Index
in African perspectives in international investment law

Index

‘Abs-Shawcross Draft Convention on Investments Abroad’ 248
Academia 252
adjudicators 251
AEC see African Economic Community
African Caribbean and Pacific Group of States 178
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights 102
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 101
African continental free trade agreement 187
African Court of Justice and Human Rights 103
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 102
Amended Protocol 103
African Economic Community (AEC) 71
Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community 1867
African Economic Law 187
African host states 2
African states 27, 181
economic progress 87
investment court system 228
regulatory capacity 88
Africanization 258
African Regional Economic Communities (RECs) 256
African Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action 71
African Society of International Law (AfSIL) 4, 226, 264
Principles 1921, 259
harmonization of investment policies and legislation 28
Principles on International Investment for Sustainable Development 4, 19
unpredictable interpretive effects 27
African Union (AU) 71, 101, 103, 159, 186, 259
Continental Free Trade Area 259
Court of Arbitration 261
Organization for African Unity (OAU) 186
Pan-African Investment Code (PAIC) 259
counterclaims 261
Afrobarometer 162
AfSIL see African Society of International Law
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) 66, 689, 724, 76, 82
TRIPS-Plus 67, 734, 80
TRIPS regime 714, 757
Alien Tort Claims Act 166
aliens 41
amicus curiae 100, 247
anti-competitive behaviour 182
Arab countries 191
Arab Maghreb Union 179
arbitral awards 35, 38, 47, 107, 111, 147–8
arbitral award 94, 126
diversity of 177
enforcement of 244
Ghana 121, 129
arbitral tribunals 31, 34, 401, 1001, 1289, 144
inconsistent awards 242
jurisprudence of 177, 185
precedent 241
arbitrators 2334
Argentina 251
Asia 67, 71, 253
Belgium 230
bilateral investment treaties (BITs) 3, 22, 33, 40, 667, 89, 90, 93, 175
Belgium–Luxemburg–South Africa BIT 22
Canadian Model BIT 48
Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement 268
first-generation 91
Germany and Pakistan 248
Greece and Romania 142
growing unpopularity 132
Indian Model BIT 98, 151
interests of investors 4
multiplicity of 16
new-generation BIT 938, 1001, 104
Nigeria–Morocco BIT 95, 99, 133, 151, 1914
Article 18 (2) 95
provisions on transparency 246
SADC Model BIT 98, 151
second-generation 30
South Africa and the Czech Republic 147, 151
trade and investment agreements 76
Tribunal’s jurisdiction 94
United States model bilateral investment treaty 8
US Model BIT 37, 255
US–Rwandan BIT 99
bilateralism 248
BITs see bilateral investment treaties
Bolivia 250
Brazil 2501
breaches of statutory duty 170
British Investment Treaty 36
broad interpretation 43
Calvo Doctrine 3, 18, 139, 176
Canada 38, 231, 254
Canadian Model BIT 48
CETA see European Union–Canada Comprehensive and Economic Trade Agreement
civil liability 98
colonial era 1315
COMESA see Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) 179, 257
COMESA Investment Agreement 257, 261
COMESA regional treaty 1845
common market 181
Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa 184
compensation 423, 100, 133, 1489
remediation for any adverse human rights impacts 160
competition laws 182
Comprehensive Economic Trade Agreement 226, 230
consistency in case law 241
constitution 108, 112
constitutional conditions 129
constitutionalism 108
constitutional law 266
constitutional supremacy 1078, 110, 11920
South Africa 138
violation 116
Constitution of the Republic of Ghana 1079, 111, 11820, 125
contemporary international economic relations 33
contestations 2, 18, 25, 28
global reform 18
regional emancipation 19
contribution 8, 1112
corporate social responsibility 87, 134, 144, 178, 180, 190, 267
social responsibility 193
voluntary codes of conduct 165
corruption 86, 101, 141
Tribunal Members 241
costs of proceedings 245
counterclaims 2689
customary international law 31, 357, 412, 1378, 170, 192
minimum standard of treatment of 139, 147
customary law 20
Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order 3
decolonization era 89
‘democratic’ governments 157
retreat of democracy 158
de facto multilateralization 2556
see also multilateralism
de novo 240
Department of Trade and Industry 141
developed countries 69, 72, 76, 80
developed country members 73
technologically advanced economies 71
developing host States 301, 467
developing countries 69, 726, 78
development imperatives 70
development, right to 158
domestic economic policy 156
government 81, 166
Dicey, Albert 108
‘direct investment’ 11
dispute prevention 193
dispute settlement mechanisms 40
Dolzer, Rudolf 33
domestic courts 244
domestic dispute resolution 191
domestic law 253, 2656
Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement 268
Draft Pan-African Code 234, 267
due diligence 41, 266
duty of confidentiality 245
East African Community (EAC) 179
Tripartite Free Trade Area 258
Eastern European, countries 182
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 48, 179
Common Investment Code 48
Court of Justice of the 159
Energy Protocol 182
Model BIT 48, 71
Supplementary Act on Investments 969, 151
Treaty 180
economic development 66, 70, 86, 136, 178, 180
economic advancement 81
economic growth 47, 70, 133, 142, 155
economic integration 254
economic intelligence 17
ECOWAS see Economic Community of West African States
Ecuador 250
‘electoral democracy’ 153, 171
emancipation 19, 23, 27
emancipatory reform 26
empirical studies 265
employment of local workers 193
enhanced regionalism 247
environmental degradation 29
environmental law 253
ethics of Tribunal Members 262
EU see European Union
European Court of Human Rights 235n.55
European Energy Charter Treaty 182, 228
European Parliament Resolution of 6 April 2011 on the Future European International Investment Policy 37
European Union (EU) 74, 226
European Commission 2278
European Union–Japan FTA 230
European Union–Vietnam FTA 27, 230
international investment policy 251
reforming ISDS 251
European Union–Canada Comprehensive and Economic Trade Agreement 27, 226, 262
consistency and predictability 243
expedited process 244
interpretations 242
Investment Court System 22754
amicus curie briefs 247
Appellate Tribunal 231, 2402, 262
Chairperson 236
code of conduct 2378
exclusion for Tribunal Members 236
grounds for annulment 240
independence and impartiality 2339
Joint Interpretative Instrument 230, 238
‘loser pays principle’ 244
nationality of the respondent State 236
perception of bias 237
jurisprudence 242
sustainable development 230
trust and legitimacy 243
types of remedies 245
expropriation 22, 423, 91, 131, 140, 148, 176
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative 159
extraterritorial jurisdiction 86
extraterritoriality 168
‘facilitation agreements’ 134, 250
fair and equitable treatment (FET) 31, 359, 44, 478, 144, 177, 185, 265
China 39
Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement 39
South Africa 39
Fair Labour Association’s working conditions in factories 159
FDI see foreign direct investment
Federal Republic of Germany 35
FET see fair and equitable treatment
foreign direct investment (FDI) 13, 13, 71, 83, 87, 155
African basic needs 16
CETA 226
competing interests 32, 34
competition 7
instability can also be conducive to 84
foreign investment 4, 31, 139, 184
regulation 254
West African region 181
foreign investment treaties 32, 345, 39, 41, 47
expropriation 35
foreign investor 32, 46
interpreted 31
investor-state dispute settlement clauses 31
legal protection 30
legitimate expectation 35
foreign investors 31, 33, 36, 40, 42, 44, 45
forum non conveniens 170
free trade agreements 30, 66
freeloading 69
free riding 76
Friendship, Commerce and Navigation 30, 35, 89
full powers 11415
full protection 42
full protection and security 401, 266
Gambia 182
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 68, 151
Generalized System of Preferences 178
Geneva Center for International Dispute Settlement 252
Ghana 182
Global Compact Network Nigeria 160
Global Competitive Index 162
global economy 186
global foreign direct investment inward stock 254
global inequalities 29
global international investment reform 262
global reform 21, 289, 244, 258
globalization 157, 180
ISDS 250
Global Strategy and Plan of Action 66
global trade and investment liberalization 249
The Hague 193
harmonization of investment regimes 257
Harvard Draft Convention on the International Responsibility of States for Injuries to Aliens 249
Havana Charter 248
health 76
home States 979, 101
host states 323, 357, 3946, 48, 77, 81, 923, 97, 99, 101, 192
corruption 97
human rights 95
human rights institutions 86
local remedies 193
public interests 38
right to regulate 80, 133, 142
South Africa 137, 150
Hull formula 3
Hull 176
human rights 847, 91, 93, 96, 99101, 103, 154, 192, 253, 266
adjudication 98
‘dialogue-cooperation strategy’ 166
due diligence 160
human rights abuses 88, 155, 160
corporate accountability 87, 165
liability 98
negative obligations 95
Netherlands 170
state duty 161
ICSID see International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes 8, 47, 177, 239
IMF see International Monetary Fund
imperialism 158
independent judiciary 260
India 251
Indonesia 250
industrially developed countries 67
Intellectual Property Rights 67, 72, 267
intellectual property 68, 70
protection 69, 72
inter-State arbitration 193
internal law 11618, 127, 129
international and comparative investment law 186
international business or economic transaction 120, 126, 129
international economic relations 226
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 8, 47, 91, 177, 239
Additional Facility Rules 244
Arbitration Rules 2456
awards 13
Convention 249, 26566
denounced membership 250
costs of the arbitration 245
Panel of Arbitrators 234
report of the ICSID administrators 10
Secretariat 232
International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination 159, 178
Nigeria 171
International Court of Justice 235n.55
national judges 236
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 159
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 159
see also United Nations
‘international development law’ 14
international human rights law 160
International Institute for Sustainable Development 24, 253
international investment arbitration attracted growing criticisms 250
international investment law 18, 34, 424, 88, 248
countries of Africa 183
interpretation 26, 266
private rights 32
public interests 32
regional and national approaches 250
international investment regime 31, 251
illegitimacy 253
legitimacy crisis 251
international investment treaty 25
International Labour Organization 193
international law 423, 94, 96, 103, 110, 114, 117, 1201, 129, 137, 265
international legal personality 912
international minimum standard 36
transparency 81
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 90, 187
International Trade Organization 248
international water law 266
interpretation 401, 45, 137
teleological 102
interventionism 155
investment 7
contribute to development 267
criteria of 8
definition 79, 1213, 1356, 267
contention 177
contribution to development of the host State 11, 16
criteria 12
dispute settlement system 250
human rights violations 978
legality of the 268
no general definition 8
promotion and protection 254
interdisciplinary 264
under ICSID 910
investment arbitration 1
investment disputes 1
Harmonization of Business Law in Africa 17
investment policy reform 27
investment protection 28, 137, 265
contestation 29
see also protection
Investment Protection Act (2015) 223, 48
investment treaties 1, 3, 34
consent to be bound 117
dispute settlement mechanisms 27
domestic legislation 143
international investment agreements 2, 107, 110, 259
investor obligations 27
making of a treaty 114, 117
investment treaty law 42–3
investor 137, 145, 147, 150, 191
discriminatory 146
obligations 143
protection 151
investor-State arbitration 44
amicus curie briefs 247
see also amicus curiae
investor-State dispute settlement (ISDS) 245, 27, 31, 35, 45–6, 126, 22763
expansive interpretation 379
ICSID Convention 128
increase in costly ISDS cases 250
international arbitration 193
investment dispute resolution 177
investor-State arbitrations 94, 150, 152
reforming ISDS 228
State-investor arbitrations 98
ISDS see investor-State dispute settlement
ius cogens 120
Japan 251, 254
jurisdiction 89
compulsory jurisdiction 252
jurisprudence constante 242
Kenya 191
labor standards 90
labor law 253
Nigeria–Morocco BIT 95, 133
legal certainty 241
legal infringement 41
legitimacy 31, 856
legitimate expectation 446, 1778, 267
level playing field 33, 45
lex arbitriti 176
lex loci arbitri 122
lex mercatoria 176
lex specialis 176, 266
liberal democracy 153, 157
local remedies 244, 251, 25960
locus standi 88
Mann, Francis 36
Mauritius Convention 234n.50, 246
Morocco 100
most-favoured-nation treatment 31, 35, 3940
Multilateral Agreement on Investment 249
multilateral investment court 227, 251, 262
multilateral investment treaties 176
multilateral investment tribunal and appellate mechanism 251
claims from States and third parties 253
multilateralism 247, 253
multilateral negotiations 262
multilateral rules on investment protection 248
multinational corporations 846, 94, 104, 161, 163, 172
corporate criminal liability 103
human rights obligations 94, 96
civil claims 97
liability/accountability of corporations 93, 101, 103, 1667
multinational oil corporations 170
municipal law 107, 129
Ghana 109, 120
mutatis mutandis 120
NAFTA see North American Free Trade Agreement
national focal points 856
national legislation 265
national treatment 139, 146
Natural Wealth and Resources (Permanent Sovereignty) Act 188
see also Tanzania
neoliberal global order 153
neoliberal and investor-friendly substantive investment rules 253
neoliberalism 164, 175, 180
New International Economic Order (NIEO) 1516, 18, 187, 190
New Partnership for Africa’s Development 156
New York Arbitration Convention 244
New York Convention see United Nations, United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards
Next 11 (or N-11) emerging countries 156
NIEO see New International Economic Order
Nigeria 100, 102, 15472, 180, 182
Alien Tort Statute 167
corruption 162
human development index 162
human rights 161, 171
human rights violations 166
Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People 161
National Human Rights Commission 159
Nigerian Constitution 158
‘the Ogoni nine’ 163, 166
Non-Aligned Movement 178
non-governmental entities 252
norm 40, 89, 108, 129
intellectual property enforcement norms 76
international human rights norms 84
international norms 85
peremptory norm 120
normative 2
qualifications 910
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 37, 253
Free Trade Commission 245
OECD see Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
oil exploration 163
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 84, 249
‘OECD Draft Convention on the Protection of Foreign Property’ 37, 249
OECD guidelines 85, 93, 159
OECD Policy Framework for Investment 156
pacta sund servanda 112
PAIC see African Union, Pan-African Investment Code
permanent international tribunal for investment 252
permanent investment court 229
‘personal and institutional continuity’ 241
Philippines 36
police protection 412
preambles 45
Principles on International Investment for Sustainable Development in Africa 19
political science 264
‘positive discrimination’ 148
poverty 157, 162, 192
private investment 264
procedural law 269
profit maximization 46
Promotion of Investment Act 31
property 35, 42
protection 25, 3940, 69, 93, 129, 184
attract FDI to 92
diplomatic protection 91
domestic level 135
foreign investment 23, 30, 144, 148
full security of 44
intellectual property 6871, 746
property 1478
trade and investment interests 75
public health 69
R&D see research and development
rebus sic stantibus 1789
RECs see African Regional Economic Communities
reciprocity 45
regional and multilateral investment agreements 30
regional economic organizations 181
regional economic agreements 259
regionalization of international economic law 254
regional emancipation 21, 289
regionalism 132, 254, 263
mega consolidation 255
mega-regionals 254, 256
remedies 268
res judicata 127
research and development 68, 769
research methodology 265
Resources Contracts (Re-Negotiation of Unconscionable Terms) Act 190
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court 103
rule of law 154, 265, 268
SADC see South Africa, Southern Africa Development Community
Sauvant, Karl 44
Schreuer, Christoph 33
sine qua non 154
Sitharaman, Nirmala 251
social and economic policy 192
South Africa 3, 21, 31, 48, 1001, 13152, 179, 194, 250
apartheid regime 194
arbitration 141
legislation 91
regulatory powers 1467
South African Investment Bill 260
South African Protection of Investment Act 48, 131
Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) 17980, 257
South America 67
Latin America 71, 253
Southern African Development Community Model Bilateral Investment Treaty (SADC Model BIT) 234, 267, 48, 71, 257
SADC Protocol on Finance and Investment 258
sovereignty 31, 34, 423, 93, 156, 183
developing countries 178
host states 33
stabilization or development agreements 192
stare decisis 2412
‘State model’ discourses 265
State power 153
regulatory powers 228
State practice 176
State responsibility 41
State-State arbitration 250
Statute of the ICJ 235
Stern, Brigitte 32
stricto sensu 265
Subedi, S. 356, 40, 43
sustainable development 5, 21, 246, 154, 161, 192, 259, 262, 267
Tanzania 18894
BITs 191
Mining Commission 190
natural resource contract 189
template or model agreement 75
tort of negligence 169
Torture Victim Protection Act 166
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership 229, 254
transfer of technology 656
arm’s length-dealing 71
technological development 69, 789, 82
technological spillovers 77
technological transfer 678
transfer and dissemination of technology 72, 192
transnational corporations 67
transnational public policy 266
Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement 2546
transparency 245
treaties 265
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation 35
Tribunal Members 231
independence and impartiality 239
remuneration 239
TRIPS see Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
Uganda 191
UNASUR see Union of South American Nations
UNCITRAL see United Nations, United Nations Commission on International Trade Law
UNCTAD see United Nations, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNESCO see United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNGP see United Nations, UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights
Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) 232n.36
United Nations 66, 84, 178
UN Country Team 161
UN General Assembly on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources 183
UN Global Compact 160
UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights 87, 93, 96, 160, 172
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) 91
Arbitration Rules 243
Rules on Transparency in Treaty-based Investor-State Arbitration 246
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 178, 225
Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development 21
United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards 1267
United Nations Convention on Transparency in Treaty-based Investor-State Arbitration 246
United Nations Development Programme 74
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa 89
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 178
United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 26, 267
United States of America 35, 38, 74, 153, 170, 191, 229
US Model BIT 8, 37, 48, 255
US–Rwandan BIT 99
Uruguay Round 68
uti posseditis 179
VCLT see Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Venezuela 250
Vicuña, Orrego 178
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) 112, 11418, 1267
Vietnam 230, 254
Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights 159
‘Washington Consensus’ 175, 17980, 182, 185
Washington Convention 8, 1012
‘wave of democratization’ 154
welfare state 265
WIPO see World Intellectual Property Organisation
World Bank 90, 179
International Finance Corporation 161
World Bank report 83
World Economic Forum 251
World Health Organization 66
World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) 66
World Investment Forum 227
World Trade Organization (WTO) 67, 187, 235, 254
Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures 79
Appellate Body 240
dispute resolution processes 182
Doha Round 249
DSU 235
Written Laws (Miscellaneous Amendments) Act 188
see also Tanzania
WTO see World Trade Organization

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