Index
in The European left and the financial crisis

Index

Adams, Gerry 74, 78, 80
Agenda 2010 177
AKEL (Progressive Party of the Working People, Cyprus) 86–99, 221
Ali, Tariq 203–4
‘alter-Europeanism’ 13, 217, 224, 227–8
Anastasiades, Nicos 93
Anderson, P. 217
Arhinmäk, Paavo 150
Arthaud, Nathalie 163
austerity measures 4, 10–11, 14, 220–2, 228–9
in Cyprus 92–4, 98
in France 158–9, 165, 169–72
in Germany 184
in Greece 20–2, 27
in Ireland 68–74, 77, 80
in Italy 107–8
in Latvia 120, 126
in Portugal 50, 55–60
in Spain 35, 42–5
Bailey, D.J. 224
bailout programmes 7, 14, 50, 60, 68–72, 77, 126, 146–7, 150–2, 187, 221
Baldzēns, Egils 124, 129–33
Basque Country 38–9
Basque Nationalist Party see PNV
BE (Bloco de Esquerda, Portugal) 51–3, 56
Beaudonnet, L. 197
Benelux countries 3
Berlusconi, Silvio 105–8, 111–13
Bersani, Pier Luigi 111–12, 115–17
Bickerton, C. 224
Biorcio, Roberto 110
Blair, Tony 104, 114
BNP-Paribas 3
Bojārs, Juris 124
Bomberg, E. 218
Bordignon, Fabio 112, 116
Boyd Barrett, Richard 71, 78
Brexit 203–4, 228
Brigmanis, Augusts 131
Bulgaria 196
Burton, Joan 75
Busch, K. 228–9
Cafruny, A. 201
Callinicos, A. 204
capitalism, opposition to 9, 80, 96
Catalonia 38–9
CDS (Centro Democrático Social-Partido Popular, Portugal) 51–6, 62
Ceccarini, L. 109
‘Celtic Tiger’ boom 69
Centeno, Mário 61
centre left parties 143
Cheskin, Ammon 128–9
Childers, Nessa 72
Chopra, Ajay 72
Christofias, Demetris 89, 92, 97–8
CiU (Convergencia i Unió, Spain) 38
Clinton, Bill 104
Colon, S. 35
consensual politics 42, 87
Corbetta, P. 109
Corbyn, Jeremy 203
Costa, António 55, 57–8, 60
Coulter, C. 70
Cyprus 11–12, 86–99
Democratic Party see DIKO
Democratic Rally see DISY
left-wing parties and the crisis 91–9
left-wing parties’ electoral results 93, 95
need for clear-cut left-wing positions 98–9
past and present of left-wing parties 88–90
presidential system in 88, 90, 93
Progressive Party of the Working People see AKEL
United Democratic Union of the Centre see EDEK
‘Cyprus problem’ 88–92, 95–6
Czech Republic 223
Daiber, B. 91
D’Alema, Massimo 115
D’Alimonte, R. 106
Danckert, Peter 181
democracy
representative or participative 25, 42, 103, 109
‘Democracy in Europe’ movement 198–9, 226
‘democratic deficit’ 42, 224
Desai, R. 207
de Sousa, Jerónimo 61
devaluation, internal 58–9, 126
Diamond, P. 14
DIKO (Democratic Party, Cyprus) 88–92
DIMAR (Democratic Left, Greece) 19, 26–8
Dinan, D. 5, 216
Dinēvičs, Jānis 124, 130, 133
distribution of income and wealth 127–8
DISY (Democratic Rally, Cyprus) 88–90, 93
Dobelis, Ansis 124, 129
Dombrovskis, Valdis 126
Draghi, Mario 107
ECB (European Central Bank) 5, 25, 43, 151, 185, 201–2, 206
Economic and Monetary Union see EMU
economic voting theory 162
EDEK (United Democratic Union of the Centre, Cyprus) 86–90, 94–9
Ehl, M. 223
electoral systems 88, 105
EMU (Economic and Monetary Union) 4–5, 42–5, 50, 53, 56–9, 86, 147–8, 189, 216, 219
EP (European Parliament) 10, 148, 219, 225
elections 104, 111, 150
2019 elections 61, 117, 134, 190, 207, 229
equality of opportunity 9
ERC (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya) 38
Errejón, Íñigo 40
ESM (European Stability Mechanism) 7, 147, 149, 185
ethnic divisions 121, 125, 134–5
euro (currency) 5, 23, 27, 43, 133–4, 146–9, 152, 178, 182, 201
‘Eurocriticism’ 44
European Central Bank see ECB
European Court of Justice 60, 199, 203
European Fiscal Compact see Fiscal Compact
European integration 2, 14, 29, 50, 53, 58, 61–2, 77–9, 86, 94, 147–52, 159–62, 168–70, 195–8, 205, 216–19, 223–4
public perception of 11
European Investment Bank 24–5, 200
European Parliament see EP
European Stability Mechanism see ESM
European Union (EU)
attitudes to 108, 145–6, 152, 159–62, 170, 196–7, 204–5
Constitutional Treaty 161, 171–2
programmes for change in 227–9
Europeanisation 218–19, 227
Europeanism 25, 29
Europhile mood 161
Euroscepticism 13, 23, 42, 45, 52, 93, 108, 145, 147, 159–60, 169, 185, 195–8, 205, 207, 217–19, 223–7
‘soft’ 226
Eurozone, the 5, 22–9, 34, 44, 56, 61, 70, 93–6, 145–7, 158, 177–8, 189–90, 196, 202–3, 206, 216, 219, 227
excessive debt procedure 60
‘families’ of the left 1–2, 9
‘Fannie Mae’ 3–4
fascism 23
Fazi, Thomas 217, 221, 226
FDP (Freie Demokratische Partei, Germany) 177, 181, 186–7
Featherstone, K. 218
federalism, European 24, 28
federations, pan-European 10
FI (Forza Italia, Italy) 105–6, 113
Fianna Fáil (Ireland) 70–1
Fillon, François 158, 166
financial crisis
in banking 3, 216
causes and effects of 220–3, 227
nature of 216, 219
Financial Crisis Inquiry (FCIC) report 3
Fine Gael (Ireland) 71
Finland 12, 140–53, 220
domestic consensus and the crisis 145–7
election results 140–3
employers’ organisation 144
ideological differences between political parties in 153
ideological responses to the financial crisis 148–52
Left Alliance see VAS
Social Democrats see SDP
trade unions in 142–5, 153
Finns Party 141, 146–9, 152–3
Fiscal Compact 7, 147, 179, 184, 225
Fischer, Joschka 226
Five Star Movement (Italy) see M5S
Flesher Fominaya, C. 41
FN (Front National, France) 164–7, 198, 203
France 1, 12–13, 158–72
Communist Party see PCF
economic indicators 163
effects of economic downturn in 159, 162, 169–70
election manifestos 168–9
election results 162–9
Front National see FN
ideological differences between political parties 159–61, 166–8, 172
Left Front 160, 164, 167–70
Socialist Party see PS (France)
‘Freddie Mac’ 3–4
Gabriel, Sigmar 1
Galbraith, J.K. 24, 200
Gallagher, M. 79
Garzón, Alberto 39
geringonça government (Portugal) 50, 60, 221
Germany 13, 44, 176–90
Constitutional Court 181–2
election results and voting patterns 177, 180
Freie Demokratische Partei see FDP
Die Linke party 176–86, 189
points of agreement between parties 188–9
Social Democratic Party see SPD
Gilmore, Éamon 68, 71–4, 79
global economic crisis 2, 4
globalisation 3, 61, 70, 169–71, 217, 224
criticisms of 170–1
Goldfarb, Z.A. 3
Gomez, R. 197
González, Felipe 43
Graham, C. 1
Gramsci, A. 227
Greece 4, 18–29, 60, 91, 108, 133, 146–51, 205–6
Coalition of Left and Progress see Synaspismos
Communist Party see KKE
Democratic Left see DIMAR
election results 22
end of bipolar politics 19
historical overview of economic developments 18–19
Panhellenic Socialist Movement see PASOK
party competition 26–8
radical left party see SYRIZA
referendum (2015) 21
green parties 10, 223
in Cyprus 88–90, 94–5
in Finland 144–5, 151–3
in France 160–1
in Germany 176–8, 181–9
in Ireland 68, 71–2, 78–80
in Latvia 131–2
in Portugal 52, 56
Grillo, Beppe 103–10
Grossman, E. 165
growth rates 6
Guinan, J. 14
Gysi, Gregor 179
Habermas, Jürgen 199, 201, 203
Hain, Peter 217
Halikiopoulou, D. 197
Hamon, Benoît 166, 170–1
Hermanis, Jānis 127
Hewlett, N. 164
Heywood, A. 9
Higgins, Michael D. 71
Hillebrand, E. 14
Hollande, François 162–5, 169–70
Howlin, Brendan 74
Hungary 223
Iceland 3
Iglesias, Pablo 20, 36, 40, 202
Ījabs, Ivars 129
Ikstens, Jānis 129–30
Ingroia, Antonio 104
IMF (International Monetary Fund) 50, 54, 148
IRA (Irish Republican Army) 69, 75
Ireland 68–80
election results 73, 76–7
financial crisis in 68–70
Independents 4 Change party 69, 73–6
Labour Party 69, 72–9, 221
left-wing parties’ approach to European integration 77–80
left-wing parties in the Dáil 68–9
left-wing parties’ domestic policies 70–7
People Before Profit Alliance (PBPA) 69–75, 78–9
Social Democrats 69, 72
Socialist Party 69–75, 78–9
Irish Republican Army see IRA
Italy 5, 10, 12, 103–17
constitutional reform and Italicum 115
election results 119
First Republic (1948–93) and Second Republic (from 1993) 105–6
Forza Italia see FI
Jobs Act 114
Lega Nord 105
Partito Democratico della Sinistra see PD
political effects of the financial crisis 105–8
Popolo della Libertà 108, 111
Scelta Civica 111
Sinistra Ecologia e Libertà 110–11
IU (Izquierda Unida, Spain) 34–45
job creation 25
Joly, Eva 163
Jones, Lee 201
Jones, O. 14
Jones, S. 40
Jospin, Lionel 160–1
Juncker, Jean-Claude 21, 200
Kagarlitsky, R. 204
Kaktiņš, Arnis 129
Kavanagh, A.P. 79
Keating, M. 217, 227
Kelly, Alan 74
KKE (Communist Party, Greece) 18, 26–9, 90
Kouvelakis, S. 195, 205
Kreisky, Bruno 124
Krīgers, Pēteris 131
Künast, Renate 178–9
Labour Party, British 218
Laclau, Ernesto 40
Ladrech, R. 80, 218
Lafontaine, Oskar 179
La France Insoumise (LFI) 166–7
Lapavitsas, Costas 24, 202–3
Latvia 10, 12, 120–35
election results 122–3
fall of the left in 121–5, 135
financial crisis and ‘social demand’ 125–32
Free Trade Union Confederation see LBAS
Harmony party 120–1, 124–5, 128–34
pro-European left and national interests 132–4
Union of Greens and Farmers see ZZS
Lavery, B. 70
LBAS (Free Trade Union Confederation, Latvia) 130
Lederer, K. 187
‘left’ identity, emergence of 62
left-wing groups 1–2
crisis for 217
definition and features of 9
not favoured by economic depression 14, 221
opportunities offered by the crisis to 13, 216
relationship with the EU 13–14, 223–9
response to the crisis 2
legitimacy 98, 216, 229
Lehman Brothers 3
Lejiņš, Atis 121–5, 131, 133
Le Pen, Marine 166, 170, 206
Leruth, B. 226
Letta, Enrico 111–12
Levin-Coburn report (2011) 220
‘Lexit’ (left-exit) argument 196, 206, 217, 227
Libya 207
Lipponen, Paavo 144–5
Lipset S.M. 141
Lisbon Treaty 44, 78–9
Lordon, Frederic 201, 204
Louçã, Francisco 56
M5S (MoVimento Cinque Stelle, Italy) 12, 103–11, 116, 202–3, 222
and the challange of anti-politics 108–10
Maas, G. 14
Maastricht Treaty (1992) 23, 43, 160, 171
McCrone, D. 217, 227
McDonald, Mary Lou 78
McElvoy, A. 188
Macron, Emmanuel 13, 166–7, 170–2, 187–8, 200, 227
Mair, P. 219
Makarios, Archbishop 87, 89
manifestos of political parties 168–9, 197
March, Luke 128–9, 197, 218, 224
Marlière, P. 9
Martell, L. 1
Martins, Catarina 61
Marxist analysis 23–4, 94, 98, 160
Mason, J.W. 195, 205
Mélenchon, Jean-Luc 163–7, 170, 207
Memorandum of Understanding see MoU
Merkel, Angela 13, 34, 176–8, 181–3, 186–90
Meusen, W. 5
Miemiec, O. 187
Miley, T.J. 201
Milner, S. 169
minimum wage provisions 25, 127
Mitchell, W. 217, 221
Mitterrand, François 161
Monero, Manolo 202
monetarism 23
Monti, Mario 107–8, 111
Morgan, A. 71
MoU (Memorandum of Understanding)
with Cyprus 86, 91, 95
with Greece 19–21
with Portugal 54, 56, 59
Mouffe, Chantal 40
MoVimento Cinque Stelle (Italy) see M5S
Müller, W.C. 79
Murphy, Paul 75
Napolitano, Giorgio 111
Natale, Paolo 110
nationalisation of financial institutions 4
nationalism 36, 38, 44, 75, 78, 197, 207, 227
neoliberalism 13–14, 28–9, 43, 69, 71, 80, 91–4, 97, 120, 150–2, 160–2, 170, 182, 185, 202–6, 217, 227, 229
Netherlands 1
Newman, M. 218
Niinistö, Ville 144
Nordic model of the welfare state 148, 150
Northern Rock 3
O’Brien, T.L. 70
O’Toole, F. 69–70
Papandreou, George 4, 19
participation, democratic see democracy
Party of European Socialists see PES
party politics in Europe 219
PASOK (Panhellenic Socialist Movement, Greece) 18–20, 26, 89, 218
‘pasokification’ 221
Pasquino, G. 105, 108, 116
Paulson, Hank 4
PCF (Communist Party, France) 160–1, 168–9
PCP (Partido Comunista Português, Portugal) 51–3, 56–7, 60–1
PD (Partito Democratico della Sinistra, Italy) 103–5, 108–17
PES (Party of European Socialists) 60, 62, 116, 160, 225
PEV (Partido Ecologista ‘Os Verdes’, Portugal) 51–3
Pickett, Kate 226
‘PIGS’ 222
Piketty, Thomas 226
Pimenovs, Igors 130, 133
Pisani-Ferry, Jean 4
Pisapia, Giuliano 115
PNR (Partido Nacional Renovador, Portugal) 53
PNV (Partido Nacionalista Vasco, Spain) 38
Podemos (Spain) 35–45, 56, 75, 202, 204, 207, 222, 228
Poguntke, T. 218
populism 39, 61, 95, 109, 135, 152, 159, 172, 229
‘institutional’ 114
Portugal 11, 50–62, 108, 200, 220–2
Bloco de Esquerda see BE
Centro Democrático Social-Partido Popular see CDS
Constitution (1976) 51
deficit and debt statistics 55
election results 57
impact of crisis on the left 58–61
Partido Comunista Português see PCP
Partido Ecologista ‘Os Verdes’ see PEV
Partido Nacional Renovador see PNR
Partido Social Democrata see PSD
Partido Socialista see PS (Portugal)
socio-economic indicators 55
structure of the left in 50–4
Poutou, Philippe 163
PP (Partido Popular, Spain) 34–40
privatisation 95
Prodi, Romano 111
proportional representation 88
PS (Partido Socialista, Portugal) 11, 50–62
PS (Socialist Party, France) 12–13, 160–4, 167–72
PSD (Partido Social Democrata, Portugal) 51–6, 62
PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español, Spain) 33–45
Quinn, Ruairí 70
‘race to the bottom’ 151
radical left groups 9–10, 195, 197, 220, 228
in France 170–1
in Ireland 68, 72–6, 79–80
in Italy 104, 109
in Portugal 53–4, 58–62
Rajoy, Mariano 34–5, 39
Ramiro, L. 196–7
reformists 9
refugee crisis 133
regional political systems 219, 222
Renzi, Matteo 12, 103–4, 111–17
leadership of 112–14
reforms 114–16
Revoluzione Civile 104
Rokkan, S. 141
Rommerskirchen, C. 197
Ryner, M. 13, 201
Sánchez, Pedro 39–40, 42
Sarkozy, Nicolas 158, 162–5
Sassoon, D. 217
Sauger, N. 165
Schäuble, Wolfgang 187–9, 200
Schröder, Gerhard 177
Schulz, Martin 1, 21, 186, 199
Schulz, Swen 181
SDP (Social Democrats, Finland) 140–5, 149–52
Seguro, António 55
sinistrismo 50–1
Sinn Féin 69–75, 78–80, 222
Sipilä, Juha 147
Slovenia 196
social consequences of economic crisis 7
social democratic policies 9–10, 14, 45, 52, 58, 92, 97–8, 112, 120–1, 124–6, 129–32, 135, 143–8, 151–3, 198, 217, 220–3, 228
‘social Europe’ 61, 218, 229
social inequality 23
socialism 28
what the crisis means for 2
Sócrates, José 54–5
Soini, Timo 147
sovereign debt 4, 24–5, 34, 108, 178, 184, 216, 223
Spain 11, 33–45, 60, 108
Ciudadanos party 36–8, 44
Constitution 34
Convergencia i Unió see CiU
Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya see ERC
evolution of the left since 2008 33–6
indignados (or 15-M) movement 35–6, 41, 44
Izquierda Unida see IU
the left and the European project in 42–4
Partido Nacionalista Vasco see PNV
Partido Popular see PP
Partido Socialista Obrero Español see PSOE
political transformation in (2014–2016) 33
turning points in politics (2010 and 2011) 34
Unidos Podemos – United We Can see UP coalition
Unión Progreso y Democracia (UPyD) 35
see also Podemos
SPD (Social Democratic Party, Germany) 1, 13, 176–83, 186–8, 221
Speranza, Roberto 115
Stability and Growth Pact 24, 43, 56, 58, 169, 181
Startin, N. 226
Steinbrück, Peer 178
Stiglitz, Joseph 226
Streeck, Wolfgang 199, 202–3
Strøm, K. 79
Struck, Peter 178
Synaspismos (Coalition of Left and Progress, Greece) 18, 23, 26
SYRIZA (Greece) 10–11, 18–29, 43, 56, 75, 86, 199–205, 221–2, 228
emergence of 19
and the EU 28–9
response to the crisis 22–5
Tangentopoli trial 105
Tarchi, M. 114
Tavars, Edgars 131
taxation 25, 127, 151
Thessaloniki programme (2015) 25
‘Third Way’ policies 51, 104, 112, 114
Tóibín, Peadar 79
Tokatlian, J.G. 198
Trichet, Jean-Claude 107
Trittin, Jürgen 179
Trump, Donald 228
TSCG see Fiscal Compact
Tsipras, Alexis 20–2
Turkey 207
turnout at elections 107, 167
Underwood, S. 226
unemployment rates 8
Unger, R.M. 224
United Kingdom Independence Party 203
UP coalition (Unidos Podemos – United We Can, Spain) 37–41
Urbanovičs, Jānis 125, 129, 132
Ušakovs, Nils 125
Valbruzzi, M. 105, 108, 116
van Elsas, E. 196
Varoufakis, Yanis 21, 24, 198–203, 226
VAS (Left Alliance, Finland) 140–1, 144–5, 149–53
Vasilopoulos, P. 164
Wahl, Peter 199
water charges 74–5
Watkins, S. 206
Wilkinson, Richard 226
xenophobia 53
Zapatero, Rodríguez 34, 41–4
Zimmer, Gabriele 224–7
ZZS (Union of Greens and Farmers, Latvia) 131–4

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