Index
in Inside Accounts, Volume II

Index

9/11 attacks see September the eleventh attacks (2001)
Act of Union 126
Adams, Gerry xiixiii, xviii, xix
‘ahead of Army Council’ 150151
authority 163
decommissioning issue 172173
leadership style 162163
meetings with Ahern 246, 248
status 163
structural issues 160161
symbolism 166
US visa 81, 115
age 158159
agriculture 60, 141, 205, 231
Ahern, Bertie viii, 84, 96, 146, 157
‘all concerns’ versus ‘key issues’ 256257
Anglo-Irish Agreement 262
bottom lines (conflicting) 261262
British and Irish Governments’ approach to peace process 254
‘British obsession with text’ 257
conflict resolution (inclusivity) 266267
consent principle 250251
constructive ambiguity (value) 244245
decommissioning issue 248249
DUP (dealings with Paisley) 259262
DUP (differences from UUP) 258259
DUP (first signs of progress) 259
focussed on big picture 9697, 264265
gaining trust 253254
humour 260
importance of small teams 243, 247
informal way 101102
Irish Constitution (amendment) 249251, 261262
leadership 4, 6, 239267
leadership (qualities required) 263264
‘leadership by consensus’ (idea contested) 263
lessons from peace process 265
listening 265266
MI5 and MI6 (some people ‘not helpful’) 258
negotiating styles (British versus Irish) 257258
Northern Bank robbery and McCartney murder 255256
in opposition (discussions with Blair, 1996–97) 241
people trying to compromise ‘before coming to problem’ 263
release of prisoners 254255
republican versus unionist approaches 245247
risk-taking 265266
saying no (beneficial to peace process) 261
side-letters 252253
stimulus to peace process 9495
strategy (importance) 262263
‘talking to everybody’ 98
text versus talk 256, 258
time devoted to peace process 264
Alliance Party xvii, 50, 101, 214, 265
Anglo-Irish Agreement (1985) 66
lack of inclusivity 266267
US pressure on Thatcher 81
Anglo-Irish Intergovernmental Conference 37, 66, 68, 176, 184
Anglo-Irish relations (phases) 175176
armed struggle 99, 133, 192
aspiration 14, 26, 230
Attorney-General (ROI) viii, 118, 228
role and responsibilities 121, 124
Atwood, Alex 104, 186, 203
Bassett, Ray 9091
groundwork and building relations 5, 6, 90117
‘no use to anyone’ as free agent 91
Belfast 99, 114, 116, 117, 124
Blair, Tony 84, 9294, 157, 223
and Ahern 241244, 252255, 258, 263
early speeches ‘terrible’ 93
‘good negotiator’ 96
leadership style 4
side-letter to Trimble 31, 51, 126, 127, 219, 252
Bloody Sunday (1972) 182, 229
Bloody Sunday Inquiry (Saville Commission) xii, xiii, 86, 184185, 190192
body language 154, 160, 178
British Government
constitutional framework 136, 137
expertise on law and legislation 94
relations with Irish Government (1974–85) 3940
British–Irish Council 37, 47, 59, 60, 80, 120, 127, 128
‘balancing element’ (against North–South dimension) 63
British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference 60, 120
Brooke, Peter 4, 17, 19, 20, 23, 67, 73, 93
Bruton, John 4, 6, 102
Bush, George W. 115116
Byrne, David viii, 5, 6, 118141
Canary Wharf bombing (1996) 43, 45, 62, 76, 149, 159, 207, 240, 241
Catholicism 195, 200
charisma 163164
choreography (political) 3, 89, 269, 273
cities 269
citizenship 119
civil servants 1, 34, 36, 41, 123, 168, 172
British and Irish (calibre) 271
British versus Irish approaches 153
Irish 4, 155, 210, 242, 264265
Northern Irish 47, 49, 5556, 57
Clinton, Bill xiii, 7677, 81, 84, 87, 115116, 173, 217, 224
Collins, Michael (1890–1922) 96, 250
collusion 227228
colonialism 194
communication 2, 98, 101, 196, 205, 240, 242, 268
compromise 2, 114, 274
confidence 1516
Connolly, W. E. 269, 274
consensus 120, 121, 138, 175
consent principle 118, 119, 127, 132141 passim, 230, 250251
consistency 23
constructive ambiguity 30, 177178, 244245
Cooney, David 10, 28, 100
Cory Inquiry 182, 191
Council of Ireland 38, 56, 231
Cowen, Brian 6, 99, 101, 102
creative ambiguity 70, 75, 268269
credibility 155, 242
D’Hondt system 20, 25, 104, 127, 161, 206, 251
Dail 23, 26, 128, 166, 190, 219, 221, 240, 256, 264
Dalton, Tim viii, 5, 6, 17, 111, 142174, 218, 243
background 142, 172
civil servants taking ‘liberties’ 151
meetings with Adams and McGuinness 161162
‘securocrats’ 143144
‘tended to rely on memory’ (should have taken more notes) 173
De Bruin, Barbara 105, 108, 158, 212
de Chastelain, John 115, 171, 172, 207, 249
deadlines 82, 239240
decommissioning xiixvii, 5053, 102, 116, 126127, 183, 197199, 248249
British standpoint 75
British yielding to unionist demands 73
dodging by republicans (method) 223
endpoint 172173
‘fundamental democratic principle at stake’ 218219
‘fundamentally a distraction’ 7475
‘heart of issue’ 182
importance of language 232
‘not central problem’ (Good Friday Agreement negotiations) 53
‘paramount issue’ 170171, 229
pressure from two Governments (degree) 5253
‘putting arms beyond use’ (Dalton) 5, 142174 (esp. 168)
strategic purpose 203204
demilitarisation/normalisation 15, 34, 62, 92, 109, 145, 166167, 219, 225, 229
Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) xii, xivxviii, 208
‘changed into what UUP was’ 106
differences from UUP (Ahern) 258259
Good Friday Agreement (Strand Two) 58
‘pivotal’ (2017–) 140, 141
rise 1, 53, 258261, 270
Department of Foreign Affairs xi, 39, 40, 42, 59, 66, 91, 125, 128, 142, 176, 207, 264
Anglo-Irish Division viiiix, 67, 68, 70, 190
Department of Justice 142, 143, 167, 169, 228
Department of the Taoiseach viii, ix, 24, 25, 38, 56, 69, 128, 190, 210, 231
Derry 91, 98, 114, 117
dialogue 270
discrimination 42, 64, 90, 95, 176, 183
divided society 206
Doherty, Pat 43, 44, 109, 158, 159
Donaldson, Jeffrey 13, 16, 51, 81, 125, 213, 238, 252
Donlon, Sean 39
Donoghue, David viiiix, 6, 6668
strategy and trajectory 5, 6689
Dorr, Noel 39
Downing Street Declaration (1993) 21, 3132, 7073, 193
‘crucial document’ 179
importance for Good Friday Agreement 3536
Irish Government approach (inclusivity instead of ‘isolating extremes’) 76
laying down parameters 36
drafting texts 1037
ambiguity 3132
context 30
‘crystallises problems’ 33
detail (amount) 24
detail (relative importance) 34
narrative order 29
North–South dimension 18, 19
over-complication 34
problem words/expressions 25
reactions (surprising) 33
republicans 19
sequencing 2021
structure 2425
taking account of what people were not saying 33
versus ‘talk and negotiation’ 3233
unionists 1516
draftsmanship 155156
Drumcree xii, 196, 241
Durkan, Mark 104105, 217
electricity 36
emotion 85, 92, 194, 196, 274
empathy 6465, 8889, 109110, 196197, 235
employment 3, 103, 114, 116
Enniskillen 42, 97, 196
equality 14, 101, 103, 106, 114, 158, 204, 229
versus ‘equity’ 25
Ervine, David 50, 212
European Union 119
‘always very supportive of peace process’ 120, 121
Brexit ix, 37, 137, 138141, 205
extraterritorial jurisdiction (international law) 132
fairness 132, 140, 244, 254
Faulkner, Brian 38, 54
Ferris, Martin 158, 159, 162, 169
Fianna Fail 26, 76, 207, 214, 216, 230, 246, 250, 253
Finucane Inquiry 227228
flags and emblems xviii, 50, 100101, 103
forgiveness
Catholic versus Protestant perspectives 200201
Forum for Peace and Reconciliation (1994–96) ix, 5, 50
final report never published 4546
function in peace process 42
influence on Irish thinking 46
procedures 4445
producing a text 46
rationale re Sinn Fein 41
Sinn Fein role 4246
Frameworks Document (1995) 21, 3132, 7172, 7980
importance for Good Friday Agreement 3536
reliance on ambiguity 31
freedom of assembly
getting to assembly point (silence of international law) 188
future 205206, 237
‘mandate of heaven’ 176177, 194
Gallagher, Dermot 10, 28, 38, 100, 112, 113, 150
Garda Siochana 144, 145, 151, 161, 169, 170
Garvaghy Road 186, 189
Good Friday Agreement (1998) ixx, xii, 72
amendments 131
‘best outcome’ 130, 131
Brexit implications 138, 141
British perspective (moral impulse) 84
chronological order 129
clinching point 157
consistency with international expectations 132
constructed on basis of past treaties 50
contents 129
core principles 26
degree of clarity 29, 7677
dispute about name 251252
‘dragging extremists onto middle ground’ 6162
durability (because of inclusivity) 12, 6, 201, 205206
‘dynamic analysis’ (republicanism) versus ‘static analysis’ (unionism) 104
endgame 5, 217218, 234, 238, 247, 251253, 256257
fairness 135
‘further negotiation down road’ 2829
‘good deal for parties of NI’ 61
how to be read 29
implementation bodies 128, 130, 131, 134, 138, 139, 253
importance of AIA as forerunner 12, 176
lessons of Sunningdale 12
‘making it up as you go along’ 99100
‘not ambiguous document’ (Byrne) 129
nothing agreed until everything agreed 7778, 131, 226
‘only a blueprint’ 219220
opposing psychologies 50
phraseology 54
pragmatism versus principle 5455
preamble 2123
reasoning (legal versus political) 122, 123
sense of new beginning 22
signatories (Sinn Fein, UUP) at cross-purposes re united Ireland 130
status (international treaty) 130
success for unionists, but not sold as such 177, 237
text 14
Good Friday Agreement: components
British–Irish Treaty 101, 129, 133, 134, 135, 136
Multi-Party Agreement 129, 133, 134
Good Friday Agreement: drafting
difficult to distinguish British or Irish input 23
as legal text 129
ability to be read differently 130
most contentious texts 2324
‘very little done by unionists’ 15
Good Friday Agreement: negotiations
British versus Irish working methods 4849
convergence between British and Irish 49
core of negotiations 182
‘core positions’ versus ‘potential movement’ 46
‘daily churning out of statements’ 79
decommissioning ‘not central problem’ 53
inclusivity 82, 84, 85, 86
intensity 8384
Irish Government consensus 53
Irish Government leverage 8081
movement (source) 50
problems ‘talked into long grass’ 100
questions being asked (psychology) 8788
reference back to Frameworks Document 7980
text (relative importance to British and Irish) 49
three strands 1819, 73, 82, 86, 89
verbal clarifications 88
Good Friday Agreement: Strand One (internal structures of Northern Ireland) 1823
Sinn Fein ‘never produced a paper’ 106107
Good Friday Agreement: Strand Two (North–South dimension) 16, 1830, 4647, 7980, 127, 128, 202, 237
ambiguity 5859
‘biggest part’ of Good Friday Agreement 131
drafts 5657
driven by Irish (rather than British) text 57
Irish position (maximalist versus minimalist) 5759
SDLP response 55
six bodies 5758, 63
Good Friday Agreement: Strand Three (East-West relations) 1823, 37, 7980, 120
importance 63
‘not advantageous’ to Irish 6364
Government of Ireland Act (1920) 250, 251, 262
Haass, Richard xviii, 115
harmonisation 4, 38, 54, 139, 237
Harney, Mary 207, 213214, 216
Haughey, Charles 40, 176
Haughey-Thatcher summit (1980) 40, 54
Heads of Agreement (1998) 25, 31, 32, 46
Healthcare Directive (EU) 139
history 30, 191, 194195, 206, 265, 274
forgiveness 200201
human condition 206
Hume, John xiii, 104105, 166, 204, 210, 224, 232, 253
Hume-Adams dialogues 32, 36, 42, 67, 90, 163164, 235
hunger strikes 40, 44, 193, 196
identity 4, 114, 186, 188, 272
public appearance versus private reality 109110
Independent International Commission on Decommissioning xii, xvii, 171, 172
Inquiries Act (2005) 192
Ireland (Republic of Ireland)
murder of British Ambassador (1976) 39
romanticisation of republican struggle 230
Irish Civil War 53, 206
Irish Constitution (1937) 123, 124, 136
Articles Two and Three 54, 118, 121, 122, 130, 249250, 261262
context for change 119
unionist views 124, 126
Irish Government
‘Box’ 97
commitment to Frameworks Document 3536
distillation of discussions into positions 97
intelligence (information) turned into policy 9798
oral tradition 216217
relations with British Government (1974–85) 3940
strategic approach 7576
talking to people in NI 98
Irish language 55, 100101, 114
Irish National Liberation Army xvii, 143, 265
Irish Republican Army (IRA) xiixvi
attitudes in Ireland towards 165
‘broke Orange State’ 102, 114
modus operandi 108
‘write down everything’ 245
IRA Army Council 150151, 222
IRA ceasefires
(1994–96) 74, 179
(1997–) xii, 241242
IRA statements 110, 112113, 152, 156, 167
justice system xvii, 45, 100, 219, 239, 262, 273
Keenan, Brian 114, 151, 159
Kelly, Gerry 60, 109, 158, 162
Kennedy, Edward 115116, 224225
King, Peter 124, 125
Kirwan, Wally ix, 6, 3839, 63, 101, 231232
forums and North–South relations 5, 3865
language 2223, 2526, 56, 166167, 232
achievement of balance 7071
single words (could be sticking point) 166, 168
symbolism of attraction 7172
language difficulties 7475
law
constrained by political policy (and vice-versa) 123, 124
leadership 205, 239267
legal texts 122, 123
Liaison Group 49, 6870
Lillis, Michael 39, 66
listening 153154, 205, 214215, 221, 265266
London: Irish Embassy ix, 66, 69, 81, 260
Loyal Orders 186, 189
loyalists xiv, 50, 186, 226227, 234
McCartney, Robert xvi, 62, 210, 218, 225, 255
McDonald, Mary Lou xix, 117
McGuinness, Martin xiii, xviixviii, 108
‘ahead of Army Council’ 150151
decommissioning issue 172173
leadership 162163
negotiating style 221222
meetings with Ahern 246, 248
‘tuned in’ to activist mindset 160161, 163
McKee, Eamonn ix, 56, 175206
Bloody Sunday 190191
McKevitt, Michael 43, 249
McLaughlin, Mitchel 16
McWilliams, Monica 212213
Maginnis, Ken 17, 58, 104
Major, John 3, 84, 93, 94
dependence on unionist support 73, 75
Mallon, Seamus xi, 43, 46, 47, 96, 104105, 223, 232, 253
‘powerful personality, clearly leader’ 103
Manchester bombing (1996) 240, 241
Mandelson, Peter xiii, 59, 9596, 109, 115, 225226
Mansergh, Dr Martin 25, 67, 91, 128, 136, 144, 150, 243
Maryfield: Anglo-Irish Secretariat (1985–) viii, ix, 66, 68, 69, 90, 142, 176, 210
Mayhew, Sir Patrick 4, 17, 19, 20, 48, 68, 73, 75, 93
decommissioning demand ‘had not helped’ 51, 53
Maze Prison xii, 227
media 80, 233, 235237
memory 193, 230, 274
mental reservation 200201
MI5/MI6 xiv, 167, 258
mind-reading 156, 158, 166
Mitchell, George 82, 215, 254
‘vital to settlement’ 87
Mitchell Principles xii, 7778, 239, 241
momentum 2, 32, 79, 83, 196, 243, 256, 271, 273
Montgomery, Rory ix, 5, 6, 1011, 16, 101, 251
aspirations of text 1037
wrote preamble to Good Friday Agreement 21, 22
Mowlam, Mo 93, 224228
disliked by unionists 96, 209, 216, 225
Mullan, Don 190
Nally, Dermot 38, 39, 56
national security 185186, 203
negotiation texts
mindfulness of various perspectives 157
‘series of approximations’ approach 157
negotiations
‘big picture’ versus ‘detail’ 4, 237
‘bottom line’ 89
‘clarity required from you, ambiguity all right from us’ 156157
‘compromise’ versus ‘concession’ 3435
conflict resolution (messy bits) 170
conversation versus text 167168
difficult issues ‘not most important points at all’ 2526, 34
drivers for change 195196
‘the essential’ 202, 204, 205
final hours 21
flexibility 83, 8889
focus on ‘deal’ versus longer-term process 2829
importance of ‘continuing engagement’ 174
‘hot-house’ meetings 65
informal 2, 3, 6, 4849, 6869, 7273, 9294, 99, 211, 227, 243244
initial perspective 201202
lessons 174, 238
low points 174
‘more serious the smaller the team’ 154155
number of people in room 201
plenary sessions 211
poor practice 250
pragmatism versus principle 27
purpose 173
‘quagmires’ 30
‘real key to movement’ 101102
search for balance 21
text (British versus Irish emphasis) 94
‘text in play’ 31
venue (importance) 65
Nelson, Rosemary 227228
New Ireland Forum (1983–84) ix, 14, 26, 4043, 61, 204
non-response (importance) 156
non-violence 26, 27, 33, 62, 71, 72, 73, 77, 95, 103, 148149, 167, 193, 196
North–South bodies 5960, 231232, 237
North–South Ministerial Council 24, 36, 4663 passim, 128, 139
Northern Bank robbery xv, 62, 218, 225, 255
Northern Ireland (NI)
limits of politics 205206
thirty-year civil war 231
‘unique constitutional status in EU’ 140
Northern Ireland Assembly (1999–) xiixvii, 11, 23, 26, 28, 35, 128138 passim, 218
Northern Ireland Executive
(post-Sunningdale) 38
(post-Good Friday Agreement) xiii, 52, 60, 64, 127, 271
Northern Ireland Office 39, 40, 68, 94
O hUiginn, Sean 10, 26, 31, 67, 151, 155, 156, 179, 242
O’Ceallaigh, Daithi 39
O’Connor, Tim 10, 11, 39, 43
O’Donnell, Liz 6
background 207
benefited from ROI cross-party consensus 209210
British versus Irish approach 224
lawyer (impact on skills) 207208
as negotiator 208210
politics of engagement 207238
O’Hare, Rita 43, 44, 212
O’Leary, Ken 172
Official IRA 52, 109
Oireachtas x, 121, 138
Omagh bombing (1998) xiii, 218
On-the-Runs xvi, 169170, 222223
Ormeau Road, Belfast 101, 187, 189
Paisley, Dr Ian xivxviii, 52, 253256, 259261
private versus public persona 260
red line (end of violence) 259
parades xviii, 5, 50, 97, 186190, 196
‘right to march, right to offend’ 188
Sinn Fein viewpoint 189190
paramilitary organisations xviii, xix, 39, 147, 167, 185, 186, 234
dormancy (‘abhorrent concept’ for unionists) 182
partition (1921) 179, 182, 185, 193, 194, 195
passports 104
Patten Commission xiii, 115116, 262
terms of reference ‘critical’ 180
peace monument (proposed) 147
peace process xiixix
achievement of symmetry 7374
atrocities (effect) 42
British versus Irish approaches 92
British and Irish thinking (mutual influence) 95
British–Irish relations (improvement) 9394
creativity 70, 229
demands out of blue 197
dependence on one-to-one dialogue 242243
depends on talking to those engaged in violence 2
emotion 85
generational attitudes 270271
human relations 7
incremental 4445
intonation, emotion, humour (importance) 196197
Irish Government advantages 94
legal and political convergence 5, 118141
lessons 82, 268274
literature 23, 89, 274
‘marginal gains’ approach versus ‘big steps’ 195
morality 230
‘new beginning’ (perspectives) 176177
ossification 270271
public opinion (ROI) 62
role of individual 7
strategy and tactics 202203
timing and personalities 196
ups and downs (Irish anger with British) 9596
performative skills (Dixon) 4, 268269, 274
personalities 5, 196, 201, 270
Police Service of NI xv, xvii, 239
policing xvi, xvii, 64, 100, 262
British–Irish compromise 180181
‘effectiveness’ (need for whole-community acquiescence) 181
‘fairness’, ‘parity of esteem’ 184
‘force’ versus ‘service’ 181
‘great success’ of peace process 184
link with decommissioning 203204
loyalist perspective 186187
‘lustration’ 183184
‘most complicated’ part of negotiations (post–1998) 185
parades 187188
republican perspective 183, 185186
Policing Board 184, 185, 203
politics 269
‘pooling of sovereignty’ 119, 120
Powell, Jonathan 48, 52, 62, 111, 150, 172, 173, 189, 248, 252
on unionists 103
power-sharing 1, 5, 52, 53, 119, 182, 204, 233
pragmatism 27, 5455, 8586, 93, 146147, 272
policy and 56, 175206
prisoners and prisoner releases xiii, 20, 166169, 254255
‘only handful reoffended’ 255
paramount issue 170171
Progressive Democrat Party 6, 207, 216, 225, 230, 235
Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) 211, 212, 265
Protestants/Protestantism 195, 216
psychology 56, 114, 120, 148149, 156
public opinion 175, 229, 242, 244
Real IRA (1998–) xii, xiii, 43, 249
reconciliation 199200
referendums xii, 121, 122, 128, 129
Reid, Father Alec xv, 2, 91, 143
republicans
articulation of responses to peace process 12
‘comfortable with ambiguity’ 1213
demand for respect 111112, 114
dialogue with Irish Government 99
discourse (North versus South) 113114
engagement with peace process (early 1990s) 1112
Good Friday Agreement ‘seen as stepping stone’ 12
informal negotiation 111
‘neither adopted nor rejected’ Good Friday Agreement (logic) 1415
views re unionists 109110
respect 4, 186, 204, 212, 215, 264, 265, 266, 272
Reynolds, Albert 3, 4, 36, 84, 90, 91, 101, 166, 179, 208, 235
rights (European concept) 187188
risk and risk-taking 62, 105, 153, 166, 224, 230, 235, 255, 265, 272
Robinson, Peter xvii, xviii, 253, 261
Rogers, Brid 212, 214
Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) 64, 180
rule of law 124, 185, 191, 200, 201, 203, 239
St Andrews Agreement (2006) xvi, xxi, 84, 225, 243, 261
Scotland 6061, 63, 80, 117
security forces 145, 148149
self-determination 4, 127, 132, 133, 136, 179, 204
Sennett, R. 269, 274
September the eleventh attacks (2001) 102, 115, 116, 249
Shankill Road 44, 91
side-letters 31, 51, 86, 88, 110111, 126, 127, 219
‘formal’ part of peace process 252253
Sinn Fein xiixix, 143144
ability with documents 106107
buying time 88
‘certain amount of game playing’ 149, 152153
‘conversational approach’ versus ‘direct speaking’ 153
decommissioning (ignorance of Blair’s side-letter to Trimble) 126
decommissioning strategy 203204
delegation membership (clue to their thinking) 157158
future orientation 179
Good Friday Agreement
‘could not care less’ about three strands 1920
relative importance of strands 80
Strand Two 16, 18, 58
‘great chisellers’ (Powell) 48, 178
ideological approach 133
‘incredibly strategic’ 107108, 110
interest in detail of text 4748
and IRA 50, 108, 171
and Irish constitution 251
last-minute questions (Good Friday Agreement) 48, 8788, 111, 217218, 256257
‘monolithic’ (impression) 16, 111
most important issues (Good Friday Agreement) 15
as negotiators 17, 108110, 197199, 217, 221222
‘never finished’ 217218, 222
‘not always predictable’ 149150, 159
note-taking in meetings 151
Omagh bombing (response) 218
‘over-negotiation’ 52, 62
pace of peace process 5152
policing issue 182183
popularity in ROI 220
pragmatism 4344
presented Good Friday Agreement as success 1314
progressive versus retrogressive character 220
promises 145, 253
psychology 148149
resistance to outside pressure 193
‘rights-based’ approach to loyalist parades 187188
rise 1, 53, 91, 270
role in Forum for Peace 4246
secrecy and confidentiality 151152
text-writing 155
united Ireland ideology 6061
‘very good at politics’ 220221
women 212, 215
worked in small teams 247248
Sinn Fein leadership 5, 111113
background power-brokers 20, 106, 145146, 150, 164, 247249
complementarity of Adams and McGuinness 162163
difficulty of exerting leverage upon 166
need to carry followers 2526, 43, 5152, 107, 109, 110, 144168 passim
playing for time 149, 160, 164
skill of knowing when to compromise 158
texts from Irish Government 167
‘top-down’ versus ‘bottom-up’ policy shift 193
Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) xii, xiv, xvii, 4748, 197
‘always excellent’ (Ahern) 246247
decline 1, 53, 105, 253, 270
fury at two Governments 223
Good Friday Agreement negotiations 19, 20, 21, 25, 3435
Irish constitution 251
marginalisation (electoral) 230231
moving towards UUP 224
policing and national security 203204
socialising 197
socialism 113114
South Africa 41, 77, 233
Sowell, T. 272, 274
Special Branch 167, 183185
speeches 108
Stephens, Sir Jonathan 28, 48
subtext 156
Sunningdale (1973) 1, 2, 38, 39, 42, 54, 56, 204, 231
Supreme Court
British 136
Irish 54, 136
Sutherland, Graham 272
Taylor, John 17, 33, 47, 51, 104, 232, 236
Teahon, Paddy 28, 38, 47, 150, 243
Thatcher, Margaret 40, 54, 6667, 81, 85
‘spotlight approach’ 8384
Thomas, Sir Quentin xi, 28, 43, 100, 155
Tiger’s Bay 98
tone 155156
totality of relationships 30, 40, 77, 121, 135, 204
tourism 36, 55, 57, 232, 237
trade 202, 237
Tribunals of Inquiry (Evidence) Act 191, 192
Trimble, David xi, xiiixv, 1314, 103, 246
‘didn’t confide in people’ 15
Good Friday Agreement negotiations (‘two huge wins’) 35
inability to carry followers 105
meetings with Ahern 260, 262
policing 100
red line (end of violence) 259
relations with Ahern 88, 96, 242
side-letter on decommissioning 31, 51, 126, 127, 219, 252
‘volatile temperament’ 17, 81, 213
trust/confidence-building 86, 232233, 253254
truth 177178, 191192
Ulster Defence Association xvii, 77, 98
Ulster Democratic Party (UDP) 27, 77, 211, 265
Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) xiixiv, xvii, 13, 59, 208
bogged down in detail (best line of defence) 104105
decline 1, 105106, 253, 270
differences from DUP (Ahern) 258259
‘divided party’ 104, 105, 213
Good Friday Agreement negotiations 1835 passim, 58, 106
ineffectiveness as negotiators 102103
Irish Constitution (amendment) 124, 126
loss of public confidence 5253, 54
marginalisation (electoral) 230231
negotiating style 17
reactions ‘unpredictable’ 8182
unionists
caution towards negotiating documents 55
Downing Street Declaration 71
fears 194195, 209
Good Friday Agreement 1517
IRA ceasefire (‘permanence’ issue) 74
lack of coherence 245246
language 234
loss of status 35, 233
main concern (whether war was over or not) 5153
non-contact with adversaries (maintenance of hard-line position) 233
North–South bodies (apprehension) 231232, 237
‘nothing wrong’ with NI 199200
refer to ‘Belfast Agreement’ rather than ‘Good Friday Agreement’ 252
registration of Good Friday Agreement at UN 136
views re republicans 109110
united Ireland 14, 6061, 132, 133
United Nations 133, 135137, 258
International Court of Justice 135, 136, 137
United States xvi, 81, 199, 249
ignorance of unionism 116117
importance 114116
victimhood 194
visas 81, 114, 115
war-weariness 109, 144, 206
Washington Three conditions (1995) 4, 73, 75, 198199, 249
watchtowers xiii, 145, 161, 165, 258
West Belfast 101, 104, 109, 111, 151
Widgery report 185, 190191
women 6, 44, 211216, 220
mediation skills 214
Women’s Coalition 50, 211212, 214, 215, 265
zero-sum games 82, 86, 215, 233, 268

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