Appendix 6
Conservative and Labour trajectories
in The British political elite and Europe, 1959–1984

Appendix 6
Conservative and Labour trajectories

Table 1

1975 referendum (Conservative)

Anthony Barber-
John BiffenAnti
John Biggs-DavisonPro
Edward du CannAnti
Hugh FraserPro
Geoffrey HowePro
Reginald MaudlingPro
John NottPro
Enoch PowellAnti
Nicholas RidleyPro
Peter TapsellPro
Margaret ThatcherPro
Peter WalkerPro

Table 2

1975 referendum (Labour)

Tony BennAnti
Tony Blair*Pro
James CallaghanPro
Anthony CroslandPro
Richard Crossman-
Patrick Gordon Walker-
Denis HealeyPro
Douglas JayAnti
Gerald KaufmanAnti
Neil KinnockAnti
Fred PeartPro
Reg PrenticePro
John PrescottAnti
John SilkinAnti
John SmithPro
Michael StewartPro
Eric VarleyAnti
Harold WilsonPro

* Although not yet a Member of Parliament, Blair voted Yes in the 1975 referendum (Young, 1999: 282)

Table 3

European Events (Conservative)

 ABCDEFGHIJ
Anthony BarberAntiProProProProProPro---
John Biffen-AntiAntiProProAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti
John Biggs-DavisonAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProPro
Edward du CannAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti
Hugh FraserAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProPro
Geoffrey HoweProProProProProProProProProPro
Reginald MaudlingAntiProProProProProProProPro-
John NottAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProPro-
Enoch PowellProProProProProAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti
Nicholas RidleyProProProProProProProProProPro
Peter TapsellProProProProProProProProProPro
Margaret ThatcherProProProProProProProProProPro
Peter Walker-AntiAntiProProProProProProPro

Key:

A = November 1959, formation of the EFTA

B = August 1961, UK, Denmark and Ireland request negotiations for EEC membership

C = January 1963, de Gaulle vetoes British entry into EEC

D = May 1967, UK reapplies to join EEC

E = November 1967, de Gaulle vetoes British entry into EEC for a second time

F = April 1969, de Gaulle resigns and is replaced by Pompidou

G = January 1973, First enlargement with UK, Denmark and Ireland joining EEC

H = March 1975, Dublin Summit – British renegotiations completed

I = June 1979, First direct elections to European Parliament

J = June 1984, Second direct elections to European Parliament

Table 4

European Events (Labour)

 ABCDEFGHIJ
Tony BennAntiAntiAntiProProProAntiAntiAntiAnti
Tony Blair---------Pro
James CallaghanAntiAntiAntiProProProAntiProProPro
Anthony CroslandProProProProProProProPro--
Richard CrossmanAntiAntiAntiProProProAnti---
Patrick Gordon WalkerAntiAntiAntiProProProAnti---
Denis HealeyAntiAntiAntiProProAntiAntiProProPro
Douglas JayAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti-
Gerald Kaufman------AntiAntiAntiPro
Neil Kinnock------AntiAntiAntiPro
Fred PeartAntiAntiAntiProProProAntiPro--
Reg PrenticeAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProPro
John Prescott------AntiAntiAntiPro
John Silkin--ProProProProAntiAntiAntiAnti
John Smith------ProProProPro
Michael StewartAntiAntiAntiProProProAntiProPro-
Eric Varley---AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti
Harold WilsonAntiAntiAntiProProProAntiProPro-

Key:

A = November 1959, formation of the EFTA

B = August 1961, UK, Denmark and Ireland request negotiations for EEC membership

C = January 1963, de Gaulle vetoes British entry into EEC

D = May 1967, UK reapplies to join EEC

E = November 1967, de Gaulle vetoes British entry into EEC for a second time

F = April 1969, de Gaulle resigns and is replaced by Pompidou

G = January 1973, First enlargement with UK, Denmark and Ireland joining EEC

H = March 1975, Dublin Summit – British renegotiations completed

I = June1979, First direct elections to European Parliament

J = June 1984, Second direct elections to European Parliament

Table 5

British Press on the issue of Europe 1959–1984

 EcoExpGuaHerMailMirNSSpeSunTelTimesTrib
1959ProAntiProProProProAntiPro-ProProAnti
1960ProAntiProProProProAntiPro-ProProAnti
1961ProAntiProProProProAntiPro-ProProAnti
1962ProAntiProProProProAntiPro-ProProAnti
1963ProAntiProProProProAntiPro-ProProAnti
1964ProAntiProProProProAntiProAntiProProAnti
1965ProAntiPro-ProProAntiProProProProAnti
1966ProAntiPro-ProProAntiProProProProAnti
1967ProAntiPro-ProProAntiProProProProAnti
1968ProAntiPro-ProProAntiProProProProAnti
1969ProAntiPro-ProProAntiAntiProProProAnti
1970ProAntiPro-ProProAntiAntiProProProAnti
1971ProAntiPro-ProProAntiAntiProProProAnti
1972ProProPro-ProProAntiProProProProAnti
1973ProProPro-ProProAntiAntiProProProAnti
1974ProProPro-ProProAntiAntiProProProAnti
1975ProProPro-ProProProAntiProProProAnti
1976ProProPro-ProProProAntiProProProAnti
1977ProProPro-ProProProProProProProAnti
1978ProProPro-ProProProProProProProAnti
1979ProProPro-ProProProProProProProAnti
1980ProProPro-ProProProProProProProAnti
1981ProProPro-ProProProProProProProAnti
1982ProProPro-ProProProProProProProAnti
1983ProProPro-ProProProProProProProAnti
1984ProProPro-ProProProProProProProAnti

Key:

Eco = Economist

Exp = Daily Express

Gua = Guardian

Her = Daily Herald**

Mail = Daily Mail

Mir = Daily Mirror

NS = New Statesman

Spe = The Spectator

Sun = The Sun*

Tel = Daily Telegraph

Times = The Times

Trib = Tribune

* The Sun first published 15 September 1964

** Daily Herald ceased publication 14 September 1964 and replaced by the Sun

Table 6

Public opinion on the issue of Europe 1959–1984

 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
1959--Pro 54---------
1960------------
1961-----Pro 46Pro 38Pro 48Pro 52Pro 48Pro 52Pro 53
1962-Pro 47-Pro 47Pro 53Pro 37Pro 42Pro 39Pro 46Pro 41Pro 42Pro 37
1963Pro 50Pro 42----Pro 46--Pro 46Pro 59Pro 42
1964-Anti 40Pro 42----Pro 41--Pro 44 
1965-Pro 48Pro 59Pro 57Pro 60Pro 55Pro 56-Pro 55-Pro 54Pro 60
1966Pro 66Pro 60Pro 59Pro 68Pro 70Pro 66Pro 61Pro 71Pro 70Pro 67Pro 65Pro 67
1967Pro 65Pro 61Pro 57-Pro 43Pro 40Anti 45-Anti 41Pro 46Anti 44Pro 43
1968-Anti 48----Anti 43-----
1969----Anti 44---Anti 58--Anti 45
1970-Anti 75Anti 57Anti 59-Anti 57-Anti 56-Anti 56-Anti 66
1971Anti 58Anti 62--Anti 59--Anti 47-Anti 51Pro 44Anti 47
1972-Pro 42-43/43Anti 45-Anti 51-Anti 42Anti 41-Anti 45
1973Pro 38--Anti 42Anti 45-Anti 44Anti 52Anti 49Anti 49Anti 48-
1974-Anti 58-Anti 51Anti 45Anti 53Anti 50Anti 53--Anti 46-
1975-Anti 50Anti 42Pro 43Pro 49Pro 64------
1976Pro 39
1977Anti 42
1978Anti 38
1979Pro 43
1980Anti 59
1981Anti 41
1982Anti 48
1983Pro 53
1984Pro 48

Yearly figures from 1976 to 1984 provided by Jowell and Witherspoon (1986)

The figure quoted is the highest: anti or pro

Table 7

Position taken by Conservative government/opposition 1959–1984

 1959–1964
Con
1964–1966
Lab
1966–1970
Lab
1970–1974
Con
Feb–Oct 1974
Lab
1974–1979
Lab
1979–1987
Con
1959Pro------
1960Pro------
1961Pro------
1962Pro------
1963Pro------
1964ProPro-----
1965ProPro-----
1966-ProPro----
1967--Pro----
1968--Pro----
1969--Pro----
1970--ProPro---
1971---Pro---
1972---Pro---
1973---Pro---
1974---ProProPro-
1975-----Pro 
1976-----Pro-
1977-----Pro-
1978-----Pro-
1979-----ProPro
1980------Pro
1981------Pro
1982------Pro
1983------Pro
1984------Pro

This table records the position taken by the Conservative leadership and Cabinet/Shadow Cabinet during periods in and out of office

Table 8

Position taken by Labour government/opposition 1959–1984

 1959–1964
Con
1964–1966
Lab
1966–1970
Lab
1970–1974
Con
Feb–Oct 1974
Lab
1974–1979
Lab
1979–1984
Con
1959Anti------
1960Anti------
1961Anti------
1962Anti------
1963Anti------
1964AntiAnti-----
1965-Anti-----
1966-Anti-----
1967--Pro----
1968--Pro----
1969--Pro----
1970--ProAnti---
1971---Anti---
1972---Anti---
1973---Anti---
1974---AntiProPro-
1975-----Pro-
1976-----Pro-
1977-----Pro-
1978-----Pro-
1979-----ProAnti
1980------Anti
1981------Anti
1982------Anti
1983------Anti
1984------Pro

This table records the position taken by the Labour leadership and Cabinet/Shadow Cabinet during periods in and out of office

Table 9

Conservative trajectories 1959–1984

 19591960196119621963196419651966196719681969197019711972197319741975197619771978197919801981198219831984
Anthony Barber
Member of Parliament 1951–1964 and 1965–1974
AntiAntiProProProProProProProProProProProProProPro----------
John Biffen
Member of Parliament 1961–1997
--AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti
John Biggs-Davison
Member of Parliament 1955–1988
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProProProProProProPro
Edward du Cann
Member of Parliament 1956–1987
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti
Hugh Fraser
Member of Parliament 1945–1984
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProProProProProProProProProPro
Geoffrey Howe
Member of Parliament 1964–1966 and 1970–1992
ProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProPro
Reginald Maudling
Member of Parliament 1950 until his death in 1979
AntiAntiProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProPro-----
John Nott
Member of Parliament 1966–1983
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProProProProProProProProPro-
Enoch Powell
Member of Parliament 1950–1987
ProProProProProProProProProProAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti
Reg Prentice
Conservative Member of Parliament 1979–1987
-----------------ProProProProProPro
Nicholas Ridley
Member of Parliament 1959–1993
ProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProPro
Peter Tapsell
Member of Parliament 1959–1964 and 1966–2015
ProProProProProPro-ProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProPro
Margaret Thatcher
Member of Parliament 1959–1990
ProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProPro
Peter Walker
Member of Parliament 1961–1992
--AntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProPro

Table 10

Labour trajectories 1959–1984

 19591960196119621963196419651966196719681969197019711972197319741975197619771978197919801981198219831984
1966
Jan-Mar
1966
Apr-Dec
Jan to May 1970Jun to Dec 1970Jan to May 1971June to Dec 1971
Tony Benn
Member of Parliament 1950–1983 and 1984–2000
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti
Tony Blair
Member of Parliament 1983–2007
----------------Pro-----AntiAntiPro
James Callaghan
Member of Parliament 1945–1987
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProProProAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProProProProProProProPro
Anthony Crosland
Member of Parliament 1950–1955 and 1959 until his death in 1977
ProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProProPro-------
Richard Crossman
Member of Parliament 1945 until his death in 1974
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProAntiAntiAntiAntiPro----------
Patrick Gordon Walker
Member of Parliament 1945–1964 and 1966–1974
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProProAntiAntiAnti----------
Denis Healey
Member of Parliament 1952–1992
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProAntiAntiAntiProProAntiAntiAntiProProProProProProProAntiAntiAntiPro
Douglas Jay
Member of Parliament 1946–1983
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti-
Gerald Kaufman
Member of Parliament 1970–2017
-----------AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProPro
Neil Kinnock
Member of Parliament 1970–1995
-----------AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiPro
Fred Peart
Member of Parliament 1945–1976
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProAntiAntiAntiAntiProProPro--------
Reg Prentice
Labour Member of Parliament 1957–1978
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProPro------
John Prescott
Member of Parliament 1970–2010
-----------AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiPro
John Silkin
Member of Parliament 1963–1987
----ProProProProProProProAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti
John Smith
Member of Parliament 1970 until his death in 1994
-----------ProProProProProProProProProProProProProProPro
Michael Stewart
Member of Parliament 1945–1979
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProProAntiAntiProProProProProPro-----
Eric Varley
Member of Parliament 1964–1984
-----AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAnti
Harold Wilson
Member of Parliament 1945–1983
AntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProAntiAntiAntiAntiProProProProProProProProPro-

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