Appendix 2
The main scholars referred to
in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages

Appendix II

The main scholars referred to

Asher ben Yehiel, also known as Asheri and Rosh, c. 1250–1327, talmudist. Student of Meir ben Barukh of Rothenburg, lived in Cologne and Coblenz. From there he moved to Worms. Left Germany in 1303, reached Barcelona and settled in Toledo, Spain.

Eleazar ben Judah of Worms, c. 1165–c. 1230, Worms, Germany. Scholar in the fields of halakhah, theology, and exegesis. Eleazar was the last major scholar of the Hasidei Ashkenaz. Born in Mainz, he travelled and studied in many of the centres of Jewish learning in Germany and northern France.

Eliezer ben Nathan, known as Raban, 1090–1170, Mainz, Germany. A leading rabbinic authority in Germany in the twelfth century. His major opus is Sefer Ha-Raban (the Book of Raban), which he called Even ha-Ezer (Stone of Help).

Eliezer Ben Samuel of Metz. c. 1115-c. 1198, tosafist and halakhic authority. Served as an intermediary between the centres of study in France and those in Germany. He was a pupil of Jacob ben Meir Tam (Rabbenu Tam), as well as of Samuel ben Meir, and Hayyim Cohen of Paris. Among his disciples were some of the greatest German rabbis, such as Eliezer ben Yoel HaLevi and Eleazar ben Judah of Worms, author of the Rokeah.

Eliezer ben Yoel haLevi, known as Raviah, c. 1140–1225, Bonn, Germany, rabbinic scholar. His maternal grandfather was Eliezer ben Nathan. Eliezer moved around a great deal, apparently through France and Lombardy, living, inter alia, in Bonn, Worms, Würzburg, Mainz, Metz, Cologne, and Regensburg.

Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn, b. 1132, liturgical poet and commentator. Wrote the Sefer Zekhirah (Book of Remembrance) and elegies on the sufferings of the Jews during the Second Crusade.

Gershom ben Judah Meor haGolah, c. 960–1028. One of the first great German talmudic scholars, born in Metz, lived in Mainz.

Isaac ben Moses of Vienna, c. 1180-c. 1250, halakhic authority in Germany and France. He is usually referred to as Isaac Or Zarua, i.e., by the title of his important halakhic work. Isaac was born in Bohemia, coming into contact with contemporary German and French scholars, whose teachings had a great influence on him.

Jacob ben Meir, known as Rabbenu Tam, c. 1100–1171, Ramerupt, France. Tosafist and leading French scholar of the twelfth century. Rabbenu Tam was the grandson of Rashi and the son of Meir ben Samuel, Rashi’s son-in-law.

Judah ben Samuel HaHasid, d. 1217, Speyer and Regensburg. Main mentor and promoter of the Hasidei Ashkenaz movement. Judah was one of the most prominent scholars of the Middle Ages in the fields of ethics and theology.

Maharam, see Meir ben Barukh of Rothenburg.

Meir ben Barukh of Rothenburg, c. 1220–1293, known as Maharam. Teacher, scholar, tosafist, and supreme arbiter in ritual, legal, and community matters in Germany. He was born in Worms. At the age of twelve Meir joined the well known school of Rabbi Isaac Or Zarua, in Würzburg, where he studied for about six years. Subsequently moved to Mainz, where he studied under his relative Rabbi Judah ben Moses ha-Kohen. Finally, he went to France and studied under the great tosafists Samuel ben Solomon of Falaise and Yehiel of Paris. After 1240 he returned to Germany and within a few years settled in Rothenburg, where he remained for more than forty years, until 1286. Or Zarua, see Isaac ben Moses of Vienna.

Raban, see Eliezer ben Nathan. Rabbenu Tam, see Jacob ben Meir.

Rashi, see Solomon ben Isaac.

Raviah, see Eliezer ben Yoel haLevi.

Rosh, see Asher ben Yehiel.

Simhah ben Samuel, Speyer, Germany, second half of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth century, German scholar.

Solomon ben Isaac, known as Rashi, 1040–1105, Troyes, France. The leading commentator on the Bible and Talmud.

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