Index
in The European Left Party

Index

Agustín, Ó. G. 245
AKEL (Progressive Party of Working People) 26, 50‒1, 97‒8, 127, 146‒8, 156, 171‒2, 190, 242‒3
Allende, Salvador 45
Almeida, D. 3
Alternative European Summit (2012) 162
L’Altra Europa coalition 241
Amendola, Giorgio 52, 56
Amsterdam Treaty (1997) 45, 61
Andeweg, R. 19
‘Another Road for Europe’ forum (2012) 228
Arhinmäki, Paavo 170
Assange, Julian 163
Athens declaration (2005) 127‒8
Auken, Margrete 175‒6, 214
austerity and anti-austerity 120‒1, 127‒8, 137‒45, 149, 153, 158‒63, 190, 230
authoritarianism of the EU 142
Auzende, Patrick 170
Baier, Walter 5, 163, 252
Bailey, D. J. 229, 248
Bardi, L. 2, 19, 21
Barroso, José Manuel 25, 147, 189‒90
Bartolini, Stefano 19‒20
Belgium 250‒1
Bell, D. 44
Benedetto, G. 39, 42, 44, 46, 50
Berlinguer, Enrico 43, 45, 54‒6, 60‒1, 143
Bertinotti, Fausto 6, 84, 87‒90, 132, 145, 157, 170‒1
Bevan, Aneurin 139
bilateral contacts between parties and regimes 65‒6
Bisky, Lothar 6, 81‒2, 107, 126‒9, 132, 134, 239, 242
Blair, Tony 35
Bolkestein, Frits (and Bolkestein Directive) 72‒3, 128
Bologna Process 131
Bomberg, Elizabeth 37, 203
Brexit 1, 24, 141, 151, 234, 251
Browning, C. S. 174
‘cadre’ parties 31‒2
Calossi, E. 3, 54, 99, 130‒1, 248
capitalism 16, 214
Carrillo, Santiago 43, 48
Charalambous, G. 3, 48, 145‒7
Chomsky, Noam 163
Christensen, D. A. 49‒50
Christofias, Demetris 26, 146‒7, 188‒9, 229
Citizen-Agora process 131
civic nationalism 48
Comintern 66
‘Comintern aversion’ 40, 174, 238
Committee for a Workers’ International 67
Committee of the Regions 88‒9, 205
communist identity 56
Communist International and New Communist International 66‒7
communist links to civil society and trade unions 156
Communist Party 67
of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM) 70, 72, 97‒8, 171‒3, 212, 242, 245
of Britain 77
French (PCF) 11, 236, 242‒3, 251
of Greece (KKE) 178, 186‒8, 212, 238
Portuguese (PCP) 179
Communists and Allies group 42, 51‒9, 89, 183
Confederal Group of the European United Left / Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) 6, 31, 39, 42, 51, 61‒3, 65, 71‒4, 81, 83, 87, 115‒16, 122, 124, 139, 155, 162, 172, 175‒83, 188, 191, 205‒6, 211, 227‒32, 237‒44, 248, 251
development of national components 72‒3
consensual decision-making 16
Conservative Party, UK 28, 33, 35
‘consolidator’ parties 90‒1, 171‒2
contre-sociétés (Kriegel) 156
Council of Chairpersons of the EL 102‒4
Council of the EU 21, 33, 188
presidency of 229
Crocodile Club 56
Cuba 180
Cué, Nico 245, 250
Cyprus 145‒8, 156, 189, 229
Day, J. 115
Day, S. 29
debt crisis 233‒4
decantation function of TNPs 35
decision-making model of the EU 6, 16
de Gaulle, Charles 2, 48‒9
Delors, Jacques 46
democratic centralism 50
‘democratic deficit’ 19, 30, 215
Democratic Left Scotland (DLS) 96, 109
Democratic Party of the Left (PDS) 42
de Rossa, Proinsias 60, 116
DiEM25 movement 163, 246, 252
Dietz, T. M. 203
Douzinas, Costas 150
Duff, Andrew (and Duff Report) 24, 28‒9
Dunphy, R. (co-author) 3, 211, 214
Duverger, Maurice 19, 30, 59
Economic and Social Committee of the EU 88‒9
economic policy, common ground on 221
egalitarian values 13
elections, ‘second-order’ 27‒8, 137, 234
EL FEM network 159
entrepreneurialism 29, 231
entryism 160
environmental policy 130‒1, 205
Ettinger, H. 83
Eurobonds 221, 228
Eurocommunist parties 41, 43, 62, 64, 174, 236
EuroMémorandum network 162
Europarties 2, 17, 29‒30, 32, 38, 233
stages in development of 34
European Anti-Capitalist Left (EACL) 74‒6, 84, 89, 169, 177
European Central Bank (ECB) 88, 128, 130, 133, 149, 163, 221, 228
European Citizens’ Initiatives (ECIs) 24, 119‒20, 124, 132
European Commission 20, 33
candidates for presidency 208
presidency 136‒7
European Council (of heads of government) 20, 188
European Forums 122
European Free Alliance (EFA) 227‒8
European Green Party (EGP) 193‒4, 197, 200‒10, 216‒20, 223, 230, 235
European institutions 8, 190‒1, 208, 211, 215, 230, 233, 236, 239‒40
European Left Forum 70
European Left Party (EL) 3‒6, 10‒17, 38, 61‒5, 81‒137
absences from 91
achievements of 238‒43, 249
challenges for 245‒7
and civil society 156‒63
Council of Chairpersons 102‒4
creation of 81‒92
critics of 179
development of 235‒40
electoral performance 165‒6, 251
in the European Parliament 115‒17, 188
General Assembly 100‒2, 197
Identity Card 120
individual membership of 14, 94, 108‒15, 124, 238
institutionalisation of 210, 237
internal divisions within 194, 211, 243
lack of a parliamentary group 211
limitations of 92, 230‒1, 237
manifesto (2004) 88‒9, 92
members of 84‒6
non-adherents to 167
policy coherence 7, 15
policy convergence with other TNPs 193‒4
policy priorities 216‒20
political presence of 94
potential contradiction between majority voting and consensus 123
presidency of 106‒7
processes in 14, 94, 99‒108
programmatic and policy development 127‒37
prospects for 244‒7, 252‒3
reasons for parties’ joining 168‒9
relationships with other parties 15, 89‒90, 164‒80, 190, 207, 231, 239
small staff of 31
statutes of 87, 95‒6
European Parliament (EP) 1‒2, 6, 13‒14, 18, 36, 20, 41, 88
cohesion of the groups in 183‒7
elections to 19, 250
lack of a direct executive function 181
pan-European seats in 24
reliance on consensus principles 181
European People's Party (EPP) 235
European social model 88
European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) 158
European Troika 1, 7, 15, 136, 142, 148‒53, 229‒30
European Union
attitudes to 9‒10, 40‒1, 88, 215
common policy of 11
criticisms of 142‒5, 153, 239
nature of 248
prospects for reform of 6, 10, 153, 194‒5, 231‒4, 240, 248
Europeanisation 94, 123, 126, 148, 248
of culture 141
of debt 140
definition of 36‒7
‘indirect’ 243
networks of 36‒8, 243
Europeanism 83‒4, 87, 92, 124, 138‒9, 153, 173, 178‒9, 231, 243
Europe des patries and Europe des partis 2, 18
‘Eurosceptic’ label 9, 57‒8, 171, 249
Euroscepticism 3, 7‒10, 13, 26, 29, 39, 45‒50, 244
forms of 9
‘hard’ and ‘soft’ 9, 46
of left and right 48
Eurozone membership 58, 138‒40, 147‒51
Executive Board of the EL 104‒6, 113, 134‒5, 152, 197
Farage, Nigel 10
‘federal’ policies 24, 26, 235, 244
Ferrara, city of 160
Ferraro, Paulo 242
Filip, Vojtĕch 173
Finnish Left Alliance (VAS) 11, 170‒1, 241
Fiscal Compact 147
‘fiscal waterboarding’ 1, 240
foreign policy 58, 213, 215
‘four freedoms’ 1
La France Insoumise (FI) 245-6
Freire, A. 47
full membership parties 94‒6
funding, European 19
further study, implications for 247‒9
Gabriel, Sigmar 190, 229
Gagatek, W. 28
Garavini, Sergio 157
Gauthier, Elizabeth 162
Germany 41
globalisation 88
global justice movement (GJM) 157‒60, 191, 214
Gorbachev, Mikhail 61
Grebenicek, Miroslav 182‒3
Greece 1, 8, 14‒15, 47, 51, 127, 133, 136‒41, 144, 149‒53, 186, 229, 233‒4, 245, 251
Green parties 16‒17, 20, 37, 113‒14, 175‒6, 214‒15, 227‒8, 231, 235
Green Party of England and Wales 204‒5, 210
Green Radical and European Link (GRAEL) 201
‘Grexit’ 150
Group for the European United Left 60
Guiat, C. 44
Gusmão, José 8
Gysi, Gregor 6‒7, 104, 107, 152‒3, 250
Haas, E. B. 29
Halikiopoulou, D. 3, 9, 48, 58
Hanley, D. 28‒35, 89, 92, 197, 204
hegemony, political 41
Henin, Jacky 11
Herberg, Martin 111
Hilário, Carmen 110‒12
Hines, E. H. 205
Hix, S. 20, 32
Hollande, François 229
Holmes, M. 215
Holzinger, L. 161
Hudson, K. 3, 69‒70, 128
Hue, Robert 43, 46
Humanité Festival 161
human rights 133, 135
Iceland 175
idealists with regard to TNPs 29‒30
Iglesias, Pablo 173, 246
‘indirect parties’ 30‒1
INITIATIVE of Communist and Workers’ Parties 80‒2
integration, European 2, 9‒10, 13, 15, 18‒19, 29, 36‒9, 62, 65, 138‒9, 196, 236, 239, 243, 248‒9
criticism of direction of 128
diversity of RLP responses to 40‒2
obstacles to 231
paralysis of 135
interaction between TNPs 207
intergovernmentalism 235, 237
‘internally created’ parties 19
International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations 68
International Meetings of Communist and Workers’ Parties (IMCWP) 76‒81, 84, 92
participants in Istanbul (2015) 78‒9
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 88, 213, 215
International Socialist Tendency 67
Ioannou, G. 147
Iraq 213
isolationism 62
Israel 135, 213
Italy 137‒8, 145
Iversen, John 49
Janssen, Thilo 10‒12
Johansen, A. 241
Johansen, I. V. 12
Johansson, K. M. 32
Jospin, Lionel 46, 213
Juncker, Jean-Claude 25
Karatsioubanis, Giorgos 104, 111, 175
Katz–Mair model 30
Keith, D. 9, 48
Keynesian policies 129, 195‒6, 212
Kouvelakis, Stathis 149‒51
Kriegel, Annie 156
Labour Party, British 26‒31, 35, 195‒6, 199‒200
Ladrech, R. 32, 37, 196, 243
Lafontaine, Oskar 163
Laprat, Gérard 59
Laurent, Pierre 102, 107, 112‒14, 132, 162, 242
Left Caucus 228‒9
Left Europeanism 13, 39‒42, 47, 49, 58, 62‒4, 129‒32, 142, 161, 176, 202, 236‒40, 243, 246‒9
Left Front (FG) in France 11
Left Platform 140, 149‒50
legitimacy 35‒6
badges of 242
Le Hyarik, Patrick 11
Lenin, V. I. 180, 248
Lepola, Sanna 171
Liebknecht, Karl 84
Lightfoot, S. 209, 215
Lindberg, L. N. 29
Lisbon Treaty 24‒5, 28, 119, 130, 147
Lisi, M. 47
Loach, Ken 163
Lord, C. 20, 32
Luxemburg, Rosa 84
Lynch, P. 19
Maastricht Treaty 20, 57, 61, 88, 128, 205
manifesto co-ordination 20, 28, 33, 36
Manifesto of Ventotene 7‒8, 40, 54‒7, 252
manifestos for EP elections 127‒31, 138, 215
Maoist Internationals 63
Marchais, Georges 43, 46
Martins, C. 246
Marxism-Leninism 178, 180
‘matching positions’ between left-of-centre groups 225‒6
Matias, Marisa 8
Mélenchon, Jean-Luc 4‒5, 11, 151, 153, 163, 170, 245‒6, 251‒2
Merkel, Angela 25
militarism, opposition to 129‒30
Millios, Yannis 141
Mitterrand, François 46, 196
monetarism 128
More O’Ferrall, Richard 114
Mpellou, E. 79‒80
Mudde, Cas 9
multilateralism, decline of 66‒8
Nanou, K. 3, 9, 58
nationalism 9, 12‒13, 39, 41, 47, 62, 234
‘national roads to socialism’ 40‒1, 62, 178, 180
national sovereigntism 39, 42, 47, 49, 63‒4, 234, 236, 248
nation-states 11, 13
neoliberalism 7, 10, 40‒1, 57, 61, 89, 92, 127‒30, 138‒40, 143‒7, 152‒3, 156, 162, 177, 193‒6, 213, 221‒4, 228, 231‒2, 234, 236, 239‒40, 248
alternatives to 232
changing views on 221‒4
networking nature of the EL 155, 181, 191, 238
New European Left Forum (NELF) 68‒71, 83, 89
Niedermayer, Oskar 34, 206, 240
Nikolakakis, Nikos 139‒40
Non-inscrits (non-attached MEPs) 74
Nordic Green Left Alliance (NGLA) 91‒2, 174
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) 16, 48‒9, 80‒1, 88, 128‒31, 213, 215, 221, 241
‘Now, the People’ initiative 246
observer parties 94‒8
open structures to promote participation in policy-making 117
Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) 47
Papadimoulis, Dimitris 141
‘parliamentary road to socialism’ 180
Parti de Gauche (PG) 151‒3, 170, 234, 239
‘partification’ 20
partnership agreements with the EL 94‒8
‘Party Article’ 20
party-building, supranational 18
Party of Communist Refoundation, Italian (PRC) 127, 145‒8, 214, 251
Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) 164, 169, 241, 243
party Congress of the EL 99‒100
Party of European Socialists (PES) 193‒200, 207‒10, 215‒22, 227, 230‒1, 235, 237
pragmatic intergovernmentalism of 195‒200
party system of the EU64, 188, 233, 238
organigram of 26‒7
‘partyness’ 28‒31
‘party-networks’ 233
term preferable to ‘party networks’ 34
path dependence 40, 57, 236
People's Movement Against the EEC 50
petitions to the European Commission 119
Petrenco, Grigore 168‒9
Piquet, René 60
‘Plan B in Europe’ 163, 245‒6
Podemos 173‒4, 238, 244‒7, 251
Poguntke, T. 37
policy convergence within the broader left 211‒30
policy emulation and policy transfer 35
policy-making procedures 242‒3
policy positions of EP groups 211‒12
policy priorities of left-of-centre parties 216‒20
Political Action Programme (2011‒13) 132‒3
Political Document (Berlin, 2016) 141‒2
‘political engineering’ 35, 241
Political Secretariat of the EL 107‒8
Pollock, M. 1
populism 2‒3, 5, 9, 252
Portas, Miguel 102
Prague theses (2007) 127‒9
principal–agent theory 32‒3
Prodi, Romano 29, 145‒6, 170
Progressive Caucus 229, 232
protectionism 48‒9, 62
public opinion 44‒6
Quaglia, L. 39, 42, 44, 46, 50
qualified majority voting (QMV) 6, 16, 34, 197, 208
‘radical dilemma’ 248
radical left parties (RLPs) 2‒9, 12‒13, 65, 139, 156‒7, 190‒1, 213‒15, 234, 236, 251‒2
divisions between 7
shaping the European policy of 42‒51
radical right parties 5, 21
Ransdorf, Miloslav 97, 116‒17, 173
realists with regard to TNPs 29‒30
Red-Green Alliance (RGA), Danish 41, 75‒6, 91, 97‒8, 119, 169‒70, 239, 241, 248‒9
‘red-greens and ‘green-greens’ 204‒5, 214
referenda 131, 149
see also Brexit
reformism
‘hard’ and ‘soft’ 10
‘strong’ and ‘weak’ 55, 57, 62‒3
regional forums of the EL 118
‘resisters’ 174‒80
revisionism 80, 173
Rossi, Ernesto 40, 54
São Paulo Forum 163
Scandinavian parties 98
scepticism about TNPs 28, 30
Schäuble, Wolfgang 1
Scholz, Helmut 102‒4, 164
Scottish Socialist Party 177
sectarianism 190
Seiler, Daniel-Louis 28, 30
self-efficacy 14
Shaw, J. 29, 115
Silone, Ignazio 196
Single European Act 57
Sinn Féin 115‒16, 251
Soares, Mario 137, 139
‘social democratic moment’ 230
social democratic parties 15‒16, 35‒6, 61, 88, 139, 145, 157, 195‒9, 211‒14, 228
‘social Europe’ 157‒8, 211‒12
Social Forums, World and European (WSF and ESF) 15, 158‒61
socialisation 35‒7, 241
socialism 19, 140, 239
Socialist International 91‒2
Socialist Party of England and Wales 67
Socialist Workers’ Party in Ireland 67‒8
Socialist Workers’ Party in the UK 79, 177
social movements 2, 66, 160
social-movement unionism 157
social protocols 250
Soeiro, Renato 102
sovereignty 11
pooling of 33
Soviet Union 40‒1
Spain 251
Spence, Stephen 112‒13
Spinelli, Altiero 7, 10, 29, 40, 52‒7, 60‒1, 143, 189
Spinelli, Barbara 57, 139
Spitzenkandidaten role 25, 210, 246, 250‒1
Stability Pact 128, 130, 146, 221
Stalin, Joseph (and Stalinism) 87, 96, 168‒9, 190, 241
state intervention, consensus on 221
strike action 158‒9
summer universities 122‒4
supranationalism 62, 83
symbols, parties’ use of 209
Syriza (formerly Synaspismós) 3, 7, 15‒16, 41, 58, 97, 111, 124, 126‒7, 133, 139‒45, 148‒53, 163, 190, 229‒30, 234, 239‒40, 243‒6, 251
in government 148‒51
Szczerbiak, Aleks 9
Taggart, Paul 9, 50
‘There Is No Other Way’ (TINA) 234
Thibault, Bernard 157
‘Third way’ policies 88
Tobin tax 128‒30
Tomić, Violeta 245, 250
‘top-down institutionalisation’ (Bartolini) 19, 33, 83
trade unions 156‒8
Transform! (think-tank and journal) 122‒4, 160‒2, 175, 191, 241, 252
transnationalism 1‒2, 64‒6, 234
forms of 65, 238
positive and negative 92, 237
transnational party federations (TNPs) 2‒4, 12‒38, 89‒91, 164, 181, 234
achievements of 35‒6
campaigning in EP elections 21‒2
characteristics of different federations 22‒3
context of 18‒26
development of 233‒4
existing functions of 34‒8
groups affiliated to 189
individual membership of 31, 34, 108
influence on EU executive policy 21, 35‒6
institutionalisation of 210
lack of up-to-date studies of 247
middle-way followed by 32
obstacles faced by 26
possible roles for 17, 21, 25‒9, 32‒8, 243, 247‒8
regulations governing operation of 21, 37
similarities between 197
stages in development of 240‒1
weaknesses of 19, 21
transnational policy discussion and policy-making in the EL 117‒23
Trotsky, Leon (and Trotskyist International) 67‒8, 177‒8
Tsipras, Alexis (and the ‘Tsipras factor’) 9, 14, 25‒6, 57, 126, 133‒42, 149‒51, 188, 210, 239, 241, 245, 250
Turkey 147
Turrero, R. M. 79
United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) 24
United Left (ZL) coalition 171
United Nations (UN) 88
United States of Europe 54‒5, 59
Van Hecke, S. 33
Varoufakis, Yanis 1, 5, 163, 176, 240, 245, 252
Vasilopoulou, S. 3, 9, 58
Vercammen, François 177
Von dem Berge, B. 37
Wagenknecht, Sahra 246
Wallace, H. 1
welfare states, highly-developed 62
Wils, Sabine 158
working groups of the EL 117‒18, 124, 158, 175, 191
World Bank 213, 215
World Trade Organization (WTO) 88, 215
xenophobia 48
Yaroufakis, Yanis 148‒9, 229
Young, A. 1
Zimmer, Gabi 116, 227, 239, 251‒2
Žižek, Slavoj 163

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