Index
in Descending with angels

Index

Aarhus 3, 15, 55, 188
Aarhus University Hospital in Risskov 3, 28, 35, 85, 125, 132
Abraham 6–9, 113, 115, 123–4, 131, 134n2, 141, 154, 159
absence 11, 132, 141–2, 180
absurd 6, 89, 110, 116, 123
strength of the absurd 105, 107, 109, 179
actors 84, 87, 128–9, 143
aesthetics 2, 23, 67, 71, 74, 148, 156, 179–81, 186
Afghanistan 16, 43, 55–6
Afghan 38, 41
afterlife 37–8, 40, 71, 183
agency
and habitus 111n2
of the invisible 20–1, 23, 48, 141
and pain 87–8
of patients 84, 86, 110
and sacrifice 123
and voices 96
agent
and God 116, 131, 145
invisible or external 1, 21, 93, 109–10, 114, 133, 171
and patient 83–4, 88
and placebo 92
psychotropic or chemical 29, 146, 158
ākhira 38
see also afterlife
al-Baṣīr (the All-Seeing) 9, 141
al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad 27n1, 134n3
al-Jawziyah, Ibn Qayyim 111n1, 127
al-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm (the straight path) 7, 80, 152
Aleph 166–8, 186
alliance
in psychiatry 41
with jinn 58
alterity 10, 33, 35, 72, 156, 158, 182, 185–6
amāna 51
ambiguity 46, 69, 73, 83, 120, 172
amrāḍ nafsiyya 130
angels
Archangel Gabriel 155
Harut and Marut 153–4
and images 90, 131
and jinn 7, 20, 38–40, 59–61, 65
and prayer 40, 79, 183
and raindrops 8, 51
aniconism 111n4
anthropology 24, 28, 32, 49, 52, 53n2, 62–3, 65, 70, 83–4, 114, 167, 169, 174, 186
of Islam 21
medical 86, 128
structural 4, 22, 129
visual 23, 57, 71
antidepressants 99, 109, 120–1, 147
antipsychotics 29, 31, 41, 98–9, 109, 120, 126, 145, 147, 150, 169, 173
anxiety 19, 34, 41, 107, 121–2, 161, 163n3
Arabic (language) xiv, xvi, xviii, 1, 19, 44, 55–6, 79, 82–3, 103, 116–17, 122, 163n5
arrogance (kibr) 37, 61, 177
art 89, 158, 174–5, 179, 182, 184, 189
Islamic 111n4, 142, 144
Asad, Talal 17, 27n2, 49, 88, 111n2, 114, 128–9
authority 47, 57, 93–4, 96–7, 101, 111n3, 161
autonomy 21, 85–6, 96, 108, 128, 132, 159, 178
illusion or fantasy 88, 115, 129–30, 133, 158, 162, 171, 179
ʿaqīda 69, 188
ʿaql 128, 130
Ayat al-Kursi 152
Bateson, Gregory 72, 174–5
Bazin, André 67
belief 4, 6, 50, 125, 127, 142, 189
and biomedicine 42, 114, 170, 172
closed system of 47–8
disbelief 3, 53n2, 75, 89
irrational, superstitious, or occult 33, 38, 41
and secularism 21, 49
and the time-image 143, 179
and unbelief 68–9
Benjamin, Walter 70, 180, 182, 185–6
Bible (Genesis 22) 6, 134n2
biomedical industry 107, 109, 120, 171–3
biomedicine
authority of 161
effects of 99, 107, 151
efficacy of 41–2, 106, 114, 172
and God 88, 115, 145, 156, 170, 182
bipolar disorder 19, 95, 146, 187
Blanchot, Maurice 72
blasphemy 13
blood
circulation of 130, 166
and fat 149, 151
and ḥijāma 91–2, 94
and jinn 40, 81, 90, 138–9, 168, 189
and sacrifice 115
tests 29, 148
Boddy, Janice 34, 87, 178
body
decay of 126
ego and nafs 129–31
evil or destruction 93, 133
and experience 9, 11, 50–1, 75, 159
and filmmaking 25, 63, 178
of Job 86
of knowledge 47, 147–8
and medicine 29, 43, 99, 146, 150, 173
of the patient 17, 70–1, 124, 140, 171
possessed 48, 56, 58–60, 65, 74, 141
Borberg, Hjarn von Zernichow 27n5
Borges, Jorge Luis 166–7
Bosnia, Bosnian 44, 47, 51, 64, 82, 90, 103–4, 187
boundaries 74, 119–20, 158
Bourdieu, Pierre 111n2
brain 5, 20, 39, 45, 128, 131, 138
and medicine 43, 108, 122, 126, 146, 158
Buddhism 33, 42
calculation 115, 129
Callan, Alyson 84–6, 88, 98, 128, 171
camera 18, 40, 56–7, 59, 65–7, 70, 73–4, 117, 152–3, 180
as anthropologist 25–6
and the invisible 2, 62–3
perception of 23–4, 68
and tripods 174–6
camouflage 151
capitalism
capital interests 173
capitalist society or system 142, 183–5
caress 73, 171
cartoons (of Prophet) 17–18
Castaing-Taylor, Lucien 23, 62–3, 73
catharsis 119
certainty
display of 75, 98
and doubt 63, 68, 103, 140
epistemic 6
and uncertainty 101, 110
certitude
absolute 75
and doubt 89, 170, 174
and faith 9, 101, 109, 124, 126, 156
and medicine 173
moment of 101
see also īmān; yaqīn
characters of Descending with angels xi–xiii
Christianity 2, 6, 13, 94, 101, 118, 162
and jinn 34, 45, 56, 82
cinema 25, 42, 74, 143, 157–9, 162, 170, 186
and montage 2, 67, 70, 140, 144, 168, 181
observational 23, 63, 65, 68
and ritual 145, 179–80
cinema fist 140, 142, 144
cinéma verité 25
citizen 13, 18, 84–5
citizenship 14, 42
clarity 20, 69, 74
coercion 128, 132
collaboration 3, 38, 85, 107
collaborator 36, 39, 84–5, 132
commodity fetishism 172
commonalities
human 63, 65–6, 70
and healing 2, 113
comparison 93–4, 120, 142, 144, 151
compliance 41–2, 97, 110
complicity 40, 105, 124
compound 130, 140
compulsion 132
Congo 56–7, 59
consciousness 19, 24, 45, 72, 75, 86–7, 95, 134n5 143, 156, 174
false 4, 34, 110
loss of 79, 84, 97–8, 190
perceptual 7, 73
self-consciousness 159
submission of 6, 68, 123, 151, 158, 161
and waswās 40
constructivism 39, 49, 70, 101
contagion 18
control
beyond, uncontrollable, lack of 2, 10, 22, 26, 43, 83, 105, 110, 160
Controller, the 115, 155
Controlling the Voices 95–6
and freedom 128–33
magic and jinn 30, 79, 104
mind control (sindelagskontrol) 13
psychiatry and medicine 42, 44, 85, 92, 97, 99, 146
correspondence 23, 60–1, 68
see also film; reality
corruption 7, 13, 55, 89, 176–7, 185
creation 21, 49–50, 105
creativity
creative potential of editing 71, 175
divine 144–5
human 22–3, 74, 84, 130, 158, 182, 186
self-creativity 128–9, 133, 142
crime 14–15, 27n4, 55
criticism, critique
and debates about integration 17–18
deconstructivist 101
of dialectical reasoning 111n8, 158
ethnographic film or montage 23, 63, 71, 142
iconoclasm or aniconism 102, 111n4
psychiatry and exorcism 15, 89, 92, 97–100, 114, 120–1, 173, 119–20, 172, 174
of religion 33–4, 49
of structuralism 129
Csordas, Thomas 113–14, 128–9, 133
culture
cross-cultural 113
cultural construction 28, 129
cultural difference 24, 62–3, 65, 93, 109
cultural stereotypes 181
cultural unity 35
Danish 119
and Muslims, non-Western 16–17, 43, 71, 86
and religion 33, 84
transcultural patients 15
cupping (ḥijāma) 91–2
cure 2–3, 97, 126, 142, 150
traditional 96
danger
of doubt, hypocrisy 68–9, 104–5
of heresy 141
images and magic 91, 101, 103
invisibility or otherness 12, 35
jinn or exorcism 3, 52, 99, 122, 151, 171, 189
of montage 186
and psychotropic medicine 43, 46, 100, 120, 127, 132, 161
of self-righteousness 177, 185
Danish
jinn 56
language 42, 82, 103, 176
media 14–15, 121
Muslims 17–18
population 12, 16
psychiatry 2, 20, 36, 46, 83–6, 100, 111n5, 115, 129–32, 145–6, 158, 170–1, 182, 184
public school 6, 13, 55
and secularism 79, 94
welfare state, system, or society 3, 19, 27n5, 43–4, 99, 178
darkness 12, 51
daʿwa 36
de Beauvoir, Simone 159
de Silentio, Johannes 89, 105–7, 109–10, 123–4, 159
death 13, 18, 21, 38, 45, 61, 99, 114, 120, 123, 126, 134n3, 158, 166, 184
deconstruction 74, 107
defacement 89, 92, 94, 102–3, 105, 109, 111n8, 111n9, 114, 168, 170
refacement 109, 111n9, 114
Deleuze, Gilles 49, 53n2, 71, 72–4, 133, 140, 142–5, 148, 155, 158–9, 168, 179–83, 185–6
delusion 41, 61, 99, 116, 125, 127, 129, 147, 150
democracy 16–18
demon 37, 43, 151–2
denial 12, 40, 49, 149–50, 157, 163n4, 186
Denmark 1, 3, 12–21, 29, 32, 35–6, 42–4, 55–6, 65, 79, 85, 94, 99, 114, 116, 163n3, 189–90
see also Danish
depression 19–21, 92, 107, 109, 121–2, 146–7, 160, 162, 163n3, 187
desire 4, 12, 16, 27n1, 61, 86, 128, 130–1, 163n4, 167
destiny 21, 160, 183
destruction 11–12, 21, 35, 47–8, 90, 109, 115, 123, 133, 171–2, 185, 187
idols or images 48, 89, 102, 168
devil 37, 39, 172
devils’ whispering (waswās) 19, 40, 51–2, 79, 86, 122, 131, 139, 176
devotion 6, 16, 48, 66–7, 69, 102, 114, 180
Dewey, John 83
dhikr 26n1, 183
diagnosis
Islam and integration 17
jinn possession 90, 103, 117, 156, 163n7
making visible 21, 89, 101–2
psychiatric 3, 42, 46, 95, 107, 132, 170, 173
self-diagnosis 41, 47, 84–6, 88
disruption
film and montage 68, 71–2, 74–5, 179, 181–2, 185–6
in healing 1–2, 86, 88, 133, 169
dissimulation 110, 111n9
distance
and the other 27n1, 39, 49, 95
in visual perception 8, 178
in worship 48, 142
documentary 18, 63, 73
documentation 18, 25–6, 57, 143, 170, 175
double-sidedness 104
doubt
faith or certitude 48–50, 68, 79, 89–90, 94, 105–7, 109, 122–4, 140, 152, 160, 167–9, 173–4
and healing 46, 75, 96, 101
and images 63, 91, 103
and medicine 42, 121, 147, 170
and shayṭān 37, 39–40, 139
see also shakk
dreams 7, 28, 69, 113, 124, 169
ruʾyā 50
see also nightmare
Drieskens, Barbara 45, 80
drugs
addiction 44, 99
dealing 55
and placebo 106
psychiatric 19, 29, 46, 101, 107–8, 115, 126, 132, 150–1, 169, 174, 187
and side effects 42, 121, 146–7
duʿāʾ 37, 52, 66, 183
dunyā 36–7, 100
duration, cinema of 23, 67
Durkheim, Émile 33, 47–8
ear 82–3, 124, 141, 188
efficacy
of biomedicine 41–2, 114, 121, 173
doubt and faith 46, 106, 109, 190
and free choice 132
magical 48
ego 11, 116, 119–21, 127, 129–31, 144
Egypt, Egyptian 2–3, 34–5, 45, 79–80, 87, 111n7, 156
Eisenstein, Sergei 67–8, 70–1, 140, 142–4, 181
El-Kholy, Heba 34, 178
Eli Lilly 146, 163n2, 163n3, 173
emancipation 128, 133, 144, 167, 182, 185
emotion
emotional arousal and stabilisation 127–9, 156
emotional response 66, 131, 146
Enlightenment 13–14, 23, 49
envy (ḥasad) 37, 61, 90–1, 93, 134n2
epilepsy 79, 187, 190
see also ṣarʿ
ethics 10, 12, 44, 60, 62, 72, 99, 123–4, 168, 171–2, 186
ethical dispositions or sensitivities 66, 68, 98, 131
ethical formation 87
ethnographic film 23, 55, 62, 71, 174, 181, 186
Europe
and jinn 79
Muslims in 2, 17–18
Protestantism or Enlightenment 13, 49, 93
Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 33, 47–8, 115
evidence
of angels and jinn 59–60, 64
and critique of Islamic healing 94
and psychotropic medicine 42, 107, 120, 134n4, 141, 170, 172–3
visual 58, 61, 65, 69, 72, 101, 185
evil
eye 3, 29, 79, 90–1, 122
see also envy
and good 61, 93–6
and psychiatry 99–100, 172
and the self 130
example
case, evidence, or illustration 58, 65–6, 70–1
good and bad 61, 67, 74
of jinn possession 56–7, 64
model of and for 69
as pattern to follow 60
exchange 36, 116, 148
exorcism 2, 44–5, 47, 80–1, 104, 106, 151–3, 156–7, 159, 188–9
and film 50, 174–6, 178
and montage 140, 155, 179, 182, 185
and psychiatry 1, 3, 21–3, 85–9, 97, 99, 101, 114–15, 118–23, 125, 129, 145, 150, 158, 161, 167–8, 171, 173, 183, 187
YouTube 55, 59, 61–9, 160, 180
and Zamzam 134n2
see also ruqya
experience
and fieldwork 35–6, 39, 50, 52, 79–80, 168–9
film and photography 23–4, 62, 67–8, 73
of freedom or independence 22, 158–9
of illness, possession, and healing 1–4, 42–3, 56–7, 64, 81, 95, 105, 119, 123, 126, 133, 141, 160–1
of not being whole 162
of the other 10–12
religious 33, 66, 142, 178
of uncertainty and ambiguity 83
eye
bird's-eye view 68, 175
evil eye 29, 79, 90–1, 122
see also envy
God's eye 166
human 20, 26
kino-eye 25, 70
the visible's caress of 73
Fabian, Johannes 94
face
of God 6, 137
of the jinn 44, 50, 57
of the other 10
of the Prophet 17, 65
see also defacement
facts 4–5, 94, 97–8, 111n9, 128, 143
failure 66, 69–70, 74–5, 134n4
faith 13, 16, 49, 60, 65, 68, 104, 122, 126, 152, 156–7, 168, 173–4, 177, 183
and Abraham 6, 124
blind 11, 172
double movement of 107, 140, 179, 181
and the invisible 38, 48
knight of 103, 105–6, 184
leap of 69, 89–90, 109–10, 131, 143, 147, 170
perceptual 9, 144
and sacrifice 115–16, 169
falsity 48, 63–5, 67, 72, 107, 111n9, 116, 151
false consciousness 4, 34, 110
power of the false 71, 172
fanāʾ (self annihilation) 142
fasting (ṣawm) 37, 177, 187
fiction 111n9
ethnofiction 181
fieldwork 1–3, 12, 14, 32, 35–6, 38, 49, 52, 85, 96, 108, 121, 163n6, 168–9, 176, 189
film
and fieldwork 3–4, 29, 40, 55, 65–6, 98, 121–2, 160–1, 168, 174–6, 178, 188
film monograph 2
and iconoclasm 91, 102
and the invisible 23–6, 50, 61–3, 70–2
and montage 67–8, 74–5, 140, 185–6
movement-image and time-image 142–3, 179–81
Fontex 171
forgery 71–2, 173, 177
fortune telling 117
Foucault, Michel 35, 47, 49, 87, 102, 108, 111n5, 147, 171, 174
freedom
and agency 22, 87, 131, 144
and filmmaking 25–6, 74, 175, 181–3, 186
free choice 84, 127–8, 132–3
free will 129–30
and jinn 31, 51, 59, 125, 139, 154
and slavery 157, 159–60
of speech 18
freeze-framing 91
Freud, Sigmund 4, 33, 94, 96, 134n4, 172, 184–5
gaze 5, 9–10, 25, 74, 90, 117, 129, 138, 141, 152, 161, 168
Gellerup 14–15, 27n4, 36, 55, 61, 63
ghayb (invisible) 5–8, 38, 65, 110, 168, 186
ghetto 13–16, 20, 27n3, 36, 55
gift 73, 108, 170, 173
givenness 178
God (Allāh)
al-shahāda 45, 60, 81–2, 138, 155
and belief 3, 13, 169–70
ignorance and guidance 36, 100
illness and healing 86, 118, 122, 126–7, 131, 142, 160
and the invisible or unknown 5–7, 11, 38, 40, 48, 65–6, 69, 74, 111n4, 117, 137, 144, 156, 166, 182
jinn, shayāṭīn, Iblis, or magic 19, 37, 51–2, 56, 59, 61, 79, 91, 96–7, 139–40, 153–4, 176–7
names of 9, 47, 141, 152
and psychotropics 1, 21, 88, 110, 114, 145, 147, 150–1, 158, 172, 182
and sacrifice 115–16, 124, 134n2
will of 83, 85, 87, 105, 113, 157
Gomart, Emily 88
grasping 28, 62, 105, 109
gratitude 86, 127, 131
guidance 5, 19, 36, 41, 80, 84, 100, 133, 152, 160
habitus 111n2
Hajar (mother of Ismael) 134n2
ḥajj 37, 134n2
happiness 13–14, 30, 34, 46, 125, 127, 160, 162
haptic 71, 73
ḥarām (forbidden) 51, 64–5, 91
ḥasad 37
see also envy
Hastrup, Kirsten 24, 62–3, 70, 101, 180
hate 125, 154
hatred 17–18, 30, 130, 178
healing 1–2, 20–3, 29–32, 34–5, 46–7, 75, 83–6, 88–9, 91–8, 100–2, 106–10, 113, 116–17, 120–4, 126–133, 134n2, 140–2, 144, 148, 150–2, 156–8, 163n7, 169–72, 180–1, 189–90
Healy, David 120–1, 147, 172–3
hearing 8
the All-Hearing 141
voice-hearing 11, 95–6
see also listening
heart (qalb) 39–40, 42, 52, 55, 66, 79, 100, 103, 105, 122, 127–8, 130–1, 137, 155
Hegel, G. W. F 111n8, 158–62, 163n1, 182
hell 5–6, 19, 37–8, 40, 65, 69, 71, 125
Henare, Amiria 32–3, 35, 39, 48, 50
Henley, Paul 23, 185–6
heresy 91, 141, 170, 172
see also idolatry; shirk
ḥijāb 116
ḥijāma (cupping) 91–2
Hirschkind, Charles 8, 66–7, 70, 126, 179
Holbraad, Martin 32–3, 35, 39, 48–9, 50
holy 141–2, 162
holiness 102
scriptures 37
water 3
see also sacred
homo economicus 130, 183
hope 85, 122, 127, 157, 178, 183
hopeless 75, 174
loss of 99
humanism 142, 171–2, 182, 186, 189
hypervisible 14, 18
hypnosis 118–19
hypocrisy (nifāq) 18, 39, 69, 96, 104–5
Iblis 37–8, 61
iconoclasm 88–9, 91, 101–3, 109, 180
icons 48, 102
iconographic 24, 62
identity 22, 95, 121, 123, 155, 164n6
identification 2, 11, 71, 93, 102
idolatry 48, 142, 172, 177, 185
see also heresy; shirk
idols 48, 101–2
ignorance (jāhiliyya) 36, 100
iḥsān 6
ikhlāṣ 109, 180
see also intention
illness 1, 21, 28–9, 32, 43, 47, 102, 133, 142, 156–7, 182
mental or psychiatric 84, 95–7, 99–100, 107, 119–21, 146, 150, 163n4
religion or Islam 8, 17–19, 34–5, 68–9, 86, 104–5, 108, 113–14, 122, 126, 130, 139, 141, 154, 183
illusion 34, 74, 88, 115, 122, 133, 158–9, 178–9
disillusion 121, 184
illustration 60–1, 65
image 5, 21, 58–61, 65–9, 93, 104, 111n4, 131, 133, 160, 174, 178, 180
anthropology or ethnographic film 23–6, 57, 62–3, 70–5, 185
image-making or image-breaking 2, 89–91, 101–3, 117
time-image 143, 147–8, 155, 158, 168, 179, 181–3
imagination 5, 27n1, 69, 73, 75, 130
see also taṣawwur
imam 18, 29–32, 53n1, 91, 97, 111n3, 115
īmān 104
see also faith
immigrants 14–17, 19, 27n4, 27n5, 55
incantation 1, 111n1, 122
incapacity benefit 14, 30, 40–1, 43
injustice 96, 143
insane (majnūn) 19, 41
integrated treatment 85, 161–2
integration problems 15–20
intelligence (ʿaql) 128, 130
intention 5, 109, 180
invisibility 1, 3–4, 7–8, 10–12, 19–21, 48, 62, 69, 70–1, 75, 89–90, 103, 117, 151, 159, 168, 186, 190
Iraq, Iraqi 27n5, 38, 55, 138, 176
Isaac 123, 134n2
Ismael 134n2
jāhiliyya 36, 100
Jesus 154
Jewish 56, 59, 81
jihād al-nafs 116, 173
jinn 1–3, 7, 19, 21, 23, 27n7, 28–31, 34, 37–40, 43–8, 50–2, 55–62, 64–71, 73–4, 76n2, 79–83, 85, 90–2, 96–8, 100–6, 108, 115–17, 120, 122, 125–6, 131, 133, 134n2, 138–42, 145, 150–1, 153–62, 163n7, 176–8, 180, 187–90
Job (Ayyūb) 86
Judaism 2, 6
judgement 6, 7, 93, 130, 146, 172
suspension of 72, 74, 142, 158
juxtaposition 67–8, 71, 181–2
see also montage
Kapferer, Bruce 144–5, 158, 179–80, 183
Keane, Webb 154
Khan, Nouman Ali 179
khushūʿ (humility) 66, 70, 79, 177
khuṭba 53n1, 67
see also sermons
kibr 37, 177
see also arrogance
Kierkegaard, Søren 6, 8–9, 11–12, 68, 89, 105–7, 109–10, 111n8, 114, 116, 123–4, 140, 143, 158–9, 170, 173, 179, 181, 184–5
kino-eye 25, 70
Kino Pravda 25
knight of faith 103, 105, 140, 184
Kurdish (language) 56–7, 59–60
lā ʾilāha ʾillā l-Lāh 38, 45
Latour, Bruno 4, 21, 89, 91, 101–3, 168
law 16, 70, 124, 183
of God 59, 74, 104, 115–16, 125, 155, 157, 177–8
lawsuits 163n3
leap of faith 69, 89, 107, 109–10, 131, 143, 147, 170, 179
Lebanon 4, 14, 31, 55, 122
Lebanese 28, 56, 146
Les Maîtres Fous 181, 186
Levinas, Emmanuel 10, 12, 35, 47–8, 72–5, 94, 102, 114, 168, 186
Lévi-Strauss, Claude 22, 87, 109
light 20, 38, 58, 160
listening 8, 59, 95–6, 102, 152
see also hearing
love 30, 48, 56, 127, 166, 179, 183
Luhrmann, Tanya 134n4, 163n4
Maarouf, Mohammed 1, 27n7, 58
MacDougall, David 62–3
madness 1, 35, 47, 96, 163n7, 167, 178, 186
magic 3, 23, 29–30, 32–3, 40, 43, 47, 64, 79, 91, 93, 97–8, 103–4, 108–9, 114, 122, 151, 154, 157–8, 168, 186–9
magician or witch 31, 47, 90, 131, 153, 156
Mahmood, Saba 86–8, 111n2, 134n1
majnūn 19, 27n7
Man with a Movie Camera 70
mapping 5, 13, 16, 18, 20–1, 27n6, 178
Marion, Jean-Luc 48, 141–2, 180
Marks, Laura U. 71, 73–4, 111n4, 142, 144–5, 158, 179
Marx, Karl 4, 34, 163n1
Marxism 4, 34, 128, 142
mastery 22, 34, 71, 73, 95–6, 102, 105, 115, 128, 140, 158–61, 178, 182, 185
matter out of place 17, 109, 114
Mattingly, Cheryl 128–30, 171–2
Mead, Margaret 72, 174–5
Mecca 134n2
mechanical researcher 26
medication 19–20, 31, 42, 48, 97–8, 100, 106, 109, 120–2, 124, 126–7, 132–3, 145, 148, 151, 157, 161–2, 170–3, 180, 185, 187
medicine 1, 21, 29, 32, 41–6, 92–3, 97–101, 106–7, 111n1, 114–15, 121–2, 125–6, 141, 147–9, 151, 170, 172–3
meditation 12, 42, 119, 125
melancholia 96
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 8–12, 22, 47, 73–5, 87, 102, 105–6, 109–10, 111n5, 111n8, 114, 133, 140–1, 144, 158–9, 166, 168, 180, 186
Middle Ages 94, 100
Middle East 15, 18, 43, 55, 79, 120
mirrors 11, 20, 25, 60, 63, 166
mirroring 94
misfortune 83–4, 86, 88, 116, 144, 148, 172
Mittermaier, Amira 7, 27n1
modernity
modern cinema 142–4, 179–81
modern schools of Islamic thought 6
modern science, psychiatry, and medicine 22, 35, 47, 93, 95, 99, 102, 162, 172–3, 182
modern secular 21, 23, 49, 87, 114, 128–9
modern state or society 14, 17, 66, 71, 100, 107–8, 127
postmodern filmmakers 74
pre-modern 96, 171
see also secularism
Monroe, Marilyn 51, 90
montage
beyond montage 74–5, 181–2, 185–6
and healing 2, 102, 137, 140–1, 146, 148, 155
intellectual or dialectical 67, 142
and ritual 144–5, 168, 179
and Vertov 25, 70–2
moral 8, 33, 47, 60, 66, 69, 89, 108, 129, 160–1, 182
Morin, Edgar 25
Moses 141, 153–4, 156
Mosques Behind the Veil 18
muʾaththir 66
Muhammad (Prophet) 6–7, 17, 37, 45, 58, 60–1, 64–5, 68–9, 87, 93, 138, 141, 154
munāfiq (hypocrite) 69, 104–5
myth 4, 22–3, 145
nafs 50, 130
jihād al-nafs 116, 173
al-nafs al-ammāra bil-sūʾ 131
and rūḥ 134n5
see also self
narrative 143, 167, 181
neo-orthodox Muslims and Islam 6–8, 55, 58, 60–1, 80, 108, 117, 127, 141, 157, 177, 184–6
and the invisible 10–11, 21, 27n1, 65
and psychiatry 36, 110, 114
and visual media 57, 68, 75, 91, 180
nifāq 69, 104–5
see also hypocrisy
nightmares 41, 51, 90, 97, 126, 160, 187
niqāb 16
obedience 99, 105, 124, 128, 177
disobedience 34, 37, 83, 139
objectivity 9–10, 23, 166–7, 169, 175
observational cinema 23, 63, 65–8, 70–2
ocular-centric 23, 71, 186
olanzapine 146–7, 163n3, 173, 187
ontological turn 32–3, 39, 46, 48–50, 53n2
orphenadrine 146
Ortner, Sherry 129
other, the 10–12, 28, 33, 35, 39, 48–9, 71, 75, 89–90, 94, 157, 186
otherness 10, 12
pain 44–5, 79, 83, 87–8, 102, 105–6, 110, 111n5, 124–6, 132, 140, 157, 178, 188
Palestine, Palestinian 4, 14, 28, 126, 146
Pandolfo, Stefania 2, 21, 96, 99, 111n1, 116, 130, 142, 160, 163n7
Papua New Guinea 35
paradise 5–6, 37–8, 65, 68–9, 71, 125, 127, 183–4
paradox 9, 46, 50, 68, 105–6, 109–10, 116, 128–9, 141, 173, 181
paranoia 19, 127
participant observation 3, 36, 39, 40, 44, 49, 80, 169
passivity 22, 40, 73, 84, 87
patience 86–7, 103, 105, 110, 127, 131, 178
patient 11, 17, 21–2, 26, 45–50, 56, 61, 70, 83–8, 90, 92–8, 100–3, 106, 108–9, 117–26, 131–3, 141, 145, 148, 150–1, 155–61, 163n4, 163n6, 169–71, 173, 180–3, 185, 187, 189
becoming a 75, 79, 83, 88–90, 110, 162
Muslim 1–4, 12, 20, 28–9, 40–3
patient records 146–7
transcultural 15
peace of mind 22, 119, 126, 159–60
perception 1–2, 5–6, 8–10, 12, 20, 23–5, 35, 49, 63–4, 66, 68, 75, 89, 105–6, 110, 133, 141–2, 159, 166, 170, 180, 185
perfection and imperfection 61, 107
performance 44, 145
perseverance 131
see also patience; ṣabr
pharmaceutical companies 107, 145
phenomenology 8–9, 22, 105, 159
Philips, Bilal 134n5
philosophy 8, 49, 75, 105, 111n8, 142, 158
photography 62–3, 70–1, 73, 186
photographs 24, 51, 74, 91, 117
see also image
placebo 92, 94, 97–8, 106, 110, 122, 147, 172
Plato 9, 35
pleasure 66, 125, 131
pleasure principle 184–5
politicians 14–18
possession
and Denmark 44, 55, 64, 79–80
and ethnographic film 73–4, 181, 185–6
and the invisible 2–4, 19, 75
malbūs, maskūn, or maḍrūb 27n7
and mental illness 1, 43, 100–1
and nifāq 105–6
taking seriously 28
treatment of 29–30, 45, 81, 96–7, 131, 141, 156, 187
and YouTube 56–60, 62, 65–6
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 41, 43, 107
power
desire for 130
dialectics of 155–8
external, invisible 22, 47, 88, 116, 118–19, 140
of the false 71, 172
and film 63, 68, 71–2, 75, 143, 180
of God 5, 37, 96, 141, 144–5, 154
of humans 21, 84–5, 104, 128, 133, 142, 170, 185, 189
of jinn 2, 90–1, 151
lack of power, powerless 1, 10–11, 25, 87, 110
pastoral, sovereign, or bio-power 102, 147
power powder 32
recitation 118, 190
religion and oppression 34
overpowering 99, 123, 161–2
practice theory 111n2, 129, 184
prayer 1, 3, 28, 36–7, 39–41, 50, 53n1, 69, 100, 104, 117, 138–9, 142, 151–2, 160, 176–7
Friday prayer 30–1, 108, 183
qiyām al-layl 45, 81
ṣalāt al-fajr 79
ṣalāt al-maghrib 80
ṣalāt al-ʿishāʾ 137
profane 114
protection 1, 10, 40, 45, 88, 91–2, 103, 133, 139, 152, 155, 160
Protestantism 13
Protestant Reformation 49, 93
proximity 49, 73, 137, 142
psychiatry
and doubt 75, 109–10, 170
and Islamic treatments or exorcism 8, 21, 23, 47, 88–9, 93–4, 101–3, 113–16, 123, 128, 132–3, 140, 158–9, 167–9, 171, 179–85
patient or conditions 11, 15, 119
psychiatric consultation 20, 125, 146, 148, 161–2
psychiatric medication 19, 42, 46, 97–8, 106–8, 120–1, 126–7, 173, 187–8
psychiatrists 12, 22, 35, 37–41, 90, 92, 134n4
psychiatry user 84–6, 95–6
psychoanalysis 4, 21, 94, 130, 134n4, 184
psycho-education 133, 157
psychology
psychological effects of Zyprexa 98, 150
psychological illnesses 81, 92, 100, 119, 130, 139
psychological problems 43–4, 47, 99, 104, 133
psychologists 35, 37, 85, 146
psychopharmacology 107–8, 148, 172–4
psychosis
and possession 1, 19, 21, 23, 47, 57, 100, 116, 188
symptoms of 11, 125, 162, 187
treatment of 28–9, 31, 41, 43, 95, 97–9, 109, 120, 126–7, 145–51, 157, 161, 169, 171, 173, 187
psychotherapy 113, 134n4, 150
psychotropics 109–10, 137, 146–8, 161, 180
purification 3, 30, 55, 93, 108
qalb 130–1
see also heart
qiyām al-layl 45, 81
Quran 1, 3, 7–8, 19, 27n7, 30–1, 40, 44–5, 52, 58–60, 64–5, 68, 79–82, 90–1, 96–8, 100–1, 108–9, 111n1, 113, 115–18, 120–4, 126, 132, 137, 141–2, 147, 152, 154–6, 159–61, 163n6, 163n7, 171, 177–80, 182–3, 188–90
Surat al-Fatiha (Quran 1) 7, 137, 152
Surat al-Baqara (Quran 2) 5, 31, 65, 105, 117, 132, 152–6
Surat al-Araf (Quran 7) 58, 127
Surat al-Tawba (Quran 9) 68
Surat Yunus (Quran 10) 153–4, 156
Surat Ibrahim (Quran 14) 155
Surat al-Nahl (Quran 16) 155
Surat al-Hajj (Quran 22) 115
Surat al-Ahzab (Quran 33) 60
Surat al-Saffat (Quran 37) 6, 113, 124, 155
Surat Sad (Quran 38) 86
Surat al-Shura (Quran 42) 116
Surat al-Mulk (Quran 67) 126
Surat al-Qalam (Quran 68) 155
Surat al-Jinn (Quran 72) 59, 155
Surat al-Qadr (Quran 97) 183
Surat al-Zalzala (Quran 99) 31
Surat al-Kafirun (Quran 109) 155
Surat al-Ikhlas (Quran 112) 155
Surat al-Falaq (Quran 113) 91, 155
Surat al-Nas (Quran 114) 52, 91, 155, 157
radicalisation 18, 27n6, 178
rain 8, 51, 139
Ramadan 37, 80, 183, 187
rational 13–14, 22–3, 127–30, 158, 173, 183
realism 35, 67, 71, 186
reality 6, 23, 25, 33, 35, 39–41, 44, 48, 52, 58, 60–5, 67, 70, 72, 95, 105–6, 116, 124, 157, 168, 170, 186
clinical and sacred 113
pro-filmic 24, 174–5
reality principle 184
unreality 42–3, 125
reason 49, 159
reasoning 33, 35, 110, 111n8, 130, 142–3, 158
see also ʿaql
recitation 3, 8, 59, 79, 81, 83, 90, 96–8, 100–1, 117, 120, 122–3, 138, 141–2, 152–6, 159, 163n7, 178, 180, 188–90
recovery 85, 114, 124, 162
Reformation 49, 93
reification 101, 107, 111n9
relativism 39
relief 31, 41, 52, 82, 103, 119, 157, 162, 189
religion 15–16, 18, 20, 33–4, 44, 47, 49, 56, 94, 114, 118, 132, 142, 162, 183
religious duties or obligations 45, 64–5, 81, 97, 126, 137, 139, 161
remembrance 27n1, 50, 113, 130, 134n3, 142, 183
representation 10, 25, 28, 49, 67, 70, 72, 129, 167
resignation 89, 105, 107, 109–10, 140, 170, 179
resistance 21, 34, 86, 98, 148–50, 156, 158, 160–1, 174, 178, 181, 185–6
respect 49, 84–6, 148
respectful coercion 128, 132
revelation 71, 89, 144, 152, 155, 167
ritual 3, 23, 36, 61–2, 79, 83–4, 101, 114, 139, 155–7, 169
Rorty, Richard 33, 53n2, 84
Rose, Nikolas 107–9, 121
Rothenberg, Celia 34, 178
Rouch, Jean 25, 181, 185
rūḥ 130, 134n5
see also nafs; self; soul
ruqya 1–2, 30, 69, 79, 81, 96, 100, 103, 108, 111n1, 122, 137, 139, 144, 160–1, 163n6, 168, 173, 178, 180, 188–9
Rytter, Mikkel 16
ṣabr (patience) 86, 131, 178
sacred 102, 109, 116, 128–9, 133, 162, 170
see also holy
sacrifice 6, 8, 113, 116, 123–5, 127–8, 131, 133, 134n2, 140, 159, 168, 183
qurbān 115
sāḥir (magician) 31, 90
see also magic; siḥr
sakīna (stillness of the soul) 66
Salafism 6–7, 16, 27n1, 58
ṣarʿ 79, 105, 111n1, 137, 156, 159, 160, 190
Sartre, Jean-Paul 11, 159
scenes of Descending with angels
see also Guide to the book and film xi–xiii
scepticism 3, 48–9, 63, 65, 69, 75, 108, 174
schizophrenia 3, 11, 19, 21, 28, 85, 95, 97, 126, 146, 157, 161–2, 187
secularism 13, 27n2
secular 1, 14, 17, 21, 23, 44, 49, 79, 87, 94, 128–9, 171–2, 179, 184
secularisation 114
seeing 5–6, 11, 50, 73, 75, 98, 103, 143, 166
and film 23–5, 70–1
the All-Seeing 9, 141
seer 47, 140, 143, 179
self
neurochemical self 108
and other 10–12, 35, 72, 74, 157, 182, 186
self-awareness or self-consciousness 84, 159
self-care or self-healing 92, 98, 122, 132, 170, 172
self-creation or self-creativity 21, 128–9, 133, 142
self-cultivation or self-realisation 87, 111n2, 177
self-defacement 103
self-determination 85
self-diagnosis 41, 47, 88, 97
self-mastering 102, 105, 178
self-righteousness 185
self-sacrifice 123, 125–7, 134n2, 140, 183
structure of 119, 130–1
struggle of the self (jihād al-nafs) 116, 173
submission of 69, 148
see also nafs; ruh; soul
seriousness 53n2, 64
sermons 36, 52n1, 66–7, 108, 142, 179
see also khuṭba
shahāda 45, 60, 81–2, 116, 138, 157
shahawāt 130
see also desire
shakk 40, 68
see also doubt
shayṭān 37, 90, 106, 108, 172
shayāṭīn 19, 20, 38, 40, 51, 79, 141, 154, 176
see also demon; devil; evil; Iblis; jinn
shirk 37, 91
see also heresy; idolatry
shock 44, 66–7, 71, 144, 163n3, 180
shukr 86, 131
sickness 28, 42, 44, 126, 150–1, 161
see also illness
side effects 42, 93, 109, 120–1, 124, 126, 146, 149, 151, 157, 163n3, 188
siḥr 30, 90, 103–4
simvastatin 146
slave 90, 113, 158–9, 182
slavery 157
sleepiness 97, 99, 125–6, 146
Sobchack, Vivian 25
Society for Equality and Brotherhood 4, 137
Solomon 45, 141, 153–4, 156
Somalia, Somali 14, 38, 45, 51, 55–6, 80, 141, 153–4, 156, 163n6, 179
soul 2, 20, 34, 66, 96, 126–7, 133, 137, 153, 184
and images 90–1
rūḥ 130, 134n5
sound 8, 23, 71, 118
speaker 154–5, 163n6
spirits see jinn
Spiro, Melford 34
state 14, 16, 19, 27n6, 40, 43, 121
church 13
institutions 1
surveillance 18
Steinbock, Anthony 178
Stoller, Paul 28, 35, 39
stress 19, 41–2, 44, 121, 173
subjectivity
dissolution of 74, 158, 182
film subjects 2, 63, 71
formation of 87, 108, 181, 183–5
human subject 65, 144, 148, 151, 168, 178
subject-positions 145, 155
subjective experience, seeing or viewpoint 11, 23, 25, 67, 73, 159
submission
exorcism and psychiatry 1–2, 21–3, 96, 110, 130, 132–3, 140, 145, 148, 150–1, 157–8, 160–1, 168, 183
to God 6, 37–8, 40, 48, 68–9, 74, 113, 116, 123–5, 131, 144, 173
suffering 1, 20–1, 41–2, 44, 84, 87–8, 96, 102, 104, 111n5, 116–17, 124–6, 146–7, 152, 178, 182–3
Sufism 7, 27n1, 28, 56, 108, 142
suicide 13, 124–5
and jinn 100, 104, 177, 189
and psychotropics 120, 147
sunna 58, 64
surrendering 59, 69, 123, 141
see also submission
suspicion 17, 27n6, 56, 173
symptom 85, 95, 146, 157, 163n4
of psychosis 11, 29, 92, 97, 125, 149, 187
taking seriously 28, 32–3, 35–6, 39, 44, 49–50, 53n2, 70, 173, 188
too seriously 46, 48
Tambiah, Stanley 49
taqwā 177
taṣawwur 27n1, 130
taste
of pain 126
of paradise 183
Taussig, Michael 92, 102–3, 109–10, 111n8, 111n9, 128, 168, 170, 172–3, 181–2, 185–6
tawakkul 9, 69, 86, 116, 144, 174
see also faith; trust
testimony 5, 60, 65, 69, 79, 81, 97–9, 138, 147, 150, 153, 155, 178
thankfulness 69, 86
theology 5, 9, 21, 36, 130, 134n2, 142, 157
time-image 143, 147–8, 155, 158, 168, 179, 181–3
tone 118–19, 122, 156, 188
trance 116, 118–19, 122, 156
transference 94
transformation 55, 73, 75, 121, 131, 145, 154–5, 160, 169, 178, 185
transgression 3, 24, 68, 116, 119–20, 123–4, 126–7, 129, 131, 133, 140, 171
transparency 13–14, 16
trauma, traumatic 15, 21, 27n5, 72, 95–6, 120–1, 138, 160, 188
Trinh T. Minh-ha 71–2
trust 9, 42, 58, 64, 132, 143, 170–1
in God 6, 69, 86, 116, 152, 174
mistrust 27n6
truth 13, 34–5, 48–9, 59, 84, 92, 97, 107–9, 112n9, 140, 150, 158, 167, 169–70, 182
and film 25, 70–1
God and Islam 10, 19, 37–40, 61, 65, 69, 79, 81, 122, 130, 141, 154
and science 3, 114, 173
Turkey, Turkish 14, 30–1, 55–6, 82, 157
Turner, Edith 28, 36, 49, 51–2, 171
Turner, Victor 145
uncertainty 1, 46–8, 83, 88–9, 101, 110, 138, 167, 172
unconscious 4, 34, 44, 79, 90, 95
unity 35, 141, 144–5, 159
universalism 39
universe 9, 144, 148, 166–7
unknown 6, 8, 20, 47–8, 68–9, 72, 120, 160, 186
unseen 6, 8, 38, 40, 62, 117, 129, 137, 152
user involvement 84, 132
uswatun ḥasanatun 60
value 38, 60, 84, 129, 182
of film and images 23–4, 57, 62, 69, 186
intrinsic and instrumental value 115–16
value-free 172–3
van der Geest, Sjaak 114
Vertov, Dziga 25–6, 67–8, 70–2, 140, 143, 181
victims 17, 47, 91, 97, 100, 115, 157–8, 168, 177
video 25–6, 90–1, 93, 96, 117, 168, 189
YouTube 55–75, 76n1, 101, 108, 180
view from everywhere 9–11, 105, 111n8, 133, 140–1, 147, 166, 180
violence 18, 35, 73, 116, 123–4, 130
virtuality 145, 182
visibility 4, 13, 20–1, 71, 75, 89, 90, 103, 110, 142, 168
vision 4, 7–9, 25, 33, 50, 66, 70–1, 73–5, 89, 106, 110, 133, 140, 143, 158–9, 166–8, 181–2, 186
visualisation 17, 20, 65, 75, 102
Viveiros de Castro, Eduardo 33, 35, 48–9, 53n2
voice
of God 142, 154–6, 163n6
of healers 56–7, 81, 117, 171, 188–9
of jinn 44, 125–6, 138
voice-hearing 11, 95–6
Wastell, Sari 32–3, 35, 39, 48, 50
waswās (devils’ whispering) 19, 40, 51–2, 79, 86, 122, 131, 139, 176
West 1, 8, 17, 75
individualism 130, 159, 162
non-Western 14–15, 27n4, 71
psychiatry 19, 48, 94
Western intellectuals, academia 33, 48, 61
Westernization 2
Whyte, Susan 83–6, 88, 98, 128, 171–2
Willerslev, Rane 9, 28, 116, 178
witchcraft 33, 47, 49, 83, 153
see also magic; siḥr
witnessing 8, 40, 57, 64–5, 75, 82, 95–6, 106, 116, 130, 143, 147, 155, 159–60, 167, 178–9, 186, 188
yaqīn 9, 126, 174
YouTube 44, 55–6, 58–9, 61–72, 74–5, 76n1, 101, 108, 160, 179–80
zakāt 37, 177
Zamzam 134n2
Zyprexa 98, 145–7, 150, 163n2, 187–8
lawsuits 163n3

Descending with angels

Islamic exorcism and psychiatry: a film monograph

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