Index
in Death machines

Index

11 September 2001 attacks 15, 119, 200
 
abnormality 14, 41, 61, 79–80, 139‒40, 149, 178, 182–3
action 17, 24–7, 38, 44, 57, 63, 84–9, 91, 100, 106–7, 112–13, 134, 140, 195–6, 198
capacity for 77, 80, 100, 113, 199
contingent 36, 44, 64
as the essence of politics 112‒13
faculty of 1, 48, 113
human condition of 25‒6
violent 90, 102, 106, 111, 177
adiaphorisation 20, 120, 140‒1, 173‒4, 187‒8, 191
Afghanistan 137‒9, 174
Agamben, Giorgio 16, 22, 43‒6, 96, 114
agency 56–7, 67, 72, 159, 162, 195‒6, 201
moral 123, 167, 196
political 35, 124, 195–6
algorithmic analysis 164‒7, 175‒8, 181‒5, 188
Al Qaeda 186
American Revolution 78
Anders, Günther 145, 155‒6, 201
animal laborans 41, 47, 55, 76
antagonism 82‒3
anthropomorphism of technology 166, 179, 184‒5
anti-politics 49, 75‒7, 81‒2, 87‒92, 96, 99
applied ethics 120‒30, 141‒2
critique of 127‒8
as a quest for certainty 124‒8
Arendt, Hannah 1‒6, 9‒11, 14‒53, 57‒72, 76‒92, 96‒113, 118‒22, 128, 135, 171, 186, 195‒6, 199‒202
distinctive insights of 68‒71
The Human Condition 23‒4, 27, 32, 38, 45, 74, 201
Arkin, R. 133, 147, 163‒6
artificial intelligence (AI) 4, 10, 14, 149‒54, 159, 164‒5, 169, 172, 195
Asimov, Isaac 151
automation bias 159
autonomous weapons systems (AWS) 2, 132‒3, 146, 155, 159‒65, 168, 172, 176, 195
Autonomy Roadmap 164
 
‘bare life’ concept 45
Baudrillard, Jean 12, 157‒8
Bauman, Zygmunt 31, 109‒10, 122‒3, 128, 140, 142, 187, 192, 198
Benhabib, Seyla 37
Benjamin, Walter 102‒5
Bentham, Jeremy 126
biological determinism 123‒4
biological life 74‒82, 85, 179
biomedical logics 179‒80
biometric devices 6‒7
biopolitical conditioning 6‒10, 201
biopolitics 2‒23, 27‒32, 37‒8, 43‒5, 48, 51‒72, 74‒7, 80, 83, 92‒3, 98, 120‒2, 137, 142, 145‒9, 156‒7, 169, 179‒81, 192, 197
Arendtian and Foucauldian 58‒62
definition of 6
first uses of the term 23
interlinked aspects of 28
biopower 9, 42, 52, 55, 59, 91
bios 25–6, 34
body, the see human bodies
Braidotti, Rosie 9, 12‒13, 124, 147, 171, 180, 198‒9
Brennan, John 97, 186
Bush, George W. 95n7, 175, 189
Butler, Judith 17
 
‘calibrated trust’ concept 164
Canovan, Margaret 23‒5, 29, 63, 200
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 4, 97, 165, 172, 174, 176
Chamayou, Gregoire 165, 172‒3
Clausewitz, Karl Marie von 7, 97
codes, ethical 123, 132‒4, 141, 196‒9
coding 149‒51, 167‒8, 171
Coker, Christopher 10, 15‒16, 164‒9, 200
collateral damage 158
conditioning see biopolitical conditioning; ethical conditioning; technological conditioning
conformism in society 80
corpus organicus 173, 179
cost-benefit analysis 130, 132
cybernetics 149‒50
 
DARPA 149, 160‒1
Darwin 24, 42‒3, 104, 109
death
as the antithesis of life 70
awareness of 91
politics of 54‒5
of soldiers 160
decision-making, technological 159, 165
Derrida, Jacques 103, 118, 197
determinism 71
biological 123‒4
Dewey, John 98, 116n3
Dillon, Michael 7, 65, 92, 149‒50, 196
disciplinary power 53‒5, 64‒5
dispositifs 7‒9, 28, 55‒7
disposition matrices 188‒9
distancing technologies 187
docility 53, 55, 65
doxa 79
driverless cars 154
drones 2‒5, 9, 13, 20, 97, 104‒5, 114, 122, 131‒2, 137‒41, 162, 165, 172‒91, 193‒4, 198, 200
commercial availability of 193
ethics in the use of 177, 184‒7
operators of 180‒1, 183‒4, 187
outperforming humans 184
used for intelligence purposes or armed 174‒5
used by terrorist groups 193‒4
as weapons systems 172
 
economics 40‒1, 129
Eichmann Trial (1968) 118‒19
Ellul, Jacques 148
enlightenment thought 82
equality
concept of 47, 69, 78–9, 80, 83‒4
political 77, 83, 88
Esposito, Roberto 22, 45‒6, 67‒8
ethical codes see codes, ethical
ethical conditioning 14‒18
ethicality 21, 124, 168, 187, 199
ethics 1‒6, 10, 15‒17, 20‒1, 114, 145, 147, 164‒7, 196‒201
political substance of 199‒201
and politics as action 198‒9
precarious nature of 196‒7
purpose of 123
redefining conceptions of 121
regulatory type of 122‒3, 167
in relation to politics 118‒23, 128‒35
of responsibility 21
of war 20, 130, 164‒5
see also applied ethics
ethics-as-codes 168
ethics-as-science 131
‘ethics modules’ 16, 133, 165
European RPAS Steering Group 184
Evans, Brad 8‒9, 12‒13, 18
expropriations 28‒9
extraordinary rendition 7, 200
 
Fanon, Frantz 90, 102, 105
fear, politics of 86‒7
Felicific Calculus 126
forgiving 200
Foucault, Michel (and Foucauldian thought) 6‒9, 18‒19, 22, 28, 42, 45‒6, 49, 51‒66, 70‒1, 74, 90‒1, 181
objective of his analysis 56
free will 123‒4
freedom 31, 36, 60, 65, 76, 77, 79, 85–6, 93, 94n5, 102, 112, 124, 153, 200
of association 79
different meanings of 85‒6
for politics 34, 41, 47, 79, 81, 84, 85–6, 99, 108
from necessity 36, 60, 77, 85–8
and plurality 35, 46–7, 65, 112, 195
French Revolution 34, 51, 59‒60, 78
friend/enemy 83
futility 19, 24, 26, 77, 88–9
 
Galileo 38
genocide 109‒10
Germany see Nazi regime
Giddens, Anthony 156‒7
God as a supreme lawgiver 121
governmentality 6–7, 54, 185
Greek model of the household 47
 
happiness, measurement of 126
Haraway, Donna 148
Hawking, Stephen 152
Hayden, Michael 178
hearts and minds, winning of 162
Hegelianism 64
Heisenberg, Werner 11, 146
Hippocratic Oath 140
historical-philosophical approach to analysis 58‒9
history, key developments in 27
Hobbes, Thomas 84, 99
homo faber 31, 70, 91, 106, 108
‘human autonomy teaming’ 164
human beings
as ‘makers of history’ 108
seen as a threat to ethical warfare 165‒6
seen as the weakest link in warfare 159‒62
uncontrollability of results of their actions 106
human bodies
Arendt's thinking on 92
political consideration of 68
sameness of 68‒9
seen as consisting essentially of information 150
seen as functioning machines 146, 166
Human Genome Project 148
human life 151
complex nature of 149
human nature 61‒3, 147‒50
human rights 79, 82
Human Rights Watch 163
human species, equality based only on membership of 83‒4
 
iatrogenesis 194
identity politics 68
IF/THEN logic 166, 185
Illich, Ivan 194
immigration controls 6‒7
informatics 148, 150
innovation, scientific 146
‘inside’ of a subject 56‒7
international humanitarian law (IHL) 163, 165
international politics 17, 129, 134
Iraq 174
ISIS 175, 193
Israel 162‒3
 
justification 90, 97, 100, 107
ethical 2, 9, 19, 48, 103, 138, 187
of targeted killing 180, 182
of violence 3, 20–1, 69, 74, 90, 93, 98, 102–5, 107, 111, 114, 119–21, 134–5, 142, 147, 160, 172, 177–8
‘just war’ theory 119, 129‒32, 158‒9
 
Kant, Immanuel 92
Keane, John 69–70, 136
Kerry, John 190
killing
decisions about 164‒6, 172, 183, 185, 190
‘ethical’ 177‒8, 190
numbers killed by drones 175, 177
by robots 2, 4, 13, 152
kinetic operations suit 161
kinship 81
Kurzweil, Ray 11, 70, 153‒4
 
labour and the labouring process 25‒6, 29, 40‒1, 49, 87‒91
instrumental understanding of 89
seen as an activity in the public domain 29‒30
Lakoff, George 136
Lang, Fritz 151
language 13, 16–17, 87, 90, 93, 100, 107, 111, 113, 119, 121, 130–1, 135–8, 168, 177, 180, 185
law as a normalising institution 59
Levinas, Emmanuel 196‒7
liberal modernity 84
life
biological and political 25, 41
shifted into politics 23‒8, 37, 45, 48, 58, 74, 77, 88, 125‒6
life-as-politics 46–8, 52, 57, 77
‘life-mining’ (Braidotti) 180
life politics 18, 28, 57‒8, 67, 69, 72, 74, 85‒6, 93, 98, 109, 112‒13, 178‒9
life processes 18, 30‒8, 41, 46‒9, 60‒1, 69‒70, 81, 84, 89‒92, 108‒9, 179, 194‒5
love of life for its own sake 86
 
Machiavelli, Niccòlo 99
‘machine thinking’ and ‘machine morality’ 164, 166, 201
MacIntyre, Alasdair 127‒8
Marcuse, Herbert 145‒6, 157, 201
Marx, Karl (and Marxian theory) 30‒1, 39, 42‒3, 60, 71, 87‒91, 105
mathematisation of life 38‒42, 53, 108, 125‒6, 146
Mbeme, Achille 96
medical metaphors and narratives 69‒70, 97, 120‒1, 135‒8, 141, 173, 180, 190‒1
moral accountability 199
moral analysis 130‒1
‘moral compass’ 198
moral philosophy 124, 185
moral principles 121‒3, 127‒8
morality 14, 32, 118‒19, 140
in warfare see ethics of war
MQ-9 Reaper and aircraft 174‒5, 177
Murakami, Haruki 96
 
natality 24, 26, 46, 50n3, 57, 63‒4
nation states 47
natural law 103‒4
‘new’ 121
nature, authority of 121
Nazi regime 6, 14, 43‒4, 55, 91, 109, 118, 136, 145, 192
necessity 29, 31, 34–6, 43, 47, 51, 59–60, 68, 74, 76–9, 81, 84–8, 93, 106, 109, 112, 139–40, 157, 159, 173, 185–6, 190
necroethics 165, 172‒3, 190
necropolitics 96
need, politics of 47, 76‒7
neuro-, bio-, information and cognitive (NBIC) technologies 160, 162
neuroscientific research 123‒4
 
Obama, Barack 2, 4, 97, 137, 175, 185‒7
ontological security 156‒7
Open Robotics Initiative 162‒3
‘operational morality’ 167
‘outside’ of a subject 56‒7
‘Overseas Contingency Operations’ 4
 
pain 41, 87–8, 126, 138
‘pattern of life’ analysis 180, 183, 189
Peak Soldier Performance (PSP) initiative 149, 160‒1
‘personality strikes’ 175‒6
philopsychia 82–8
philosophy on ethics, Anglo-American and Continental approaches to 124
Plato 135
plurality 32‒5, 46, 65, 68‒9, 77‒8, 81‒2
political biopolitics, impossibility of 75‒7
political communities 47, 107, 135
political contestation 74, 93
politicisation 2, 59, 74, 127
politics, anti-political form of see anti-politics
politics-as-management 75, 93, 128‒9
politics-as-violence 134
politics proper 26, 46, 58, 75‒6, 82‒8, 92‒3, 96, 100, 110, 114, 128, 199
post-humanism 71, 152‒3
postmodernism 128
post-structuralism 15, 124
power relationships 57, 65‒7, 138
precautionary principle 130
pre-emptive strikes 190, 193
prevention 6–7, 12–13, 141, 150, 168, 173, 178, 190
private realm 14, 24–6, 29–30, 32–5, 39, 46, 68, 75–6, 78, 84–7, 92, 109, 118
‘Promethean shame’ (Anders) 155
public realm 14, 17, 24–7, 29–37, 39, 41, 46, 48, 75, 77–81, 84, 87, 101, 118
 
racism 54, 60, 70, 90‒1
rational choice models 196
rationalism 122
rationality, technological 145‒6
Reformation, European 28‒9
risk management 179‒81
robo-wars 162‒8
‘robotic dystopia’ 151
robotics
military 3, 5, 9, 11, 16, 20, 97, 100, 133, 152, 159‒65, 184, 200
relevance of biology for 147
spending on 160
Rose, Nikolas 179, 181
Rules of Engagement (RoE) 163‒5
 
Sartre, Jean-Paul 102
Schaap, Andrew 47, 76‒7
science fiction 151
scientific inquiries into the human body and mind 60
scientific mindset 37‒8
scientific-technological rationale 145‒6, 158
scientific thinking 9
securitisation 13‒14, 70, 108, 150
self-defence 15‒16, 101
shame 155‒6
‘shared world’ concept 30‒1
‘sick society’ 135‒6
signals intelligence (SIGINT) 189‒90
‘signature strikes’ 175–6, 180‒3, 189
Sloterdijk, Peter 11, 147
‘smart’ technologies 201
social realm 26‒9, 33‒7, 46‒8, 61, 77‒81, 84
social rules 199
soldiers
sensory perception in 161
technological fortification of 160
Somalia 4
South Korea 163
statistics, use of 61‒2
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 113
subjectivity 2‒9, 13‒20, 38, 56, 142, 145, 171, 192, 201
techno-biopolitical 2, 5‒8, 13‒15, 18‒20
suicide terrorism 114, 194
survival of the fittest 43
 
tactical assault light operator suit (TALOS) 161, 171
targeted killing 4, 7, 15, 114, 119, 137‒9, 165, 172‒80, 184‒8, 191
techno-authority 159, 167, 182
techno-biopolitical politics 97, 139, 141
techno-enthusiasm 153‒4
techno-fatalism 151‒5
technological conditioning 10‒14
technological fixes 13
technologisation 2, 74, 108, 145‒6, 150, 157
techno-optimism 172
techno-paternalism 154‒9
teleological understanding of history and nature 64
Terminator films 151
terror, war against 4, 67, 69‒70, 97‒8, 104, 119, 135‒6, 172, 174, 180, 186, 193, 198, 200
terrorism 8‒9, 44, 97, 114
language used for description of 137
Thacker, Eugene 148‒50, 153
thanatopolitics 96
torture 7, 200
totalitarianism 23‒4, 42‒5, 55, 64, 78, 86, 90‒1, 109, 199
trans-humanism 152‒4
Trump, Donald 4, 97, 137, 174‒5, 187
 
uniqueness of each individual 63
United Kingdom 163, 175, 193
United States 67, 87, 97, 104, 139, 141, 158‒9, 162‒3, 172‒5, 186‒8
universalism in politics 82‒3
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 2, 160, 181‒2
see also drones
us/them dichotomy 83
utility 53 , 55 , 59 , 61 , 89 , 92 , 112 , 130–1 , 139 , 142
calculus 126 , 130
of violence 106–7 , 110
 
Vatter, Miguel 22
Vietnam war 158
Villa, Dana 70‒1
violence
causal structures of 105
controllability of 107
creative potential of 102
ethics of 141‒2
glorification of 101, 106, 111‒13
increase in scale of 113‒14
instrumentality of 101‒2, 105‒11
justification of 90‒1, 101‒5, 111‒13, 147, 178
law-making 103‒4
as a means to an end 92, 101‒3, 106‒7, 112‒14
as medical necessity 185‒8
as midwife of history 89, 81
modern and pre-modern views of 97
muteness inherent in 111‒12
mythical and divine 103, 105
nature of 100, 103
necessity for 120‒1
in relation to power 99‒100, 102
seen as expedient action 98
technology-driven 3
use made of 49, 89‒90
violence-as-politics 90, 98, 101‒6, 111, 120, 141, 173
 
war on terror see terror, war against
warfare 147, 158‒65
between states 113
ethics of 20, 130, 165
humans seen as the weakest link in 20, 159‒62
morality in 164
need for research on 201
quantifiable aspects of 158
‘total’ 113
wealth accumulation 30
Weber, Max 37, 101
‘will to health’ 179, 181, 188
Wilson, Edward O. 123, 133
Wolin, Sheldon 1, 97
world alienation 28‒30, 32, 38
Wright, Jeremy 193
 
Yemen 4
Young-Bruehl, E. 88
 
Zehfuss, Maja 177
zoefication of politics 27‒31, 33‒4, 40‒2, 48, 74, 90‒3, 96, 98, 120‒1, 125‒6, 135, 138, 141, 179

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Death machines

The ethics of violent technologies

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