York 87, 8891
tours as young prince 56, 59, 6061tab, 64, 65, 68, 70
see also George V, King
George I, King of the Hellenes 68
George V, King 95, 199200, 200
George VI, King 13, 95, 250, 256, 259
German Catholics 115116, 120
German Protestants 114
German Templer colonists 118
Germany
Armenian massacres and 113
Berlin-to-Baghdad railway 117118
Kaiser’s influence on foreign policy 112113, 117118, 119
Kaiser’s Ottoman visit
commercial and colonial motives 116120
German public opinion on 112
international context 113114
itinerary 110
religious aspects 114116, 119121
gifts
to Dutch monarch 234, 237, 238, 240, 245247, 246
from King Sisowath 136
to Prince Luís Filipe 151
to Queen Victoria 11
of religious sites 111, 112, 120
from Sultan of Aceh 25, 32, 72, 217
Glencross, Matthew 4
Goa 148149
Gondal, Maharaja of see Bhagvatsinh, Thakur Sahib
Grey, Sir George 86
Gungunhana (Mozambican chief) 156157
Hancock, George 98
Hara Takashi 193, 194, 200, 205, 206
Herzl, Theodor 112, 119120
Hirohito, Prince (later Emperor)
assassination attempt on 206
education 195, 199
engagement incident 196
European tour (1921)
entourage 197
influence on his thinking 191, 201, 205
itinerary in Britain 199201
itinerary in Europe 202204
opposition in Japan to 195196
passage to Europe 197199
purpose and planning 17, 194197, 205
intervention in political controversies 207
portraits 200, 202
as regent 206207
visit to Europe (1971) 207208
visit to Taiwan 206
historiography of royal tours 36
Ho Chi Minh 138139
Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, Chlodwig 113, 116, 118119
Holy Land
exchange of holy sites 111, 112, 120
French protectorate rights 114115
Templers’ bids for territory 118
Zionist bids for territory 112, 119120
L’Humanité 133, 139
imperialism
French, in Southeast Asia 125128
Hobson on 16
new imperial history 5
royal tours and 67, 1517, 117
independence ceremonies 5, 8, 173, 175, 185
India
British royal tours 7073
relations with South Africa 255, 257259
Indian and Colonial Exhibition 95
Indian princes
attendance at major imperial events 95
education 94, 9698
progressive attitudes 103104, 107
Queen Victoria and 95, 103
visits to Britain 98, 100
‘Indianness’ 252253
Indians in South Africa see South African Indians
indigenous migrant labour 152153, 158159
Indochine Française 126
Indonesian royalty
asserting own royal status 241, 245247
gifts to Queen Wilhelmina 237, 238, 240, 245247
official visitors to Dutch court 236241, 247
role of pomp and regalia 239240
strained encounters with Dutch monarchy 235, 237241
as ‘vassals’ of Dutch monarch 236237
Irish Catholic imperial loyalty
in Australia 8081
during Boer Wars 83, 90
limits to 9091
in New Zealand 8891
Ismail, Ahmed 262, 264
Italy
abolition of monarchy 229
Bhagvatsinh’s impressions 105
Hirohito’s visit 204
monarchy’s autonomy under fascism 211212, 213, 214215, 217219, 224, 225, 227228
proclamation of empire 225
royal tours to Italian Africa 212228
Japan
political system 192194, 207
recolonisation of Taiwan 206
role of throne 192, 207
royal symbolism 207
Jerusalem 110, 111, 115
Jewish communities, Algeria 4748, 51
Kaiser’s Ottoman tour
comercial and colonial motives 116120
German public opinion and 112
international context 113114
itinerary 110
religious aspects 114116, 119121
Kajee, A.I. 250, 258, 262, 264
Kalakaua, King 57
Keppel, Sir Henry 65, 66, 67, 70, 73
Khai Dinh, Emperor
critics of his French tour 138139
French press and 132133, 139
reign and reputation 127, 141
visit to France 130131, 131, 137
Khmer dancers 130, 135
kingship
in Annam and Cambodia 126127, 140
Vietnamese critics 138139
labour, indigenous migrant 152153, 158159
Langkat, Sultan of 239, 245, 246
Laurenço Marques see batuque (drum performance)
Leal de Camâra, Tomás 133, 135
Leo XIII, Pope 105
Leopold I, King 171
Leopold II, King 11, 1415, 169, 171, 172
Leopold III, King 171172, 174, 179180, 183184
long-distance royal tours 1415, 6061tab, 174175
Louis-Philippe, King 4142
Louis XIV, King 10
Louwers, Octave 180
loyalism see empire loyalism
Luís Filipe, Prince
assassination 148, 162
lessons in colonial history 148
portrait 147
visit to Portuguese Africa 17, 148159
visit to South Africa 159161
Lumumba, Patrice 178, 182, 184, 186
McCracken, Donal 83
MacKenzie, John 83
MacMahon, Patrice 46
Macnaughten, Chester 9697
Maharaja of Gondal see Bhagvatsinh, Thakur Sahib
Malabari, Behramji 98, 101, 102, 105
Mangkunegoro VII (Javanese ruler) 233, 236, 241
married royals, tours by 38, 44, 57, 66, 176, 216, 250
Marschall von Bieberstein, Adolf 113, 118, 120
Masaryk, Tomas 204
Maurits (stadhouder of Orange-Nassau) 25, 31
Maximilian, King 41
Meade, Richard (Earl of Clanwilliam) 66, 73
media reporting of tours see filming of royal tours; newspaper and magazine coverage; newsreels
Mehrkens, Heidi 5
Meiji Restoration 192193
migrant labour 152153, 158159
Millerand, Alexandre 202
Milne, Alexander 65, 74
Milner, Alfred 88
Milner, John 67
Minobe Tatsukichi 207
Mir Hasan 27
Modjopait, Sultan of 239
Mongkut, King 41
Morocco 10
Mozambique
armed resistance to Portuguese 156157
batuque performance for royal visit 154158
source of labour for South African mines 158159
Müller, Frank Lorenz 5
Murphy, Philip 5
Mussolini, Benito 211212, 213, 214215, 225, 227, 228
Naoroji, Dadabhai 103
Napoléon III, Emperor
expansion of French empire under 42
foreign and colonial policy 4043
granting of amnesty by 48
policies towards Algeria 4345, 4751
political rise and fall 3940, 43
reputed Arabophilia 45
Siamese embassy to 10
visits to Algeria 8, 4451
Nasr Allah Khan 10
Natal Indian Congress (NIC) 250251, 253, 254260, 263, 265
nationalism 16, 87, 8890, 138139, 171, 206, 256
Native Labour Association 158159
Nehru, Jawaharlal 251, 258259, 263
Netherlands
Hirohito’s visit 204
’new imperial history’ 5
’new royal history’ 4
New Zealand
1901 royal visit 6061tab, 67, 68, 8889
Irish Catholics in 8891
newspaper and magazine coverage
Asian kings’ visits to France 132135, 139
Belgian tours of the Congo 175177
Hirohito’s European tour 201
Indonesian-Dutch royal encounters 235
New Zealand royal visit (1901) 8891
South African royal visit (1901) 8487
Victor Emanuel’s African tours 217, 219, 221225, 227
newsreels 214, 218, 219221, 223
Ngo Duc Ke 139
Nguyen Ai Quoc, 138139
Nguyen Phuc Canh, Prince 2
NIC see Natal Indian Congress
Nicholas II, Tsar 116, 121124
non-Western royal visitors to Europe
miscellaneous 12, 129
Norodom Sihamoni, King 141142
Norodom Sihanouk, King 141
O’Farrell, Henry James 8081
Okinawa 198
Onslow, William Lake 66
Ornelas, Aires de 148149, 150, 158, 160, 163
Ottoman empire: Kaiser’s visit
comercial and colonial motives 116120
German public opinion on 112
international context 113114
itinerary 110
religious aspects 114116, 119121
‘Our Sailor Princes’ (wood engraving) 63
pageantry and pomp see ceremony, performance and spectacle
Pakualam VII, Prince 236, 246
Pakubuwono X (susuhunan of Surakarta) 236, 241, 246
Palestine 118119
Parkes, Henry 8081
Pather, P.R. 258, 262
performances
Indonesian serimpi 233234
Khmer dance 130, 135
Mozambican batuque 154157
Pes, Alessandro 212, 217218
Petit Journal, Le 132
Phan Chau Trinh 138
Phillips, A.M. 96
photography
Belgian tours of the Congo 175177
British royal tourists 72
Luís Filipe’s African tour 150151, 154156
photographic portraits as gifts 241, 245246
Pius XI, Pope 204
planning and organisation 1718
of British princely tours 6768
Hirohito’s tour 194197, 205
Kaiser’s tour to the Levant 110111
Luís Filipe’s African tour 150151, 154156
royal visit to Durban 259260
Sisowath’s visit to France 128129
Pocahontas 2
polygamy 96, 127, 244
pomp and ceremony see ceremony, performance and spectacle
portraits, as official gifts 241
Portugal
accusations of slavery against 146, 149
assassination of king and crown prince 148, 162
motives for African royal tour 146147, 149
presidential colonial tour (1938) 163
republicanism 13, 147148, 148150, 149150
Salazar’s colonial project 163164
slave-labour question 146, 149, 152153
tensions with Britain 146
press coverage see newspaper and magazine coverage
propaganda value of royal visits 16, 132, 176, 197198, 205, 216220, 260
protectorates 7, 114115, 125128
race and racism 133, 134, 187
Rajkumar College 94, 96, 9899, 101
Rama V see Chulalongkorn, King
Ranavalona III, Queen 11
regalia 240
regents (bupati) 242
religion
British coronation oath 9091
Christianity and European colonialism 46, 49, 157
German Christians in Palestine 114116, 120
gift-giving of holy sites 111, 112, 120
Islamic dietary laws 33
as motive for Kaiser’s Holy Land visit 114116
and Portugal’s ‘civilising mission’ 157
Wilhelmina’s religiosity 244
Zionist movement 112, 119120
Renown HMS 6061tab, 69, 70, 71
republicanism
Bhagvatsinh on 10410
Irish 8081
Italy 229
Portugal 13, 148150
Repulse HMS 6061tab, 69, 70
Rodin, Auguste 130
Royal Navy
naval training for princes 6265, 68
role in royal tours 6870
see also warships
royal symbolism, Japan 207
royal trains 216
royal yachts 17, 110, 216, 228
Russell, William Howard 73
Russia 115, 116
Ryckmans, Pierre 179
SAIC see South African Indian Congress
sailor princes 59, 62, 63
St Peter’s Church (Middelburg) 29, 35
Saint-Simon, Claude Henri 44, 51
Saionji Kinmochi, Prince 194196, 205
Salazar, António de Oliviera 163164
São Tomé 152153, 161
Scott, Lord Charles 66, 73
Seedat, Dawood 256
Selbourne, Lord 160
Serapis HMS 6061tab, 71, 79
serimpi dance performance 233234
Shiratori Kurakichi 195
Siam 10, 41, 125, 130
Sihanouk, King 141
Singh, Jagatjit 104
’Sisi’, Empress 13
Sisowath, King
French press and 132133, 134, 135
reign and reputation 127, 140141
visit to France 127130, 135137
Smuts, Jan 250, 257259
Somalia 212, 223225
South Africa
German immigration 8687
immigrant labour for gold fields 158159
imperial loyalty of Cape Boers 8388
imperial loyalty of Indian community 250, 252256, 264
Luís Filipe’s visit 159161
passive resistance campaign 257263
relations with india 255, 257259
royal visits 6061tab, 64, 8687, 250, 252, 253256
United Nations condemnation 258
South African Indian Congress (SAIC) 258, 262264
South African Indians
‘Indianness’ of 252253
leadership division 259264
loyalism and royalism among 250, 252256, 264
participation in royal events and tours 250, 252, 253, 254256
passive resistance campaign 257263
proposed boycott of royal tour 260264
spectacle of empire see ceremony, performance and spectacle
Sri Muhammad 27, 32
La Stampa 219, 223224
Standish, Frederick 67
Sugiura Shigetake 195
Taishō Emperor 194195, 206
Taiwan 198, 206207
Tanner, R.J. 201, 205
Tarleton, John W. 6566
Templer colonists 118
terrorism see assassination attempts; assassinations
Thakur Sahib Bhagvatsinh see Bhagvatsinh, Thakur Sahib
Thiounn, Okna Veang 135137
Thomas Cook (travel agency) 110111
tiger hunting 71
transport and modes of travel
of Aceh’s ambassadors to the Netherlands 2829
long-distance tours 1415, 19, 67, 174175
royal trains and yachts 17, 110, 216, 228
symbolic and ceremonial aspects 1718
travel, educational value for princes 57, 68, 98
Tripolitania 212, 215219
triumphal arches 46, 62, 91, 151
United East India Company (VOC) 24, 26
United Nations 258
Urbain, Ismaÿl 44, 46, 48
van Meteren, Emanuel 3032
van Vervou, Frederik 30, 33, 34
Vatican 115, 204
Verson, Bishop Michael 91
Victor Emanuel III, King
abdication 228
assassination attempt on 215
autonomy under fascist regime 211212, 214215, 217219, 224, 225, 227228
media coverage of royal tours 217219
portrait 213
royal tours
to Cirenaica 212, 221, 223
to Egypt 212, 221
to Eritrea 212, 219221
to Libya 212, 225228
to Somalia 212, 223225
to Tripolitania 212, 215219
Victoria, Queen
attitude to princely tours 58, 65
friendship with Eugénie 40, 52
Queen’s Proclamation (1858) 253
receives non-Western royals 1011, 57, 95, 103
visit to France 40
Vietnam
French dominion over 42, 126
nationalism and anti-colonialism 138139
soldiers’ deaths in First World War 131
VOC see United East India Company (VOC)
Wap, Johannes, Jacobus Franciscus 94
warships 7, 48, 66, 69, 71, 194, 197, 216, 225, 228
Werner, Leonard 28
West Indies 68
Wilhelm II, Kaiser
affinity for Ottoman empire and Muslims 112, 120121
assassination plot against 114
influence on foreign policy 112, 117118, 119
tour of Ottoman empire
commercial and colonial motives 116120
German public opinion on 112
international context 113114
itinerary 110
religious aspects 114116, 119121
Wilhelmina, Queen
aversion to polygamy 244
categories of Indonesians received by 235236, 241242
gifts given to 237, 238, 240, 245247
portraits 238, 239
royal Indonesian delegations to 236241, 247
serimpi performance for 233234
William IV, King 59
women
Bhagvatsinh on women’s freedom 103104
female royals on tour 1112, 38, 44, 57, 66, 216, 244, 250
polygamous Indonesian royal wives 244
yachts, royal 17, 110, 216, 228
Yamagata, Aritomo 193, 194, 196
Yukanthor, Prince 128
Zionist movement 112, 119120
Zuid Afrikaan, De 8387

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Royals on tour

Politics, Pageantry and Colonialism

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