Index
in Borders and conflict in South Asia

INDEX

Note: References in italic refer to illustrations, while ‘n.’ after a page reference indicates the number of a note on that page.
Abbott, Stuart 90, 93, 108
abduction 1523, 160
of women 130, 138n.10, 1556, 1613
Abell, George 38, 8991, 98, 106, 11416, 1201, 124
administrative boundaries
predating Radcliffe award 21, 7780, 88, 90, 959, 109, 141, 170
Ahmadiyya community 59, 62, 64
Amritsar 75, 78, 129, 1345, 1456, 151, 154, 15960, 168, 200
division from Lahore 745, 109, 123, 195
on maps 678, 957
in Muslim League boundary proposal 68, 1001, 147, 196
Attlee, Clement 10, 12, 15, 42, 196
Auchinleck, Claude John Eyre 556, 77, 107, 11314
Bahawalpur State 29, 109
battlefield sites, mapping of 20, 946, 100
Beaumont, Christopher 41, 70, 748, 80, 901, 98, 109, 11325
passim, 140
Bengal boundary commission 3, 6, 26, 301, 35, 39, 58, 89, 11516, 1967
Bengali border 801, 104n.75, 122, 1245, 141, 148, 151
Bikaner State 92, 1203
border defence organizations 1589, 1635
border fence 164, 172
borderlands 145, 15073, 197
continuing development of 1625
formation of 15162
policing of 1713
territorial disputes in 16571
boundary disputes 97, 99, 16572, 176n.90, maps 6–8
boundary-making, best practice in 734, 77, 867, 148
boundary-making, criticism of 101, 110, 11719
boundary-making expertise 301, 33, 50
see also Spate, Oskar
lack of 39, 56, 58, 834, 179
British empire 24, 42, 82, 180, 1847, 197, 199
British India and the British raj 2, 6, 1114, 1822, 7883, 180, 182, 1847, 193
Campbell-Johnson, Alan 106, 1335
canal colonies 11, 82, 133, 1434
census data 13, 21, 658, 74, 96, 104n.67, 109, 142, 145
Chittagong Hill Tracts 93, 140, 197
Christie, John 1067, 120
Churchill, Winston 10, 23n.24, 38, 467, 187, 1978
communal violence 6, 12, 16, 12937, 1478, 1823, 1917, 199
communist threat, British fear of 14, 23n.21, 199
Congress Party see Indian National Congress
‘contiguous majority areas’ see Radcliffe Commission, terms of reference
counterfactual analysis 1418
cross-border raids 137, 144, 1527, 15968, 171
decolonization 16, 9, 1214, 35, 38, 79, 83, 100, 180, 1836, 199
defensible boundaries 556, 62, 77, 114, 123
delimitation of boundaries 256, 3940, 73, 86
demarcation of boundaries 30, 3940, 52n.52, 734, 81, 867, 141, 148, 150, 155, 1678, 1712
East India Company 42, 946, 1845
enclaves 62, 68, 142, 147, 197
entry permits for border crossings 1634
ethnic cleansing 132, 1415
Ferozepur 69, 74, 129, 133, 140, 142, 1467, 152, 154, 160, 196
alteration to boundary in 912, 109, 111, 11923, 197, 200, map 5a
canal headworks in 81, 1203, 165, maps 7–8
field surveys 1921, 868
Foreign Office (British) 345, 44, 46
Gandhi, Mohandas 5, 910, 1617, 26, 65, 193
Gurdaspur 746, 92, 107, 109, 111, 119, 123, 137, 140, 1457, 160
Haileybury College 42, 189n.27
Heaney, G. F. 1367
Henderson, Arthur 56, 745, 77, 113, 115
Hodson, H. V. 114, 1245, 126n.32, 128n.89
Hussainiwala headworks 165, 16770, map 7
Hyderabad State 147, 178
India Office 10, 29, 34, 74, 76
Indian Independence Act (1947) 49, 11112, 114
Indian National Congress 56, 917, 77, 79, 93, 119, 159, 1789, 1917, 200
in Bengal 1967
boundary commission formation and 2640 passim, 4951
boundary proposal in Punjab 5861, 659, 1425, map 4b
nominees to Punjab boundary commission see Mahajan, Mehr Chand; Singh, Teja
in Punjab provincial politics 11, 197
Indian uprising (1857) 11, 184, 190n.27
Indus Waters Treaty (1960) 167
infrastructure systems 29, 39, 43, 69, 7482 passim, 137, 1423, 152
disruption of 74, 802, 957, 1213, 137, 1401, 1578, 194
on maps 667, 88, 95, 978
International Court of Justice 35, 59
irrigation see water supply issues
Ismay, Hastings Lionel ‘Pug’ 31, 389, 812, 92, 1068, 11625
passim, 126n.32, 189n.8, 1956
Jenkins, Evan 12, 17, 4950, 78, 107, 114, 121, 124, 133
requests for advance notice of boundary by 8993, 107, 115
warnings of violence from 5, 129, 136
Jinnah, Muhammad Ali 5, 9, 1213, 2630, 339, 50, 59, 81, 105n.100, 111, 115, 118, 132, 1924, 199
health 13, 16
sense of humour 33
Jones, Stephen 734, 84, 86, 101n.2
Jowitt, William Allen 34, 41, 17980
Kashmir 7, 52n.52, 5761 passim, 73, 101n.3, 109, 123, 137, 1456, 155, 160, 163, 172
Kasur 78, 989, 109, 1527, 161, 165, 166, 168, 170, map 3
Khan, Zafrullah 5964, 67, 11718
Khosla, A.N. 69, 92, 1201
Labour Party (British) 10, 13, 15, 23n.24, 38, 178, 1978
Lahore 557, 5961, 89, 91, 115, 129, 135, 151, 158, 166, 167, map 6
Congress claim to 68, 118, 124, 1445
on maps 67, 95, 97
Sikh claim to 28, 144
see also Amritsar, division from Lahore
Liaquat Ali Khan 9, 26, 289, 389, 92, 110, 11516, 198
Listowel, William 2937 passim, 49, 114
Lockhart, Robert Bruce 183, 187
Mahajan, Mehr Chand 568, 61, 69, 756, 11718, 124
Mamdot, Nawab of 5960
maps, use of 17, 117, 119, 125, 1357
for advance notice of boundary 73, 903, map 5a
as imperial tools 7, 1822, 948, 100
by independent India and Pakistan 103n.49, 105n.103, 141, 164, 16870
by nationalist parties 669, maps 4–5
by Radcliffe 76, 838, 93100, 104n.89, 141
Margaret 3, 20, 2008
Ministry of Information (MOI) 36, 41, 458, 84, 178, 182
minority populations 29, 109, 129130, 132, 1414, 1478, 1923
Monckton, Sir Walter 456, 11314, 178
Moon, Penderel 195
Mosley, Leonard 846, 103n.51
Mountbatten, Louis 5, 9, 12, 15, 17, 4950, 556, 612, 645, 6970, 8990, 101, 10912, 126n.32, 133, 140, 1812, 197200
boundary commission formation and 2539
criticism of 84, 90, 102n.30, 103n.51, 11125, 138n.8, 185, 200
delay of boundary announcement by 1068, 125
influence on boundary 74, 7680, 903, 11125, 127n.34, 180, 200
Mudie, Francis 93, 131
Muhammad, Din 567, 645, 11718, 123
Munir, Muhammad 12, 15, 567, 635, 67, 80, 11719, 1223
Muslim League 1, 56, 917 passim, 70, 77, 79, 119, 191, 193, 196, 200
boundary commission formation and 2640 passim, 4951, 1789, 192
boundary proposal in Punjab 5869 passim, 71n.27, 147, 196, map 5c
nominees to Punjab boundary commission see Muhammad, Din; Munir, Muhammad
Muslim League National Guard (MLNG) 1323, 154
nationalist leaders 911, 4851, 81, 85, 89, 978, 1334, 145, 185, 191200 passim
desire for hasty division 13, 1517, 192
involvement in key decisions 35, 2539 passim, 501, 612, 70, 923, 114, 1789, 182, 1912, 1956, 199
lack of geographical expertise 39, 77
legal background 6, 26, 29, 178, 198
reaction to Radcliffe award 92, 101, 10712
see also under individual leaders’ names
natural boundaries 55, 612, 778, 114, 195
Nehru, Jawaharlal 5, 910, 12, 93, 133, 136, 1989
boundary commission formation and 2633, 612, 79
fatigue 16, 51
irrigation concerns 69, 81, 92, 120, 197
‘notional boundary’ 1213, 56, 65, 746, 108, 142, 1456, 148, 192, map 2
Palestine 2, 13, 59, 196
partition
announcement of plan for 278
attitudes to 6, 12, 16, 35, 51, 79, 82, 195, 197200
historiographies of 6, 99, 1913
misleading portrayal of 6, 15, 22, 25, 278, 37, 65, 923, 108, 111, 125, 148, 181, 195200
possible improvements in handling of 978, 1945
process of 14, 15, 28, 73, 79, 83, 90, 97100
Partition Council 17, 37, 50, 556, 62, 112
Patel, Vallabhbhai 5, 9, 16, 26, 28, 60, 119, 133
protests over boundary 93, 101, 197
Pethick-Lawrence, Frederick 10, 12
private armies 11, 12933, 145, 148
see also Muslim League National Guard; Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Punjab Boundary Force 1313, 1356, 158
‘Quit India’ movement 10, 17, 60
Radcliffe, Antonia 45, 489
Radcliffe, Cyril 1, 58, 26, 3370
passim, 100, 105n.111, 112, 178, 198
interest in and opinions on Indian affairs and imperialism 445, 489, 1837
in later life 1889
motivation of 17982, 189
responsibility for mass violence 1823
as a scapegoat 11011, 181, 192
service to the British state 409, 767, 17882, 1879, 200
see also maps, use of by Radcliffe
Radcliffe award
advance notice of 8992, 107
alternative lines 1408, 200, maps 45
announcement of 1068, 120, 125, 130, 1346, 139n.39, 140
balancing of elements within 74, 80, 122, 1245, 140, 146
disputes and disruption arising from 97, 137, 1401, 150, 16571, maps 6–8
formulation of 7388
Mountbatten’s influence on 11225
reception of 101, 10912
sketch map of 73, 77, 83, 905, 103n.49, 112, 1201, 124, 142, 146, map 5a
Radcliffe Commission 16, 15, 2540, 501, 11011, 181
negotiations over formation of 2740
procedure of 589, 623, 11719, 192
terms of reference of 268, 323, 35, 389, 50, 556, 62, 65, 69, 7482 passim, 92, 112, 114, 116, 143, 148, 192
Radcliffe, Geoffrey 44, 187
railway communications 11, 43, 64, 80, 82, 1401, 146, 148, 158
attacks on 12931, 196
on maps 667, 958
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) 1323, 159
Rees, Thomas (‘Pete’) 57, 110, 131, 133, 136
refugee movements 1, 105n.99, 107, 12936, 152, 1558
religious sites 567, 778, 96, 115, 145
Sadullah, Mian Muhammad 59, 16970
Sain, Kanwar 1212
salients 67, 69, 72n.62, 91, 1201, 1427, 1967, 200
Setalvad, Motilal C. 601, 65, 67
Sheikhupura 78, 1445
Sikh community 34, 9, 1112, 17, 21, 279, 49, 568, 62, 65, 70, 758, 90, 945, 101, 125, 12933, 1367, 1401, 1468, 172, 179, 183
boundary proposal 34, 668, 85, 1425, 196, map 4a
representation of 17, 2633 passim, 90, 194
see also borderlands; canal colonies; private armies; refugee movements; religious sites
Singh, Baldev 17, 278, 62
Singh, Tara 17, 28, 52n.12
Singh, Teja 56, 58, 71n.18, 11718
sketch map, see Radcliffe award, sketch map of
Spate, Oskar 625, 67, 6970, 1001
Sulemanke 81, 99, 165, 16870, map 8
Survey of India 1822, 66, 83, 858, 93, 96100, 1367, 164, 171, map 3
Survey of Pakistan 168, 171
Tennant, Mark 41, 45, 100, 105n.111, 186
transfer of power 4, 15, 28, 30, 35, 38, 51n.2, 87, 90, 1067, 182, 187, 198200
United Nations 2, 13, 305, 5961, 112, 163, 192
United States 2, 4, 1315, 30, 47, 151, 182
violence of partition 111, 12937, 140, 1468, 157, 1803, 187, 191
water supply issues 78, 29, 6982 passim, 967, 99, 125, 137, 1407 passim, 1578, 167
see also Bikaner State; boundary disputes
Wavell, Archibald 10, 12, 47, 51n.1, 76, 129, 194
women 130, 132, 1612, 165
see also abduction of women
World War I 19, 424, 189
World War II 2, 910, 1314, 1920, 33, 36, 458, 64, 66, 878, 130, 132, 161, 1789, 182

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Borders and conflict in South Asia

The Radcliffe boundary commission and the partition of Punjab

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