Index
in Britain and Africa in the twenty-first century

Index

0.7 % aid spending pledge 6, 21, 27, 29
changing the rules of definition 4, 29
Conservative Party policy on 92, 123, 1245, 133, 135, 149, 1645, 216
Labour Party policy on 132, 140, 144, 1469
Liberal Democrat Party policy on 129, 216
0.7% aid target 1236, 129, 132, 140, 142, 1449, 168, 192
9/11 4, 55, 57, 60
Abbott, Diane 1434, 151
ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States) 36, 389, 41, 469, 188, 218
ACPP (Africa Conflict Prevention Pool) 63
African agency 7, 8, 141, 209, 221
African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States see ACP
Africanisation of poverty 6, 7, 198
African Peace and Security Architecture see APSA
‘African Solutions to African Problems’ 545, 57, 60, 623, 215, 221
African Standby Force see ASF
African Union see AU
African Union Mission in Somalia see AMISOM
African Union Mission in Sudan see AMIS
aid
aid securitisation 74,779, 80, 83, 86, 889, 92
aid ties 357, 45
democratisation aid 789, 823, 86
development aid 737, 912, 94, 144, 168
importance of aid 201
tying to trade agreements 42, 489
UK aid 73, 7980, 82, 86, 1324, 153, 217
UK aid to Africa 4, 56, 131, 215
UK contributions to EU Development Assistance 1523, 218
Alexander, Douglas 22, 152
al–Shabaab 62
Alternative Trade Mandate 186
AMIS (African Union Mission in Sudan) 58
AMISOM (African Union Mission in Somalia) 59, 67
Amos, Baroness Valerie 22
Ancram, Michael 124, 125
anti-corruption 81, 86, 89, 93, 143, 150
anti-poaching 17, 26
APSA (African Peace and Security Architecture) 545, 589, 623, 68, 215, 218, 221
UK support for 623
‘arc of instability’ 134, 152
ASF (African Standby Force) 59, 63
AU (African Union) 9, 48, 54, 559, 627, 86, 111, 215
AU Mission in Burundi 63
Baldwin, Harriet 28
Belgium
and 1960 Katanga secession 101
Benn, Hilary 22, 73
‘beyond aid’ 1468
bilateral aid review
(2011) 132
(2016) 134
Blair Government (UK)
and 2000 military intervention in Sierra Leone 57, 106
and ‘African Solutions to African Problems’ 545, 57, 623, 215
and securitisation of development 545, 60, 73, 75, 77
Blair, Tony 16, 213, 25, 40, 549, 60, 63, 68, 106, 122, 1247, 1424, 147, 150, 164, 182, 198, 209, 2145, 217
BOAG (British Overseas Aid Group) 172, 176
Boko Haram 62
counter-insurgency and UK support 62
BOND (British Overseas NGOs for Development) 167, 174
Boxing Day Tsunami (2004) 126
BPST (British Peace Support Team)
East Africa 26, 63
South Africa 26
Brahimi Report (Report of the Panel on UN Peace Operations, 2000) 105
Brexit 1524
implications for UK–Africa trade 3550, 153, 18990, 192, 216
implications for UK aid allocations 153
Brexiteer 359, 401, 435, 48, 189, 217, 218, 220
Brexit referendum (2016) 1, 3, 25, 55
impact on David Cameron 25
impact on UK–Africa trade relationship 5, 8, 15, 16, 20, 289, 44, 2189
impact on UK engagement with peacekeeping in Africa 67
British Overseas Aid Group see BOAG
British Overseas NGOs for Development see BOND
British Peace Support Team see BPST
Brown, Gordon 3, 4, 5, 6, 23, 40, 68, 76, 122, 127, 13940, 141, 149, 167, 209, 214
Brown Government (UK)
and ‘African Solutions to African Problems’ 54, 63
and securitisation of development 54, 59, 63, 68, 92
budget support 22, 151
Burundi 63
CAFOD (Catholic Agency for Overseas Development) 183
Cameron, David6, 256, 55, 60, 121, 130, 134, 141, 146, 151, 164, 1669, 1745, 182, 214
and 2011 UK intervention in Libya 65
and AMISOM 62
and Nelson Mandela 25, 132
speech in Lagos (2011) 1301
visit to Nigeria 25
visit to South Africa 25
visits to Africa 12730
Cameron Government (2015–16) (UK)
continuity with New Labour Government policy on Africa 133, 164
Free Trade Initiative 61
and the ‘national interest’ in UK–Africa policy 111, 123, 133
and securitisation of development 73, 75, 77
Cameroon
limited UK strategic interests in 79, 80, 86
UK aid programmes in 74, 824, 92
CAR (Central African Republic)
limited UK strategic interests in 79, 82, 86
UK aid programmes in 74, 824, 92
CARE International 202
Catholic Agency for Overseas Development see CAFOD
Central African Republic see CAR
CfA (Commission for Africa) 16, 223, 60, 61, 131, 164, 187
Chad 28, 58, 62, 65, 69
charitable appeals 163, 197
China 23, 41, 112, 130, 214
Christian Aid 186
civil society organisations see CSOs
Cleverly, James 37
Coalition Government (UK) 21, 245, 27, 30, 55, 59, 612, 83, 86, 889, 93, 113, 1223, 12931, 146, 162, 164, 174, 181, 191, 209, 215
continuity with New Labour Government policy on Africa 21617, 219
and deploying to UN peacekeeping missions in Africa 59, 62
and the ‘national interest’ in UK–Africa policy 59, 61
and securitisation of development 61, 74
UK Aid: Tackling Global Challenges in the National Interest (2015) 4, 76
Coffey International 91
Comic Relief 198, 201
Commission for Africa see CfA
Common Agricultural Policy 44, 150, 186
Commonwealth 8, 29, 30, 3540, 44, 489, 56, 100, 113, 145, 217
Heads of Government Meetings 29
increased prominence under Conservatives 124
Comoros63
Congo, Republic of 65, 69
Conservative Party (UK) 6, 656, 12135, 164, 168, 203, 216, 219
compassionate Conservatism 122, 129, 131, 135
‘detoxification’ 123, 167
manifesto (2001) 124
manifesto (2010) 164
manifesto (2017) 4, 29, 113, 144, 149
Party Conference
(2004) 125
(2011) 131
(2015) 66
(2016) 134
party modernisation 1224, 127
place of Africa in international development policy 1, 162
Cook, Robin 57, 151
and ‘ethical foreign policy’ 57
Corbyn, Jeremy 1435, 151
Creagh, Mary 1435, 147, 150, 153
CSOs (civil society organisations) 1, 6, 86, 145, 186, 197, 217, 218, 220, 221
Cyprus
UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus 102, 104
Daily Mail
and Girl Effect Ethiopia 90
Darfur crisis 58, 126
AU peacekeeping 58, 63
UK engagement 58
DFID (Department for International Development) 16, 20, 212, 24, 278, 424, 49, 65, 7394, 1334, 140, 144, 151, 1689, 1989
outsourcing 27
relative growth compared to FCO 20, 24
staff cuts 24
support to Deepening Democracy programme in Uganda 91
support to Girl Effect Ethiopia project 89, 90, 93
support to SSR in Kenya 901, 93
diaspora 15, 16, 17
and 2001 UK Census 16
African living in UK 1618, 31
and British electoral politics 17
impact on UK economy 17, 18
impact on UK politics 15
impact on UK services 17, 18
and remittances to Sub-Saharan Africa 17
and UK electoral constituencies 17
Djibouti 28, 63
donors (Western aid)
and fragile states 77, 151
funding to democratisation programmes 77
security interests of 73, 77
Douglas-Home Government (UK) 56
Duddridge, James 61, 67
Duncan, Alan 126
Duncan Smith, Iain 1236, 131
EASF (East African Standby Force) 59, 63
East Africa famine 201
East African Standby Force see EASF
EBA (Everything But Arms) 40, 41
Ebola crisis 60, 134, 150
Economic Community of West African States see ECOWAS
Economic Partnership Agreements see EPAs
ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) 59, 63
Eden, Anthony 101
EFIF (Enough Food If) campaign 6, 1614, 1669, 1705, 219, 220
‘Big If’ rally 169
Ellwood, Tobias 39
‘Empire 2.0’ 39, 40, 43, 45
Enough Food If see EFIF
EPAs (Economic Partnership Agreements) 29, 38, 423, 46, 489, 50, 186, 1889, 190, 216, 218, 2201
Eritrea 63
Ethiopia 246, 28, 63, 65, 74, 7980
UK aid programmes in 74, 804, 92
UK strategic interests in 79
EU (European Union)
development assistance 67, 218
EU–AU Summits 28, 66, 218
EU membership referendum (2016) 122, 133, 135
European Commission 35, 37, 46, 49, 188
Everything But Arms see EBA
fair trade 126, 148, 1814
Fairtrade Foundation 183
Fallon, Michael 62, 111
farm subsidies
US and EU 127
FCO (Foreign and Commonwealth Office) 20, 224, 279, 39, 134, 152, 217
budget and staff cuts 24
diplomatic missions and high commissions closed 234, 31
diplomatic missions and high commissions (re-)opened 20, 24
prosperity officers 24
FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) 19, 20, 29, 179
financial crisis (2008) 7, 9, 162, 168, 197
impact on NGO fundraising 197, 202
Foreign and Commonwealth Office see FCO
Foreign Direct Investment see FDI
Fox, Liam 28, 358, 43, 45, 49
fragile states 73, 757, 143, 1512, 217
France 19, 289, 31, 66, 67, 100, 102, 108, 112, 218
free trade 379, 425, 47, 49, 61, 126, 1812, 188, 191, 2178
G8 2, 21, 22, 60, 1668, 1702, 175, 187
Genoa summit (2001) 21
Gleneagles summit (2005) 2, 187
Lough Erne Declaration 169
Lough Erne summit (2013) 167, 172
Gardiner, Barry 190
Gates, Bill 149, 167, 169, 174
Geldof, Bob 203
Generalised System of Preferences see GSP
Germany 16
Ghana 24, 29, 39, 42, 44, 59, 63
Girl Effect Ethiopia 89, 90, 93
Global Britain 48, 49, 50
Global Justice Now 186
Global War on Terror 2, 4
‘golden thread’ 76, 141, 164, 168, 174
Gove, Michael 35
Greening, Justine 75, 132, 147
GSP (Generalised System of Preferences) 41
Hague, William 25, 27, 1235, 132
Hammerskjöld, Dag 101
Hammond, Phillip 25, 28, 42
Hannan, Daniel 38, 40, 43
Harman, Harriet 142, 147
Houghton, Sir Nicholas 110
Howard, Michael 123, 1257
human rights 4, 57, 76, 81, 86, 88, 140, 144
and aid conditionality 1501, 1445
and budget support 151
ICAI (Independent Commission for Aid Impact) 88, 91, 93
review of Girl Effect Ethiopia (2012) 89
review of UK security and justice programmes (2015) 91
Independent Commission for Aid Impact see ICAI
International Aid Transparency Initiative 88
International Military Advisory and Training Team 26
Investor–State Dispute Settlement 189
Ireland
training of Malian Army 110
Japan 16, 19
Johnson, Boris 28, 359, 45, 49, 134
using UK aid budget to support foreign policy aims 73
Jubilee (2000) 40, 1712, 180, 185
Kenya 4, 239, 30, 56, 66, 903
election violence (2010–11) 23
military training relationship with UK 26
UK aid programmes in 74, 804, 86, 92
UK strategic interests in 79
Ki-moon, Ban 108
Labour Campaign for International Development see LCID
Labour Party (UK) 56, 9, 21, 55, 57, 124, 126, 135, 13954, 182, 190, 216, 219, 220
Labour Party manifesto
(2005) 149
(2010) 149
Labour Party in opposition
manifesto (2015) 1435, 150
manifesto (2017) 4, 29, 113, 145, 149, 150, 152
National Policy Forum 142, 1445, 1479, 150, 152
policymaking on Africa 139, 1401, 147, 150, 1523
policy reviews 142, 154
and Universal Health Care 143, 145, 147
place of Africa in international development policy 1, 162
land grabbing 168, 170, 172
LCID (Labour Campaign for International Development) 1478
Lewis, Ivan 1423, 145, 147
campaign for early years SDG target 145
LGBT rights 150
Libyan intervention 25
Live Aid 1989, 203
Lomé Convention 39, 47
Macron, Emmanuel 15
Make Poverty History see MPH
Mandela, Nelson 25, 56, 1278, 132
May Government (UK) 28, 55, 1335, 214, 218
May, Theresa 4, 26, 289, 66, 123, 145, 174
MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) 22, 132
Miliband, David 23
Miliband, Ed 1423, 152
Millennium Development Goals see MDGs
Ministry of Defence see MoD
Mitchell, Andrew 4, 123, 1279, 130, 132, 134, 139, 141
MoD (Ministry of Defence)
and UNAMSIL 106, 107
MONUC (UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo) 108
UK refusal to deploy troops as part of EU battlegroup 108
moral economy 357, 40, 42, 445, 47, 49
MPH (Make Poverty History) coalition 6, 9, 126, 1613, 166, 1712, 180, 184, 1868, 1912, 198, 200, 203, 207, 219
Mugabe, Robert 20, 56, 1245, 130, 205
Mullin, Chris 5
Multilateral Aid Review (2011) 132
Murphy, Jim 1434, 1502
national interest(s) 5, 61, 11112, 123, 127, 130, 1325, 147, 217
economic growth 147, 151
migration 16, 17, 147
security 147, 148, 152
National Security Council see NSC
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) 25, 30, 65, 102, 113, 134, 145
neo-colonialism 35, 412, 46, 56, 130
new ‘scramble for Africa’ 130
NGOs (non-governmental organisations) 74, 89, 141, 143, 148, 1627, 169, 1725, 179, 1801, 1846, 188, 1902, 1968, 2004, 207, 209, 216, 2189, 2201
NGO campaigns
cosmopolitanism 200, 208
representation of Africans 1969, 2012, 204, 207, 209
representation of children 196, 197, 199
representations of poverty 1978
trade off between fundraising and engagement 204, 208
Nigeria 1518, 246, 28, 30, 62, 130
and trade 27, 29
Nkrumah, Kwame 423, 46
non-governmental organisations see NGOs
non-reciprocal trade 47, 49, 188
non-tariff barriers 41
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation see NATO
NSC (National Security Council) 27, 28
Obama, Barack 65, 110, 112
ONUC (UN Mission to the Congo) 1003
Operation Palliser 2, 106
see also Sierra Leone
Osamor, Kate 1445, 148, 151
Oxfam 7, 124, 163, 183, 186, 1967, 2057, 209
‘See for Yourself’ campaign 2047, 220
Patel, Priti 28, 36, 42, 1334, 144, 218
peacekeeping 5, 125
UK assessed contributions 9
UK contribution in Somalia 59, 133
UK contribution in South Sudan 133
UK contributions to AU peacekeeping 9, 55, 68
UK contributions to UN peacekeeping 21, 26, 29, 62, 215
UK engagement in capacity building for 26
UK support for/contributions to peacekeeping in Africa 55, 59
UN peacekeeping 111
UN peacekeeping and UK engagement with 8, 104, 107, 130
Peace Support Operation(s) see PSO(s)
Pettifor, Ann 185
‘pornography of poverty’ 198
private sector 132
role in development 134
Project Umubano 136
prosperity partnerships 24, 61
PSO(s) (Peace Support Operation(s)) 63, 105
Radi-Aid awards 201
RECs (Regional Economic Communities) 36, 46, 48, 50
ring-fencing of aid budget 135
rising powers 130
Rwandan Genocide 5
impact on UK peacekeeping approaches 104, 105
SADC (Southern African Development Community) 46, 59, 63
Sahel
UK engagement with 26, 28, 29, 62
Save the Children 124, 163, 166, 202
scrutiny of aid 132, 134
see also ICAI
SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) 7, 27, 140, 145, 147, 153, 189
Seattle to Brussels Network 186
securitisation 2, 55, 60, 73, 74
of aid 7980, 83, 86, 889, 92, 94, 144, 148, 217
of development 75, 77, 94
Security Sector Reform see SSR
Short, Clare 22
Sierra Leone 16, 21, 26, 28, 57, 1057, 10910, 113, 124, 139
2000 UK military intervention (Operation Palliser) 2, 106
Ebola 16
UNAMSIL and UK intervention 106
Solana, Javier 108
Somalia 15, 16, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 55, 62, 66, 67, 99, 105, 113, 133, 135, 203, 216
failed UN operations in and impact on UK peacekeeping approaches 26, 99
UK contribution to UNSOS 11011
UK support for AMISOM 59, 67
Somalia Summits 24, 59
(2012) 24, 62, 67
(2013) 24
(2017) 24, 28, 62
South Africa 25, 279, 56, 61, 63, 1278, 130, 132
and trade 1819, 24
Southern African Development Community see SADC
South Sudan
UK contribution to UNMISS 11011
SSR (Security Sector Reform)
DFID support for in Kenya 901, 93
Stewart, Rory 28, 135
Stop EPAs campaign 186, 188
Straw, Jack 23, 61
Suez Crisis
and UK international relations 100, 104
and UK politics 1001
supply chains 143, 145, 183
Sustainable Development Goals see SDGs
Tanzania 24, 29, 56, 216
tax evasion 145, 148, 151, 163, 1689
tax reform 170
TJM (Trade Justice Movement) 6, 1809, 1902, 217, 219, 2201
founding statement 180, 182, 185
mass lobby of parliament 180
trade
independent UK policy 37, 45, 49, 189, 190, 192, 216
special and differential treatment for developing countries 179
and UK–Africa relationship 4, 8, 42, 217
Trade envoys 24
Trade Justice Movement see TJM
Traidcraft 182
TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) 184, 186, 189
Uganda 18, 28, 63, 104
UK aid programmes in 74, 8183, 89, 92
UK strategic interests in 7980, 83
UK support to Deepening Democracy programme 912, 93
UN Development Programme and democracy building programmes in 91
UK Africa Strategy (2018) 15, 21, 26, 28, 30
UK exports to Sub-Saharan Africa 1819
UK public attitudes 1967
to Africa/Africans 163, 199, 200, 202, 2089
to aid spending 204
to poverty 197
UK trade balance with Sub-Saharan Africa 1819
UN (United Nations)
Report of the High-Level Independent Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2015) 109
see also peacekeeping
UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda) 104
UNAMSIL (United Nations Assistance Mission in Sierra Leone) 1067
UN Economic Commission for Africa 2201
UNEF I (United Nations Emergency Force) 100
UK engagement with 100, 103
UNMISS (United Nations Mission in South Sudan) 11011
UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo see MONUC
UN Mission to the Congo see ONUC
UNPROFOR (United Nations Protection Force) 104
UK contribution to 104, 105
UNSC (United Nations Security Council) 15, 16, 64, 99, 101, 103, 104, 112
UK scepticism of 102
UK engagement with on peacekeeping 1089
UNSOS (United Nations Support Office in Somalia) 11011
USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) 4, 102
and 1960–65 Congo Crisis 103
visas 29
War in Iraq 21, 23, 25, 108, 142
War on Want 186
workers’ rights 1435
World Trade Organization (WTO) 40, 179, 186, 188
Cancún Ministerial 187, 188
Doha Round 181
Hong Kong Ministerial 183
Seattle Ministerial 179
Zimbabwe 1517, 20, 23, 29, 56, 1245, 1301, 139, 150, 2056

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Britain and Africa in the twenty-first century

Between ambition and pragmatism

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