Notes
in Fashionability

Notes

Introduction

1Première Vision Paris, Map Guide 15–17 Sept 2015; Première Vision Paris, www.premierevision.com/ (accessed 1 May 2016).
2Ivan Green, conversation with author, Première Vision Paris, 15 September 2015.
3Author’s observations, Première Vision Paris, 15–17 September 2015.
4Notable exceptions include works such as M. Schoeser and C. Boydell (eds), Disentangling Textiles: Techniques for the Study of Designed Objects (London: Middlesex University Press, 2002); B. M. King, Silk and Empire (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005); P. A. Sykas, The Secret Life of Textiles: Six Pattern Book Archives in North West England (Bolton: Bolton Museums, Art Gallery and Aquarium, 2005); P. M. Hitchon, Chanel and the Tweedmaker: Weavers of Dreams (Carlisle: P3 Publications, 2012); F. Anderson, Tweed (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016).
5J. Smail, ‘The sources of innovation in the woollen and worsted industry of eighteenth-century Yorkshire’, Business History, 41:1 (January 1999).
6A. J. Willoughby and G. Long, interview by author, Yeadon, West Yorkshire, 29 September 2016.
7J. Sugden, telephone interview by author, 21 October 2016; J. Sugden, email to author, 21 October 2016; M. Keighley, ‘Johnstons take fashion on a Highlands tour’, Wool Record, 151 (September 1992), 37; ‘Scottish trade reaches a decisive turning point’, Wool Record, 154 (September 1995), 17–19; ‘Famous Scottish company are celebrating 200th anniversary’, Wool Record, 156 (April 1997), 16–19.
8Sugden interview.
9J. P. T. Walsh, interview by author, Weeton, North Yorkshire, 23 May 2015.
10R. L. Blaszczyk, ‘Rethinking fashion’, in R. L. Blaszczyk (ed.), Producing Fashion: Commerce, Culture and Consumers (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008), pp. 1–5.
11J. Banks and D. de la Chapelle, Tartan: Romancing the Plaid (New York: Rizzoli, 2007), pp. 10–11, 24–5, 32–3, 49, 53, 134–47, 162–6.
12E. P. Harrison, Scottish Estate Tweeds (Elgin, Scotland: Johnstons of Elgin, 1995), pp. 186–7; Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, Design department files, promotional materials for Heritage Collection, 2007.
13Brief Encounter, 1945, directed by D. Lean.
14Blaszczyk, ‘Rethinking fashion’; R. L. Blaszczyk, Imagining Consumers: Design and Innovation from Wedgwood to Corning (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001); R. L. Blaszczyk, The Color Revolution (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2012); R. L. Blaszczyk and V. Pouillard (eds), European Fashion: The Creation of a Global Industry (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018).
15J. H. Clapham, The Woollen and Worsted Industries (London: Methuen & Company, 1907); H. Heaton, The Letter Books of Joseph Holroyd (cloth-factor) and Sam Hill (clothier): Documents Illustrating the Organisation of the Yorkshire Textile Industry in the Early 18th Century (Halifax: F. King, [1914]); H. Heaton, The Yorkshire Woollen and Worsted Industries, from the Earliest Times Up to the Industrial Revolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1920); W. B. Crump (ed.), The Leeds Woollen Industry, 17801820 (Leeds: Thoresby Society, 1931); N. B. Harte and K. G. Ponting (eds), Textile History and Economic History: Essays in Honour of Miss Julia de Lacy Mann (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1973); D. T. Jenkins, The West Riding Wool Textile Industry, 17701835 (Edington, Wiltshire: Pasold Research Fund, 1975); D. T. Jenkins and K. G. Ponting, The British Wool Textile Industry, 17701914 (London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1982); and P. Hudson, The Genesis of Industrial Capital: A Study of the West Riding Wool Textile Industry, c. 1750–1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
16One of the best discussions of pattern books is Sykas, The Secret Life of Textiles.
17Blaszczyk, The Color Revolution.
18West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds, WYL2139: Records of A. W. Hainsworth and Sons Ltd, box 51, Letterbook, 1934–48, R. G. Hainsworth, Milan, to A. W. Hainsworth & Sons Ltd, West Yorkshire, 25 April 1934.
19P. Ackroyd, telephone interview by author, 21 October 2016.

1 The case of the grey tweed

1P. Slater, History of the Ancient Parish of Guiseley (London: Hamilton, Adams & Company, 1880), p. 150.
2‘Charge of fraud against a Pudsey cloth manufacturer’, Leeds Mercury (27 January 1866); ‘Charge of fraud against a Pudsey cloth manufacturer’, Leeds Mercury (3 February 1866); ‘The robbery from the Coloured Cloth Hall, Leeds’, Leeds Mercury (30 January 1866); ‘Theft from the Coloured Cloth Hall by a manufacturer’s son’, Leeds Times (3 February 1866); Charlton and Anderson’s Directory of the Woollen Districts of Leeds, Huddersfield, Dewsbury, and the Surrounding Villages (Leeds: Samuel Moxon, 1864), pp. 69, 134; and W. White, Directory of Leeds (Sheffield: William White, 1866), pp. 33, 108.
3‘Charge of fraud’ (27 January 1866). Abraham Moon’s stock book has not survived, but it may have been comparable to the pocket notebook used by Abimelech William (‘young Bim’) Hainsworth; West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds (hereafter cited as WYAS–L), WYL2139: Records of A. W. Hainsworth and Sons Ltd (hereafter cited as WYL2139), box 23, A. Wm. Hainsworth, ‘Manufacturing Book’, 10 April 1865.
4Report of the Tariff Commission, vol. 2: The Textile Trades, Part 2—Evidence on the Woollen Industry (London: P. S. King, 1905), item 1635.
5S. Burt and K. Grady, The Illustrated History of Leeds, 2nd edn (Derby: Breedon Books, 2002), pp. 58–62; J. R. McCulloch, A Statistical Account of the British Empire, vol. 2 (London: Charles Knight, 1837), p. 51; ‘A day at a Leeds woollen-factory’, Penny Magazine, 12 (November 1843), 464.
6‘A cloth manufacturer charged with felonious receiving’, Manchester Guardian (4 January 1870).
7‘Charge of fraud’ (27 January 1866).
8Report from the Select Committee on the Laws Relating to the Stamping of Woollen Cloth. Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 19 April 1821; and WYAS–L, WYL2139, box 23, Regulations of the Woollen Cloth Trade within the West-Riding of Yorkshire, 1821, pp. 1–2.
9‘Charge of fraud’ (27 January 1866); ‘Henry Foggitt’ and ‘Hannah Moon’, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Marriages and Banns, 1813–1935 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011); ‘Henry Foggitt’, in Ancestry.com, 1861 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005).
10E. R. Kelly (ed.), The Post Office Directory of the West Riding of Yorkshire (London: Kelly and Company, 1867), p. 347.
11Ibid., pp. 348, 1,550; ‘Charge of fraud’ (3 February 1866).
12‘Charge of fraud’ (3 February 1866).
13‘The robberies from the Leeds Coloured Cloth Hall’, Sheffield and Rotherham Independent (30 January 1866); ‘The robberies from the Leeds Coloured Cloth Hall’, Supplement to the Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser (3 February 1866); ‘The robberies from the Leeds Coloured Cloth Hall’, Dundee Courier and Argus (31 January 1866); ‘Robberies from the Leeds Coloured Cloth Hall’, Manchester Guardian (29 January 1866).
14D. T. Jenkins and K. G. Ponting, The British Wool Textile Industry, 1770–1914 (London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1982), pp. 77–91, 125–65; R. G. Wilson, Gentleman Merchants: The Merchant Community in Leeds, 1700–1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), pp. 6–7.
15M. W. Beresford and R. Unsworth, ‘Locating the early service sector of Leeds: The origins of an office district’, Northern History, 44:1 (March 2007), 75109.
16M. R. Mitchell, A History of Leeds (Bath: Phillimore & Co., 2000), pp. 23–9.
17Burt and Grady, Illustrated History of Leeds, pp. 19, 24–6, 33, 55, 65.
18W. White, Directory and Topography of the Borough of Leeds, and the Whole of the Clothing District of the West Riding of Yorkshire (Sheffield: Robert Leader, 1843), n.p.
19Burt and Grady, Illustrated History of Leeds, p. 135.
20Ibid., p. 134.
21S. Wrathmell, Leeds (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005), pp. 60–73, 83–8; J. Mayhall, The Annals of Yorkshire from the Earliest Period to the Present Time, vol. 3: 1866–1874 (Leeds: C. H. Johnson, [1875]), pp. 55, 208.
22P. Leach and N. Pevsner, Yorkshire West Riding: Leeds, Bradford and the North (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), pp. 405–6, 409, 428; Wrathmell, Leeds, pp. 103–4.
23Handbook for Travellers in Yorkshire, rev. edn (London: John Murray, 1874), p. 393.
24Ibid., pp. 405, 411; M. D. T. Rigg, Round and About Aireborough, vol. 3 (Guiseley: M. D. T. Rigg, 1990), p. 71; M. Rigg, Round and About Aireborough, vol. 4 (Guiseley: M. D. T. Rigg, 1992), p. 37.
25Aireborough Civic Society, ‘A Brief History of Guiseley’, at www.aireboroughcivicsociety.org.uk (accessed 15 September 2016).
26P. Hudson, The Genesis of Industrial Capital: A Study of the West Riding Wool Textile Industry, c. 1750–1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), pp. 26–9.
27For Abraham Moon’s date of birth, see ‘Guiseley Baptisms, 1800–1809’, at Genuki: UK & Ireland Genealogy, available at www.genuki.org.uk (accessed 14 February 2015). He was baptised on 4 April 1806; see ‘Abraham Moon’, in Ancestry.com, England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538–1975 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2014). John Moon married Ann Oddy on 31 July 1805; see WYAS–L, Microfiche: Records of Guiseley Parish, Marriage Register for the Year 1805, No. 127.
28S. A. Caunce, ‘Complexity, community structure and competitive advantage within the Yorkshire woollen industry, c. 1700–1850’, Business History, 39:4 (October 1997), 26–8.
29WYAS–L, BDP29: Records of Guiseley Parish (hereafter cited as BDP29), item 122, ‘Answers to the Questions proposed by the Committee of Magistrates at Wakefield appointed to correspond with the Board of Agriculture’, Guiseley, 10 October 1795.
30E. Baines, Directory and Gazetteer of the County of York, vol. I—West Riding (Leeds: Edward Baines, 1822), unnumbered page; p. 512.
31The apprenticeship records for Guiseley Parish deal with paupers and do not shed light on Abraham Moon’s training; WYAS–L, BDP29, item 113, Apprenticeship indentures, 1796–1829.
32WYAS–L, BDP29, item 121, S. Robinson, ‘An Assessment for the necessary Relief of the Poor’, 12 June 1829.
33General and Commercial Directory of the Borough of Leeds (Leeds: Baines and Newsome, 1834), pp. 326, 329.
34‘Abraham Moon’, record of marriage to Susannah Waite, 2 September 1832, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Marriages and Banns, 18131935 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011), and ‘Hannah Moon’, baptism record, 7 July 1833, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813–1910 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011).
35For a view of the village, see ‘Tracks in Time: The Leeds Tithe Map Project’, tithe map for Guiseley Parish, 1838, Map Reference DBP29_39, at http://tithemaps.leeds.gov.uk (accessed 16 September 2016).
36Marriage of Abraham Moon and Elizabeth Clapham, 25 November 1835, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Marriages and Banns, 1813–1935 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011). It has been difficult to establish the blood relationship of Abraham Moon and the older William Moon, but both men had a father called John Moon. They may have been half-brothers.
37William Moon and Hannah Clapham married on 15 May 1836, with Abraham Moon as one of the witnesses; Ancestry.com, England, Select Marriages, 15381973 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2014).
38Jenkins and Ponting, British Wool Textile Industry, pp. 125–30.
39J. James, History of the Worsted Manufacture in England (London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts, 1857), p. 477.
40‘The court for relief of insolvent debtors’, Leeds Mercury (3 June 1837); London Gazette (2 June 1837), pp. 1, 427–8.
41‘Partnerships dissolved’, Examiner (London) (2 September 1838); ‘Partnerships dissolved’, Leeds Mercury (8 September 1938).
42‘Otley’, Leeds Mercury (14 December 1839).
43T. W. Leavitt, ‘Fashion, commerce and technology in the nineteenth century: the shawl trade’, Textile History, 3:1 (1972), 52–4; S. Daly, ‘Kashmir shawls in mid-Victorian novels’, Victorian Literature and Culture, 30:1 (2002), 238.
44‘Yorkshire (West Riding.), report from H. S. Chapman, Esq.’, in Sessional Papers Printed by Order of the House of Lords, or Presented by Royal Command, in the Session 1840. vol. 37: Reports from Commissioners: Hand-Loom Weavers (London: 1840), pp. 549–50.
45‘Abraham Moon’, in Ancestry.com, 1841 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2010).
46‘William Moon’, in Ancestry.com, 1841 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2010.
47WYAS–L, GB–GAU: Diary of Reuben Gaunt, Pudsey, 1841–54, transcription 1975, entries for 13 October 1841, 12 July 1842, 22 November 1842, 17 January 1843 and 29 April 1843; Jenkins and Ponting, British Wool Textile Industry, pp. 92–4.
48J. R. McCulloch, A Descriptive and Statistical Account of the British Empire, 3rd edn, vol. 1 (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1847), p. 660.
49F. J. Glover, ‘The rise of the heavy woollen trade of the West Riding of Yorkshire in the nineteenth century’, Business History, 4:1 (December 1961), 1–21; F. J. Glover, ‘Thomas Cook and the American blanket trade in the nineteenth century’, Business History Review, 35:2 (summer 1961), 226–46, and F. J. Glover, ‘Government contracting, competition and growth in the heavy woollen industry’, Economic History Review, n.s., 16:3 (1964), 478–98.
50‘Report of the woollen trade’, Leeds Times (2 August 1845).
51Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, Archival files, newspaper clipping, ‘Death of Mr. Isaac Moon, Guiseley’ (20 August 1909); Electoral Register for Guiseley, 1845, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Electoral Registers, 1840–1962 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2013).
52The British Ordnance Survey map describes Spring Head Mill as a mill for ‘Scribbling and Fulling’. National Library of Scotland, map of Yorkshire 187, surveyed 1847–48, published 1851, at http://maps.nls.uk/view/102344863 (accessed 16 September 2016).
53Rivers Pollution Commission, Third Report of the Commissioners Appointed in 1868 to Inquire into the Best Means of Preventing the Pollution of Rivers, vol. 2: Evidence (London: HMSO, 1871), p. 97.
54‘Alleged forgery in Bradford’, Bradford Observer (20 November 1869).
55E. P. Dobson and J. B. Ives, A Century of Achievement: The History of James Ives & Company Limited, 1848–1948 (London: William Sessions, 1948), pp. 25–6.
56Ibid., pp. 24–8.
57‘Report on the history of joint stock company woollen mills’, in First Report of the Select Committee on Joint Stock Companies; Together with the Minutes of Evidence (Taken in 1841 and 1843), Appendix and Index (London: House of Commons, 1844), p. 349. Besides the use of expensive equipment, a clothier gained social capital and a political voice through his investment in a company mill. The shares counted as property, and each shareholder was qualified to cast a ballot in public elections. See, for example, the Electoral Register for the Otley Polling District, 1858, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Electoral Registers, 1840–1962 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2013).
58J. Nussey to W. Aldam, 9 August 1843, in First Report of the Select Committee on Joint Stock Companies, p. 348.
59Ibid.
60W. Aldam to W. E. Gladstone, 12 August 1843, in First Report of the Select Committee on Joint Stock Companies, p. 348.
61Electoral Register, 1845, entries for Guiseley, pp. 11–13, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Electoral Registers, 1840–1962 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2013).
62‘Abraham Moon’, in Ancestry.com, 1851 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005).
63‘William Moon’, in Ancestry.com, 1851 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005).
64K. Chaffer, Victorian Village: Guiseley, Yorkshire, An Intimate View (Harrogate: The Author, 1988), p. 62; Post Office Directory of Yorkshire (London: Kelly & Company, 1857), pp. 233–4.
65‘The history and progress of British wool manufactures’, The Economist (11 June 1910), 1,291–2.
66Post Office Directory of Yorkshire (1857), p. 234; ‘Guiseley Agricultural Society’, Leeds Mercury (22 October 1863).
67WYAS–L, BDP29, item 232, ‘Rector’s letter’, Guiseley Parish Messenger [April 1907], not paginated.
68‘Leeds, Tuesday’, Manchester Guardian (5 May 1858).
69Nussey to Aldam, in First Report of the Select Committee on Joint Stock Companies, pp. 348–9.
70Ibid., p. 349.
71First Report of the Select Committee on Joint Stock Companies, pp. 351–2.
72‘Alleged forgery by a Yorkshire manufacturer’, Sheffield and Rotherham Independent (3 February 1870).
73‘Abraham Moon’ and ‘William Moon’, in Ancestry.com, 1861 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005).
74‘Worsteds, serges, woollens: Designs and markets’, Textile Recorder, 32 (15 March 1915), 355.
75P. T. Marsh, Bargaining on Europe: Britain and the First Common Market, 1860–1892 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), pp. 8–27.
76D. Lazer, ‘The free trade epidemic of the 1860s and other outbreaks of economic discrimination’, World Politics, 51:4 (July 1999), 447.
77F. Trentmann, Free Trade Nation: Commerce, Consumption, and Civil Society in Modern Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 6.
78M. Lampe, ‘Explaining nineteenth-century bilateralism: Economic and political determinants of the Cobden-Chevalier network’, Economic History Review, 64:2 (2011), 644–68.
79Kelly (ed.), Post Office Directory of the West Riding (1867), pp. 348, 1550.
80‘Woollen trade of Leeds, Friday’, Leeds Mercury (2 February 1867); ‘Woollen trade of Leeds, Friday’, Leeds Mercury (12 January 1867).
81‘The woollen trade of Leeds’, Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer (29 February 1868).
82[‘The foundation stone of a new mill’], Bradford Daily Telegraph (29 July 1868); ‘Guiseley’, Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer (28 July 1868).
83West Yorkshire Archive Service, Wakefield (hereafter cited as WYAS–W), West Yorkshire Registry of Deeds (hereafter cited as WYRD), No. 1869-627-546-674, Memorial of an Indenture, William Wells and Thomas Holmes to Abraham Moon, Abraham Moon Jr. and Isaac Moon, registered 8 September 1869.
84WYAS–W, WYRD, No. 1869-627-549-676, Memorial of an Indenture, Abraham Moon, Abraham Moon Jr., and Isaac Moon to Francis Hawkesworth Fawkes and Ayscough Fawkes.
85M. Sharples, ‘The Fawkes-Turner connection and the art collection at Farnley Hall, Otley, 1792–1937: A great estate enhanced and supported’, Northern History, 26:1 (1990), 134–9.
86Sharples, ‘The Fawkes-Turner connection’, 131–2.
87M. Sharples, ‘The Fawkes family and their estates in Wharfedale, 1819–1936’, Publications of the Thoresby Society, 2nd ser., 6 (1995), 12, 65; National Library of Scotland, map of Yorkshire 187, surveyed 1847–48, published 1851.
88Aireborough Historical Society, Yeadon, West Yorkshire, Messrs. James S. Taylor and Henry Foggitt to Messrs. Abraham Moon, Isaac Moon and Arthur Moon, ‘Conveyance of the share and interest of the late Mr. Abraham Moon the Elder deceased in Freehold hereditaments at Guiseley in the County of York’, 28 June 1879, mentions two mortgages from the Fawkes family, from the 1860s and 1870s. Another document, WYAS–W, WYRD, No. 1888-25-222-122, ‘Memorial of an Indenture of Reconveyance’, Emma Beatrice Shidd?, Frederick Jolliffe Bayly and Edward Osborn Williams to Abraham Moon, Abraham Moon Jr. and Isaac Moon, registered 30 August 1888, suggests that distant investors also lent money to the Moons, perhaps through the Fawkes’s social network.
89Tithe map for Guiseley Parish, 1838.
90‘Cricket’, Leeds Intelligencer (20 August 1864).
91‘To contractors’, Leeds Mercury (2 May 1868); ‘The pollution of the becks at Bradford’, British Architect (2 April 1875), 195.
92Guiseley Conservation Area Appraisal and Management Plan (Leeds: Leeds City Council, 2012), pp. 7–8, 16.
93Slater, History of the Ancient Parish of Guiseley, p. 150.
94WYAS–L, WYL2139, box 38, notebook of C. Hainsworth, ‘Chemistry Experiments, Yorkshire College, Leeds’, 1897; Bradford College, Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford Textile Archive, TAPC No. 0517, ‘Prints to show suitable & unsuitable cloths for proofing’, ca. 1900.
95The Leeds firm of Thomas Boyd provided cloth manufacturers with milling, finishing and waterproofing services. See University of Leeds, Brotherton Library, Special Collections, BUS/Boyd: Records of Thomas Boyd, finishers’ books, vols 13–16, 1893–1913.
96A. A. Whife, ‘Mens dress 1890–1914’, Costume, 1:supp1. (1967), 37–41.
97Alexander Grant, advertisement, Bedfordshire Times and Independent (28 November 1868).
98‘Markets: Leeds’, Bradford Daily Telegraph (17 October 1868).
99‘The pollution of the River Aire’, Bradford Observer (20 March 1875).
100Rivers Pollution Commission, Third Report, vol. 2, pp. 96–8.
101WYAS–W, WYRD, No. 1869-627-549-676, Memorial of an Indenture.
102Rivers Pollution Commission, Third Report, vol. 2, p. 97.
103Jenkins and Ponting, British Wool Textile Industry, pp. x, 223–4. For exports figures, see E. M. Sigsworth and J. M. Blackman, ‘The woollen and worsted industries’, in D. H. Aldcroft (ed.), The Development of British Industry and Foreign Competition, 1875–1914 (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1968), p. 135.
104‘Abraham Moan [sic]’, ‘Abraham Moon Jr’, ‘Isaac Moon’ and ‘William Moon’, in Ancestry.com, 1871 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2004).
105Guiseley Conservation Area Appraisal and Management Plan, p. 7.
106WYAS–L, BDP29, item 124, ‘Sealed Order of the Poor Law Board to Wharfedale Union, 20 February 1861’, p. 3; P. Higginbotham, ‘The Workhouse: The Story of an Institution’, at www.workhouses.org.uk (accessed 16 September 2016).
107‘Wharfedale Union’, Leeds Mercury (18 April 1865).
108‘Wharfedale Poor-Law Union’, Bradford Observer (15 April 1871); ‘Parochial matters’, Leeds Times (15 April 1871).
109‘New workhouse for the Wharfedale Union’, Leeds Mercury (30 November 1871); ‘The new Wharfedale Union workhouse at Otley’, Yorkshire Post (30 November 1871); ‘The new Workhouse for the Wharfedale Union’, Leeds Times (7 June 1873).
110‘Guiseley—New church schools’, British Architect (15 May 1874), 314; ‘New national schools at Guiseley’, Bradford Observer (14 September 1874); WYAS–L, BDP29, item 99, leaflet, ‘Bazaar for the Guiseley new parochial schools’, [December 1874]; ‘Guiseley new parochial schools’, Bradford Observer (16 August 1875).
111‘Woollen’, Leeds Mercury (18 January1873).
112Auction notice for Green Bottom Mill, Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer (3 January 1874).
113‘To-morrow [Wednesday]’, Yorkshire Post (7 December 1875).
114WYAS–W, WYRD, No. 1888-25-222-122, Memorial of an Indenture.
115‘Fatal carriage accident at Yeadon’, Leeds Mercury (22 August 1877); ‘The fatal accident to a manufacturer at Yeadon’, Leeds Mercury (23 August 1877); ‘Fatal accident to a manufacturer at Yeadon’, Leeds Mercury (25 August 1877).
116‘Abraham Moon’, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Deaths and Burials, 1813–1985 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011).
117‘Abraham Moon’, in Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858–1966 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2010); WYAS–W, Abraham Moon, Last Will and Testament, 9 March 1875, proved at Wakefield, 7 March 1878.
118Mayhall, Annals of Yorkshire, pp. 101–3.
119J. Thomas, ‘A history of the Leeds clothing industry’, Yorkshire Bulletin of Economic and Social Research, occasional paper no. 1 (January 1955), 50–1.
120Hepper & Sons, advertisement, Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer (4 April 1885).
121The Illustrated and Technical Guide to the Yorkshire Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures (Leeds: Charles Goodall, 1875), p. 34; Yorkshire Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures, Leeds, 1875 (Leeds: Inchbold & Beck, 1875), entry 23; ‘The Duke of Edinburgh in Leeds’, Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer (14 May 1875); ‘The Yorkshire Exhibition at Leeds’, Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer (27 May 1875); ‘The Yorkshire Exhibition in Leeds’, Leeds Mercury (29 May 1875); ‘The Yorkshire Exhibition in Leeds: Woollen’, Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer (16 October 1875).
122Jenkins and Ponting, British Wool Textile Industry, pp. 170–1.
123‘The Yorkshire Exhibition in Leeds: Woollen’.

2 Looking good

1Worshipful Company of Clothworkers, London (hereafter cited as CC), microfilm reel 25, p. 191, Minutes of the Trusts and General Superintendence Committee meeting, Clothworkers’ Hall (hereafter cited as Minutes), 28 May 1873.
2Reports from Commissioners, Inspectors, and Others: Thirty-Five Volumes, vol. 10: Explosives; Factories and Workshops (London: HMSO, 1905), item 2028.
3Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, Archival files (hereafter cited as AM–AF), envelope: old shipping documents, 1896, Midland Railway, consignment notice, 18 August 1896; D. T. Jenkins, ‘The response of the European wool textile manufacturers to the opening of the Japanese market’, Textile History, 19:2 (1988), 273.
4F. Anderson, ‘Spinning the ephemeral with the sublime: Modernity and landscape in men’s fashion textiles, 1860–1900’, Fashion Theory, 9:3 (2005), 283-304; F. Anderson, ‘This sporting cloth: Tweed, gender and fashion, 1860–1900’, Textile History, 37:2 (2006), 166-86; F. Anderson, Tweed (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016).
5L. Taylor, ‘Wool cloth and gender: The use of woollen cloth in women’s dress in Britain, 1865-85’, in A. de la Haye and E. Wilson (eds), Defining Dress: Dress as Object, Meaning and Identity (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999), pp. 30–47.
6G. A. Sala, Twice Round the Clock; or the Hours of the Day and Night in London (London: Richard Marsh, 1862), p. 83.
7J. Smail, ‘The sources of innovation in the woollen and worsted industry of eighteenth-century Yorkshire’, Business History, 41:1 (January 1999), 1–15; J. Smail, Merchants, Markets and Manufacture: The English Wool Textile Industry in the Eighteenth Century (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999).
8J. R. McCulloch, A Statistical Account of the British Empire, 2nd edn, vol. 1 (London: Charles Knight & Company, 1839), p. 639.
9My research on the advent of the woollen designer is sympathetic with the findings of W. B. Crump and G. Ghorbal, History of the Huddersfield Woollen Industry (Huddersfield: Alfred Jubb & Son, 1935), pp. 120–6; P. Bentley, Colne Valley Cloth: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day (London: Curwen Press, 1947), pp. 55–7; T. A. Stillie, ‘The evolution of pattern design in the Scottish woollen textile industry in the nineteenth century’, Textile History, 1:3 (1970), 309–31; and A. M. M. Lyons, ‘The textile fabrics of India and [the] Huddersfield cloth industry’, Textile Industry, 27:2 (1996), 184–6.
10‘Fancy trade near Huddersfield’, Leeds Mercury (29 November 1829).
11‘Leeds, Saturday, October 3’, Leeds Mercury (3 October 1829).
12‘Meeting of fancy woollen designers’, Huddersfield Chronicle (15 August 1857).
13On Bolton quilting, see ‘Ashton petty sessions’, Manchester Times (7 February 1829); ‘Unclaimed corpse’, Liverpool Mercury (27 May 1825); ‘Obtaining goods under false pretences’, Huddersfield Chronicle (19 February 1859).
14J. Beaumont, ‘The Jacquard machine, and its introduction into Huddersfield’, Textile Recorder, 4 (15 April 1886), 279–80; J. Beaumont, ‘The Jacquard machine, and its introduction to Huddersfield’, Textile Recorder, 4 (15 May 1886), 14–15; ‘The introduction of the Jacquard loom into Huddersfield’, Huddersfield Daily Chronicle (29 March 1886).
15‘To pattern designers’, Leeds Mercury (28 February 1835); ‘Wanted, a designer and pattern weaver’, Leeds Mercury (22 April 1837); ‘To pattern designers’, Leeds Mercury (6 March 1841).
16Beaumont, ‘The Jacquard machine’, Textile Recorder (15 April 1886), 280; ‘Textile institutes’, Textile Recorder, 1 (15 October 1883), 131; N. Rothstein, ‘The introduction of the Jacquard loom to Great Britain’, in V. Gervers (ed.), Studies in Textile History in Memory of Harold B. Burnham (Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1977), pp. 284–5.
17‘A designer wanted for Jacquard looms’, Leeds Mercury (23 October 1841).
18‘Report of the woollen trade’, Leeds Times (2 August 1845).
19University of Leeds, University Archive (hereafter cited as UL–UA), Yorkshire College, Register of Students.
20Crump and Ghorbal, History, p. 122; ‘The late Professor John Beaumont’, Journal of the Yorkshire College Textile Society (1891), 3–8; ‘The late Professor John Beaumont’, Textile Recorder, 7 (14 September 1889), 112; CC, microfilm reel 25, p. 475/12, J. Beaumont to Chairman of the Yorkshire College of Science, Leeds, 28 April 1875.
21‘The late Professor John Beaumont’, Journal of the Yorkshire College Textile Society, 8; J. Beaumont to Chairman of the Yorkshire College of Science; D. Bremner, The Industries of Scotland: Their Rise, Progress, and Present Condition (Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, 1869), pp. 200–2.
22‘The right of designers to the possession of patterns’, Huddersfield Chronicle (9 April 1864).
23‘Manufacturers and designers’, Huddersfield Chronicle (16 April 1864).
24‘Meeting of fancy woollen designers’.
25‘The right of designers’.
26Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867: Catalogue of the British Section (London: HMSO, 1867), pp. 78–9.
27J. Halls, ‘Questions of attribution: Registered designs at the National Archives’, Journal of Design History, 26:4 (2013), 416–32; D. Greysmith, ‘Patterns, piracy and protection in the textile printing industry, 1787–1850’, Textile History, 14:2 (1983), 165–94; L. Kriegel, ‘Culture and the copy: Calico, capitalism, and design copyright in early Victorian Britain’, Journal of British Studies, 43:2 (April 2004), 233–65.
28‘Exposition of Manufactures and Industrial Art’ and ‘Manchester School of Design’, Art-Union, 88 (1 December 1845), 1; J. Timbs, The Year-Book of Facts in the Great Exhibition of 1851 (London: David Bogue, 1851), pp. 10–13.
29The National Archives, Kew, Records of the Board of Trade and successors, Design Registry (hereafter cited as TNA–BT43), search in the online catalogue for ‘other fabrics’ made in ‘Huddersfield’, ‘Leeds’, and ‘Guiseley’, 1 September 2015.
30TNA–BT, BT43/399/260178.
31TNA–BT, BT43/400/297231 and BT43/400/297232.
32‘Leeds’, London Evening Standard (23 September 1867).
33Executive Documents Printed by Order of the House of Representatives During the Third Session of the Fortieth Congress, 1868–69 in Fourteen Volumes, vol. 14: Commercial Relations (Washington, DC: GPO, 1869), p. 18.
34Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867, p. 79.
35R. L. Blaszczyk, The Color Revolution (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2012), pp. 21–33.
36‘Isaac Moon’, ‘Abraham Moon’ and ‘Arthur Moon’, in Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1881 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2004).
37C. P. Kindleberger, ‘The rise of free trade in Western Europe, 1820–1875’, Journal of Economic History, 35:1 (March 1975), 41, 46–7; A. A. Stein, ‘The Hegemon’s Dilemma: Great Britain, the United States, and the international economic order’, in C. Lipson and B. J. Cohen (eds), Theory and Structure in International Political Economy (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999), p. 299.
38‘Commercial markets: Leeds, Saturday’, Manchester Guardian (12 January 1880).
39Reports from Commissioners, items 1652–3.
40‘Woollen’, Leeds Mercury (1 January 1883).
41‘Abraham Moon’, entries for 1888 and 1891–92, in Ancestry.com, British Phone Books, 1880–1984 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2007); ‘To be let: Warehouses, offices, &c.’, Yorkshire Post (5 July 1887); Charles E. Goad, Ltd, Insurance Plan of Leeds: sheet 6, 1886, at British Library, ‘Fire insurance maps and plans: England’, www.bl.uk/onlinegallery (accessed 17 September 2016).
42For another discussion of the political views of clothiers-turned-industrialists, see S. A. Caunce, ‘Houses as museums: The case of the Yorkshire wool textile industry’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 13 (2003), pp. 341–2.
43‘Opening of a Conservative Club at Guiseley’, Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer (30 January 1882); ‘Mr. W. L. Jackson, M. P., and his constituents’, Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer (2 February 1883); ‘Otley division of the West Riding’, Yorkshire Post (26 August 1885).
44West Yorkshire Archive Service, Wakefield (hereafter cited as WYAS–W), West Yorkshire Registry of Deeds (hereafter cited as WYRD), Copy memorandum of agreement between Abraham Moon, Isaac Moon and Arthur Moon, and Henry Foggitt, 16 March 1887; ‘Henry Foggitt’, in Ancestry.com, 1891 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005).
45‘The woollen shipping trade’, Leeds Mercury (4 August 1888).
46E. R. Kelly (ed.), Kelly’s Directory of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1881 (London: Kelly & Company, 1881), p. 479.
47‘Wool and woollen’, Leeds Mercury (27 June 1888).
48Patent no. 679, for ‘An Improved Cloth’, filed by Isaac Moon and Arthur Moon on 14 January 1889 and assigned on 2 March 1889.
49‘Leeds, Friday’, Manchester Guardian (16 August 1890).
50‘Guiseley Polling District’, 1889, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Electoral Registers, 1840–1962 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2013).
51AM–AF, clipping, ‘Death of Mr. Isaac Moon, Guiseley’, 20 August 1909. Crooklands was divided into two residences in the 1930s. I am grateful to Deborah Myers and Jane Blake for allowing me to see the interiors of these homes and for sharing historical documents, 24 January 2016.
52‘Yeadon District Chamber of Commerce’, Leeds Mercury (28 January 1892).
53United States House of Representatives, ‘Historical Highlights: The McKinley Tariff of 1890’, at http://history.house.gov/HistoricalHighlight (accessed 17 September 2016).
54‘Yeadon, Guiseley, and District Chamber of Commerce’, Leeds Mercury (30 December 1890).
55J. H. Clapham, The Woollen and Worsted Industries (London: Methuen & Company, 1907), pp. 285–7.
56‘Yeadon and Guiseley’, Leeds Mercury (27 December 1892).
57‘The woollen shipping trade’, Leeds Mercury (3 December 1892).
58D. O. Whitten, ‘The Depression of 1893’, at http://eh.net/encyclopedia (accessed 17 September 2016).
59D. T. Jenkins and K. G. Ponting, The British Wool Textile Industry, 1770–1914 (London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1982), p. 235.
60‘Abraham Moon [Jnr]’, in Ancestry.com, UK and Ireland, Find a Grave Index, 1300s–Current [database on–line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2012); ‘The funeral of Mr. Abraham Moon’, Yorkshire Post (23 March 1891); ‘Abraham Moon [Jnr]’, in Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858–1966 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2010); WYASW, Will of Abraham Moon Jnr, probated 15 May 1891; Aireborough Historical Society, Yeadon, West Yorkshire (hereafter cited as AHS), Mrs Hannah Moon and others to Messrs Isaac and Arthur Moon, ‘Assignment of the Share of Abraham Moon deceased in the business of ‘Abm. Moon & Sons’ Guiseley’, 30 October 1891.
61AHS, Messrs Isaac Moon and Arthur Moon to Mrs Hannah Moon and Others, ‘Mortgage’, 30 October 1891.
62‘Fashionable marriage at Yeadon’, Leeds Mercury (12 February 1892); AHS, Messrs Abraham Moon and Sons, ‘Articles of Partnership’, 3 August 1894.
63‘The woollen trade’, Manchester Guardian (6 July 1895).
64‘Leeds woollen weekly trade report’, Leeds Mercury (6 July 1895).
65‘The woollen shipping trade’, Leeds Mercury (6 July 1895).
66WYAS–W, WYRD, 1895-38-327-150, ‘Memorial of Certificate of Appointment of Trustee in Bankruptcy’, 14 November 1895; ‘Notices of dividends’, London Gazette (21 February 1896).
67‘The Bankruptcy Acts, 1883 and 1890: Receiving orders’, Huddersfield Daily Chronicle (30 October 1895); ‘Partnerships dissolved’, The Times (9 November 1895); ‘From the “London Gazette” of Friday evening: Partnerships dissolved’, Manchester Guardian (11 November 1895).
68AHS, Mr James William Close and others to Mr Isaac Moon, ‘Conveyance of Hereditaments & Premises situate at Guiseley in County of York’, 15 December 1900.
69AHS, John Bowling Esq. to Isaac Moon Esq., ‘Conveyance of Freehold Mills Lands and hereditaments Situate at Guiseley in the County of York’, 24 October 1898.
70‘Yeadon, Guiseley, and Rawdon’, Leeds Mercury (28 December 1896).
71Whitten, ‘The Depression of 1893’.
72Jenkins and Ponting, British Wool Textile Industry, p. 236.
73AHS, Close et al. to Moon, ‘Conveyance of Hereditaments & Premises situate at Guiseley in County of York’; ‘Guiseley manufacturer’s affairs’, Yorkshire Evening Post (23 February 1900); ‘The affairs of Messrs. Moon & Sons, of Guiseley’, Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer (24 February 1900).
74‘Charles Moon’ and ‘Walter Smith Moon’, in Ancestry.com, 1901 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005). Isaac Moon had an older son, Sam, who died prematurely in New Zealand; see ‘Deaths’, Yorkshire Evening Post (22 April 1899).
75‘Arthur Moon’, in Ancestry.com, 1901 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005); ‘Arthur Moon’, in 1911 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011).
76‘Big blaze at Guiseley’, Leeds and Yorkshire Mercury (13 August 1902); ‘North Country’, Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser (13 August 1902); ‘Mills destroyed by fire’, Daily Mail (Hull) (13 August 1902); ‘Guiseley mill gutted’, Supplement to the Manchester Courier (16 August 1902).
77C. Giles and I. H. Goodall, Yorkshire Textile Mills: The Buildings of the Yorkshire Textile Industry, 1770–1830 (London: HMSO, 1992), pp. 39–44.
78Between 1888 and 1891, one Yorkshire mill produced nearly 300,000 yards of ‘Metropolitan Police Contract Cloths’ for a single uniform maker. See West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds (hereafter cited as WYAS–L), WYL2139: Records of A. W. Hainsworth and Sons Ltd, box 23, folder: Various Correspondence, John Hammond & Company, Newcastle under Lyme, to Hainsworth & Sons, Farsley, 16 August 1888, and ‘Quantities in yards and dates for delivery’.
79Jenkins and Ponting, British Wool Textile Industry, pp. 242–59.
80AHS, Mrs Hannah Moon to Isaac Moon Esq., ‘Reconveyance’, 1 December 1906.
81AM–AF, ‘Death of Mr. Isaac Moon, Guiseley’.
82‘Henry Foggitt’, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Church of England Deaths and Burials, 18131985 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011); AHS, The Personal Representatives of Mr Henry Foggitt, deceased, to The Trustees of the Will of Mr Isaac Moon, deceased, ‘Reconveyance and Release of Netherfield Mills and land and other hereditaments and premises situated at Guiseley in the County of York’, 6 December 1913.
83WYASW, WYRD, Will of I. Moon, probated 28 October 1909.
84AM–AF, ‘Death of Mr. Isaac Moon, Guiseley’.
85‘Mr. Isaac Moon’, Litchfield (Staffordshire) Mercury (12 November 1909); ‘Latest wills’, Manchester Courier (8 November 1909). Henry Albert Martin, head of Martin, Sons, and Company (Limited), worsted manufacturers in Huddersfield, left an estate of £417,489 in 1910; see University of Leeds, Brotherton Library, Special Collections, BUS/Clay: J. T. Clay and Sons Ltd, scrapbook, clipping of ‘Recent wills’, p. 7.
86‘Legal notices’, Leeds Mercury (30 September 1837); ‘Partnerships dissolved’, Morning Post (London) (4 October 1837).
87‘James Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, 1851 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005); ‘James Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, 1861 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005); ‘Three boys drowned’, Leeds Mercury (14 July 1857).
88‘Thomas Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, 1861 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005).
89‘Marriages’, Leeds Mercury (11 October 1860); Post Office London Directory, 1860 (London: Kelly & Company, 1860), p. 1,375.
90WYAS–L, BDP29: Records of Guiseley Parish (hereafter cited as BDP29), item 73, minute book on churchyard extension, 1859–60, flyer on ‘Guiseley Church Yard’, 1 December 1859, and notebook of churchwarden James Walsh, 1859–60.
91WYAS–W, WYRD, No. 1867-ZO-727-836, Indenture, 1 June 1867.
92‘Charles H. Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, 1861 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005).
93‘Deaths’, Leeds Mercury (16 December 1865).
94WYAS–W, WYRD, No. 1866-ZF-712-795, Indenture, 21 November 1866.
95‘Charles H. Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, 1871 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2004).
96CC, microfilm reel 25, p. 317/1-3, Yorkshire College of Science, ‘Constitution’, 30 April 1874.
97T. Nussey, ‘Report on carded wool and woollen fabrics (Class 30)’, in Reports on the Paris Universal Exhibition, 1867, vol. 3 (London: HMSO, 1868), pp. 64–5.
98CC, microfilm reel 25, p. 191/13, Yorkshire College of Science: Provisional Committee [1872].
99CC, microfilm reel 25, p. 191/2, The Yorkshire College of Science: Report of the Committee Appointed to Investigate, Consider, and Propose the Best Means to be Adopted for the Establishment of a ‘Yorkshire College of Science’ (Leeds: Edward Baines and Sons, 1872), [p. 1].
100CC, microfilm reel 25, p. 95/1–10, G. H. Nussey and A. Nussey, Technical Institution for Leeds and District (Leeds: Edward Baines and Sons, 1867), pp. 8–9, 15.
101For the standard account, see R. Reynolds, ‘The beginnings of the Yorkshire College: First notice’, The Gryphon, 2 (1898), 22–4, and R. Reynolds, ‘The beginnings of the Yorkshire College: Second notice’, The Gryphon, 2 (1898), 42–4.
102‘The Clothworkers’ Company’, Textile Recorder, 1 (15 February 1884), 220–1.
103CC, microfilm reel 25, pp. 183–4, Minutes, 30 April 1873, and pp. 190–6, Minutes, 28 May 1873; ‘The late Professor John Beaumont’, Textile Recorder, 112.
104CC, microfilm reel 25, p. 191, Minutes, 28 May 1873.
105CC, microfilm reel 25, p. 192, Minutes, 28 May 1873.
106‘Textile institutes’, Textile Recorder, 3 (15 October 1885), 137.
107CC, microfilm reel 25, p. 194, Minutes, 28 May 1873.
108P. Leach and N. Pevsner, Yorkshire West Riding: Leeds, Bradford and the North (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), p. 472; Kelly (ed.), Kelly’s Directory of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1881, p. 618.
109‘The Clothworkers’ Company’, 221.
110‘City and Guilds of London Institute’, Textile Recorder, 2 (14 June 1884), 36; ‘City and Guilds of London Institute’, Textile Manufacturer (15 October 1879), 345–6; and ‘City and Guilds of London Institute II’, Textile Manufacturer (15 November 1879), 383–4.
111‘City and Guilds of London Institute’, Textile Recorder, 36–7.
112University of Leeds—An Archive of International Textiles (hereafter cited as ULITA), Report of the Work of the Textile Industries and Dyeing Departments for the Session Beginning October 5th, 1880, and ending June 24th, 1881, To the Worshipful Company of Clothworkers of the City of London.
113UL–UA, Yorkshire College, Register of Students.
114UL–UA, Yorkshire College, Calendar for the Ninth Session, 1882–3, pp. 97–100, 128.
115UL–UA, Yorkshire College, Calendar for the Tenth Sesion, 1883–4, pp. 99, 102, and Yorkshire College, Calendar for the Eleventh Session, 1884–5, p. 145.
116R. M. Baker, ‘Nineteenth century synthetic textile dyes: Their history and identification on fabric’ (PhD thesis: University of Southampton, 2011), pp. 1820.
117‘Charles H. Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Marriages and Banns, 1813–1935 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011).
118‘Charles H. Walsh’, in Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1881 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2004).
119WYAS–L, BDP29, item 228, ‘Burials’, Guiseley Parish Magazine (March 1880), not paginated.
120WYAS–L, BDP29, item 229, ‘Baptisms’, Guiseley Parish Magazine (February 1882), not paginated; ‘Burials’, Guiseley Parish Magazine (May 1882), not paginated; ‘Burials’, Guiseley Parish Magazine (August 1882), not paginated.
121CC, microfilm reel 25, p. 475, Minutes, June 1875, and pp. 474–5, H. H. Sales, Yorkshire College of Science, to Clothworkers’ Company, 5 June 1875. Beaumont was hired after William Walker, the appointee in 1874–75, was unable to fulfil his obligations; see CC, microfilm reel 25, pp. 4407, Minutes, 28 April 1875.
122‘Textile institutes’, Textile Recorder, 2 (15 July 1884), 56.
123ULITA, J. Beaumont, ‘Textile Industries Department’, in Report of the Work of the Textile Industries and Dyeing Departments, Sixth Session, 1881–82, p. 1.
124ULITA, J. Beaumont, ‘Textile Industries Department’, in Report of the Work of the Textile Industries and Dyeing Departments, Ninth Session, 1882–83, p. 2.
125UL–UA, Yorkshire College, Calendar for the Ninth Session, 1882–3, pp. 71–2.
126Beaumont, ‘Textile Industries Department’, in Report, 1882–83, p. 2.
127‘The Yorkshire College’, Yorkshire Post (21 June 1884); ‘Yorkshire College textile exhibition’, Leeds Mercury (21 June 1884).
128UL–UA, Yorkshire College, Calendar for the Ninth Session, 1882–3, p. 133.
129UL–UA, Yorkshire College, Calendar for the Tenth Session, 1883–4, p. 140, and Yorkshire College, Calendar for the Eleventh Session, 1884–5, p. 152.
130ULITA, J. Beaumont, ‘Textile industries classes (eleventh session)’, in The Yorkshire College, Leeds, Report on the Work of the Textile Industries and Dyeing Classes for the Session 1884–5, p. 5.
131‘Frank Tempest Walsh’ and ‘Arthur Cyril Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813–1910 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011).
132‘Otley Division Conservative Association’, Yorkshire Post (18 February 1887).
133For Charles Walsh as a ‘designer’, see Slater’s Royal National Commercial Directory of Yorkshire, 10th edn (Manchester: Isaac Slater, 1887), p. 129. For him as a ‘Clerk’, see ‘Jessie Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813–1910 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011).
134‘Charles H. Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, 1891 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005).
135S. Burt and K. Grady, The Illustrated History of Leeds, 2nd edn (Derby: Breedon Books, 2002), pp. 60, 134.
136‘Partnerships dissolved’, Huddersfield Chronicle (24 January 1885); ‘Mr. Jonathan Peate dead’, Yorkshire Evening Post (13 December 1924); W. Cooper, Bygone Guiseley (Guiseley: M. T. D. Rigg, 1995), p. 136; P. Slater, History of the Ancient Paris of Guiseley (London: Hamilton, Adams & Company, 1880), p. 149.
137Clapham, Woollen and Worsted Industries, pp. 128–9.
138‘Ordinary grade’, Yorkshire College Textile Magazine, 2:3 (25 January 1895), 50; ‘Thomas Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, 1901 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry. com Operations, 2005).
139‘Frank T. Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, 1901 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005). After Frank died on 5 June 1953, the board noted that he ‘had been associated with the company for over fifty years’; see AM–AF, Minutes of the Board of Directors, 8 June 1953.
140UL–UA, University of Leeds, Register of evening students, pp. 103, 127, 161; P. Gosden, ‘From county college to civic university, Leeds, 1904’, Northern History, 42:2 (September 2005), 31728.

3 The wider world

1Report of the Tariff Commission, vol. 2: The Textile Trades, Part 2—Evidence on the Woollen Industry (London: P. S. King, 1905), item 2281.
2‘The woollen and worsted trades of the West Riding’, The Economist (24 September 1911), 603.
3Ibid.
4‘Wholesale drapery results’, Financial Times (2 February 1910); S. Chapman, ‘The decline and rise of textile merchanting, 1880–1990’, Business History, 32:4 (November 1990), 175.
5‘The woollen trade outlook’, Financial Times (6 December 1898).
6Report of the Tariff Commission, vol. 2, items 1642–5.
7Ibid., item 1626.
8A. S. Thompson, ‘Tariff reform: An imperial strategy, 1903–1913’, Historical Journal, 40:4 (1997), 1,033–54.
9‘The Tariff Commission: Completion of the textile evidence’, Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser (7 November 1904).
10Report of the Tariff Commission, vol. 2, items 1356–60.
11Ibid., item 1312.
12Ibid., items 1312, 1429.
13Ibid., item 2028.
14Ibid., item 2004.
15Ibid., item 1635.
16Ibid., item 1638; A. Laurence, Murgatroyd: The Yeadon Legends (n.p.: no publisher [after 2005]), p. 3.
17Report of the Tariff Commission, vol. 2, item 2280.
18Ibid., item 1615.
19Ibid., item 1639.
20Ibid., item 1499.
21Ibid., item 1640.
22Ibid., item 1498.
23Ibid.
24Ibid., item 2280.
25Ibid., item 2228.
26Ibid., items 1361–2.
27Ibid., items 1362–4, 1944.
28Ibid., item 1364; ‘The Tariff Commission and the woollen industry’, The Economist (16 December 1905), 2,016.
29Report of the Tariff Commission, vol. 2, items 1637, 1940.
30Ibid., item 1355.
31‘English notes’, Textile World Record, 30 (November 1905), 120.
32‘The manufacturing end’, American Wool and Cotton Reporter, 21 (10 January 1907), 59.
33K. W. Taylor, ‘Tariffs’, in W. S. Wallace (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Canada, vol. 6 (Toronto: University Associates of Canada, 1948), pp. 102–8; W. S. Wallace, ‘Imperial Preference’, in Encyclopedia of Canada, vol. 3, pp. 254–5.
34Departmental Committee on the Textile Trades, Report of the Departmental Committee Appointed by the Board of Trade to Consider the Position of the Textile Trades After the War (London: HMSO, 1918), p. 71.
35‘Wool and textiles’, Supplement to the Yorkshire Post (27 December 1911).
36‘Manufactures’, Supplement to the Yorkshire Post (27 December 1911).
37Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (hereafter cited as AM), Archival files (hereafter cited as AM–AF), C. H. Walsh and W. S. Moon to Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, ‘Agreement for the sale and purchase of the business of A. Moon & Sons Woollen Manufacturers and Merchants’, 28 May 1913.
38University of Leeds, University Archive, box 149, folder: Textiles—General, 1915–1919, typed list of alumni in textile studies at the Yorkshire College of Science and successor institutions, 14 May 1915, lists ‘C. H. Walsh’ and ‘Thos. Walsh’ at ‘A. Moon & Sons, Guiseley’, as ‘Partners or Heads of Firms’. ‘Charles Herbert Walsh’, ‘Frank Walsh’, and ‘Thomas Walsh’, Ancestry.com, 1911 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011).
39‘Charles Moon’, in Ancestry.com, 1901 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2005); ‘Walter Moon’ and ‘Charles Moon’, in Ancestry.com, 1911 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2011).
40‘Dog show at Guiseley’, Yorkshire Post (11 April 1910); ‘Harrogate show: Agriculture and horticulture’, Yorkshire Post (16 August 1911).
41‘Chas. H. Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, West Yorkshire, England, Tax Valuation, 1910 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2014); ‘Charles Herbert Walsh’, in Ancestry.com, 1911 England Census [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry. com Operations, 2011); ‘C H Walsh Mr’, in Ancestry.com, 1911 England Census Summary Books [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2010).
42West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds (hereafter cited as WYAS–L), BDP29: Records of Guiseley Parish, item 146: St Oswald’s Parish Church, Village Fair (Bradford: G. F. Sewell, 1910).
43‘The woollen trade’, Manchester Guardian (16 November 1912).
44Departmental Committee on the Textile Trades, Report, p. 71. Imperial markets absorbed between 43 per cent and 50 per cent of exported British woollens; see E. M. Sigsworth and J. M. Blackman, ‘The woollen and worsted industries’, in D. Aldcroft (ed.), The Development of British Industry and Foreign Competition, 1875–1914 (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1968), pp. 156–7.
45‘For graduated tax to big incomes’, New York Times (13 March 1913); ‘Calls extra session to meet on April 7’, New York Times (18 March 1913); ‘New tariff in’, New York Times (8 April 1913); and ‘Wait Wilson’s move as tariff maker’, New York Times (1 April 1913).
46‘The woollen trade, Dewsbury, Friday’, Manchester Guardian (2 August 1913).
47R. L. Blaszczyk, Imagining Consumers: Design and Innovation from Wedgwood to Corning (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000), p. 89.
48‘Women workers of Guiseley may cause lock-out of 3,000 operatives’, Yorkshire Evening Post (10 April 1913); ‘2,000 workers thrown idle’, Yorkshire Evening Post (23 May 1913); ‘Unique sequel to strike’, (Dundee) Courier (24 May 1913); ‘Yeadon and Guiseley lockout’, Yorkshire Evening Post (31 May 1913).
49Some 35 per cent of British woollen manufacturers had adopted limited liability by 1912 compared to 2 per cent in 1870. See Sigsworth and Blackman, ‘The woollen and worsted industries’, p. 152.
50M. Chatfield, ‘Companies Acts’, in M. Chatfield and R. Vangermeersch (eds), The History of Accounting: An International Encyclopedia (New York: Garland, 1996), pp. 136–9.
51‘New Companies’, Financial Times (17 July 1909); ‘Mr. Jonathan Peate dead’, Yorkshire Evening Post (13 December 1924).
52Board of Trade, Companies: Twenty-Third General Annual Report by the Board of Trade (London: HMSO, 1914), p. 64; AM–AF, ‘Agreement for the sale and purchase of the business of A. Moon & Sons’, 28 May 1913; AM–AF, Minutes of the Board of Directors (hereafter cited as Minutes), 28 May 1913.
53‘The wool trade’, The Economist (12 July 1913), 91.
54‘Yeadon’s great distress’, Yorkshire Evening Post (14 July 1913).
55‘Yeadon and Guiseley lockout’, Yorkshire Evening Post (12 June 1913); ‘“Hunger march” to Leeds’, Yorkshire Evening Post (17 June 1913).
56‘Woollen trade dispute ended’, Manchester Courier (28 July 1913); ‘The woollen trade, Dewsbury, Friday’, Manchester Guardian (2 August 1913); ‘Weavers of heavy woollens granted an increase’, Bulletin of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, 43 (September 1913), 340.
57‘Guiseley village cross restored’, Yorkshire Post (11 August 1913).
58‘Fat show at Leeds’, Aberdeen Daily Journal (3 December 1913).
59AM–AF, Ledger, ‘1913–1914’, covering the period July 1913–March 1919 (hereafter cited as Ledger, July 1913–March 1919).
60Departmental Committee on the Textile Trades, Report, p. 63.
61AM, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entries for Devas, Routledge and Company; and J. & C. Boyd & Company Ltd, and Hitchcock, Williams & Company.
62Chapman, ‘The decline and rise of textile merchanting’, 171–2.
63‘The drapery companies’, Financial Times (11 February 1890).
64‘Drapery companies’ shares’, Financial Times (30 August 1892).
65‘Destructive fire in the city’, Financial Times (20 November 1897).
66D. A. Farnie, ‘John Rylands of Manchester’, Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, 56:1 (autumn 1973), 39, 41–2, 86; ‘Wholesale drapery results’, Financial Times (2 February 1910); ‘Thomas Wallis and Company’, Financial Times (28 February 1902).
67AM, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entries for Rylands & Sons Ltd (W 18 Dept); Aireborough Historical Society, Yeadon, West Yorkshire, box: James Ives & Company, ‘Amounts Paid to a/c of J. H. Ives’, 21 June 1901.
68S. Chapman, Merchant Enterprise in Britain: From the Industrial Revolution to World War I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 167.
69Chapman, ‘The decline and rise of textile merchanting’, 174.
70Ibid., 176.
71‘The piece goods trade’, Wool Record, 40 (3 December 1931), 17.
72‘London—The metropolitan market of the woollen trade’, Textile Recorder, 32 (15 February 1915), 319; ‘The piece goods trade’ (3 December 1931).
73T. Brann, interview by author, London (6 June 2016).
74‘London—The metropolitan market of the woollen trade’, Textile Recorder, 32 (15 January 1915), 289.
75C. Breward, The Suit: Form, Function and Style (London: Reaktion Books, 2016), pp. 33, 37, 46–9.
76‘London—The metropolitan market of the woollen trade’, Textile Recorder, 32 (15 January 1915), 290; Breward, The Suit, p. 52.
77Farrs Centenary: The Golden Square Story [London: F. Farr and Company, Ltd, 1963], pp. 24–6.
78P. Lorin, Dormeuil: The History of Fabric Is Woven into the Fabric of History (London: Dormeuil Frères, 1992), p. 56.
79Brann interview. My understanding of the West End is based on research for a new book tentatively called ‘Selling fashion’.
80AM–AF, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entries for Dormeuil; Lorin, Dormeuil, pp. 21–2, 58–63; Post Office London Directory for 1914 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1914), p. 884; Post Office London Directory for 1926 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1926), p. 1,531.
81Post Office London Directory for 1920 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1920), p. 1,491; Post Office London Directory with County Suburbs for 1929 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1929), p. 1,669.
82The City of Leeds and Its Manufactures (London: Ed. J. Burrow & Company, 1918), p. 12.
83‘Leeds wholesale clothing’, Wool Record, 41 (24 March 1932), 24.
84AM–AF, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entries for James Marshall, Son, & Company; The City of Leeds and Its Manufactures, pp. 17, 98.
85AM–AF, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entries for Ashworth, Brown & Company Ltd; The City of Leeds and Its Manufactures, pp. 16, 96.
86‘Demand for higher grade cloth’, Wool Record, 40 (10 September 1931), 29.
87‘The drapery companies’, Financial Times (24 January 1891).
88‘Winter dress goods in Bradford, England’, Textile World Record, 30 (November 1905), 122–3.
89Post Office London Directory for 1905 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1905), pp. 1,088, 1,235 and 1,367.
90‘Woollen trade terms’, Financial Times (30 March 1901).
91‘Wholesale drapery results’, Financial Times (2 February 1910).
92‘Pending issues: Sparrow, Hardwick & Company’, Financial Times (15 March 1924); ‘Sparrow, Hardwick & Company’, Financial Times (17 March 1924).
93AM–AF, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entries for Sparrow, Hardwick & Company.
94‘Winter dress goods in Bradford, England’, 124.
95‘London—The metropolitan market of the woollen trade’, Textile Recorder, 32 (15 April 1915), 387.
96WYAS–L, WYL434: Records of John Barran & Sons Ltd, boxes 27–28: Scrapbook and newspress book, John Barran & Sons Ltd, to Arnold N. Shimmin, Guiseley, 16 June 1926 and ‘Notes’, pp. 2, 4–5.
97K. Honeyman, ‘Style monotony and the business of fashion: The marketing of menswear in inter-war England’, Textile History, 34:2 (2003), 171–91; E. M. Sigsworth, Montague Burton: The Tailor of Taste (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990).
98K. Honeyman, Well Suited: A History of the Leeds Clothing Industry, 1850–1900 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 29.
99Ibid., p. 13.
100Ibid., p. 271; AM–AF, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entries for James Corson & Company.
101Honeyman, Well Suited, pp. 21, 78, 260–2; D. Ryott, John Barran’s of Leeds, 18511951 (Leeds: E. J. Arnold & Son, Ltd, 1951), 4–11; AM–AF, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entries for John Barran & Sons Ltd.
102Ryott, John Barran’s of Leeds, pp. 16–21; Leeds Central Library, Local and Family History Library (hereafter cited as LCL), Fashion Illustrations of Half-Tone and Line Blocks (Leeds: John Barran and Sons Ltd, 1908), pp. 11, 18–19, 31, 35.
103A Tailormade Career (Leeds: Thomas Marshall (Marlbeck) Ltd, [1947]), p. 6; AM–AF, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entries for Thomas Marshall & Company; Honeyman, Well Suited, p. 288; LCL, J. Marshall, untitled article, Marlbeck Annual, 2 (Christmas 1933), 9–11.
104‘The waterproofing trade’, The Economist (18 September 1909), 545; S. Mierzinski, The Waterproofing of Fabrics (London: Scott, Greenwood & Son, 1903); A. F. Barker, Textiles (New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1919), p. 202.
105AM–AF, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entries for Hepton Bros. Ltd; Honeyman, Well Suited, p. 281.
106AM–AF, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entries for Heatons (Leeds) Ltd; Honeyman, Well Suited, pp. 81, 280; WYAS–L, WYL1008: Records of Heatons of Leeds Ltd, folder 5/1–4: Publicity, 1901–1908: Spring 1906 (London: Herbert E. Coleman, 1906), and 1908 Spring and Summer Ladies’ Tailor-Made Costumes, Coats and Skirts. Latest Designs (Leeds: E. L. H., 1908).
107‘The Scotch tweed trade’, The Economist (23 October 1909), 805–6.
108‘The woollen trade’, Manchester Guardian (12 July 1913).
109S. Brierley and G. R. Carter, ‘Fluctuations in the woollen and worsted industries of the West Riding’, Economic Journal, 24 (September 1914), 379.
110‘The wool trade’, The Economist (8 August 1914), 296.
111‘The wool trade’, The Economist (15 August 1914), 333; ‘The wool trade’, The Economist (22 August 1914), 369.
112‘The wool trade’, The Economist (12 September 1914), 477; ‘The wool trade’, The Economist (28 November 1914), 978.
113‘The Bradford trade annual review for 1900’, in U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Commercial Relations of the United States with Foreign Countries during the Year 1900, vol. 2 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1901), p. 855.
114‘A day at the Yorkshire worsted-factories’, Penny Magazine, 13 (27 January 1845), 35.
115The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, vol. 27 (London: Charles Knight and Co., 1843), p. 549.
116J. Banerjee, ‘Wool Exchange, Bradford, by Lockwood & Mawson’, at The Victorian Web, at www.victorianweb.org/art/architecture/lockwood/1.html (accessed 2 November 2016); W. Cudworth, Historical Notes of the Bradford Corporation (Bradford: Thomas Brear, 1881), pp. 155–6.
117Cudworth, Historical Notes of the Bradford Corporation, pp. 191–2, 199.
118C. G. Wanford Lock (ed.), Spons’ Encyclopedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and Raw Commercial Products, vol. 2 (London: E. & F. N. Spon, 1882), p. 2,060; W. A. Graham Clark, Manufacture of Woollen, Worsted, and Shoddy in France and England and Jute in Scotland (Washington, DC: GPO, 1908), pp. 34–5, 42–3.
119‘B.A.W.R.A. sale in Bradford’, Wool Record, 20 (1 December 1921), 15.
120AM–AF, Minutes, 3 December 1914, and 30 December 1914; AM–AF, Agreement between C. H. Walsh and W. S. Moon and T. Musgrave, 29 December 1914.
121‘Peter William Musgrave’, Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858–1966 [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2010).
122AM–AF, Minutes, 30 December 1914; AM–AF, ‘Special resolution of Abraham Moon & Sons, Limited, Passed December 30th 1914 [and] Confirmed January 18th 1915’. The salary for C. H. Walsh was £1,000 per annum; the salary for W. S. Moon was reduced to £950 per annum.
123J. Tynan, British Army Uniform and the First World War: Men in Khaki (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), pp. 5, 32–3.
124D. M. Zimmern, ‘The wool trade in war time’, Economic Journal, 28:109 (March 1918), 13–14; ‘The wool trade’, The Economist (20 January 1917), 120.
125‘Worsteds, serges, woollens: Designs and markets’, Textile Recorder, 32 (15 March 1915), 355; ‘Khaki and crossbreds’, Wool Record, 7 (11 March 1915), 222; ‘The flannel trade’, Wool Record, 11 (8 March 1917), 18.
126J. Tynan, ‘Military dress and men’s outdoor leisurewear: Burberry’s trench coat in First World War Britain’, Journal of Design History, 24:2 (2011), 140–1.
127‘The wool trade’, The Economist (20 January 1917).
128‘Huddersfield trade’, Wool Record, 6 (15 October 1914), 356.
129‘Worsteds, serges, woollens: Designs and markets’, Textile Recorder, 32 (15 March 1915), 35.
130‘Boom in woollen trade’, Financial Times (22 October 1914).
131Zimmern, ‘The wool trade in war time’, 13.
132‘Profits in the wool trade’, Wool Record, 17 (29 January 1920), 266.
133The operations of the Wool Control were covered in depth by Wool Record.
134‘The wool situation’, Wool Record, 11 (24 May 1917), 11–12.
135AM–AF, Ledger, July 1913–March 1919, entry for the Royal Army Clothing Department. Abraham Moon and Sons was among the textile mills with government contracts listed in the Wool Record.
136AM–AF, Minutes, 19 July 1915.
137AM–AF, Minutes, 16 August 1915.
138‘Worsted, serges, woollens: Designs and markets’, Textile Recorder, 33 (15 December 1915), 224.
139AM–AF, Minutes, 20 December 1915.
140‘Martha Moon’, in Ancestry.com, UK and Ireland, Find a Grave Index, 1300sCurrent [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2012).
141‘Wharfedale Show’, Yorkshire Post (27 May 1916).
142The National Archives, Kew, Records of the War Office (hereafter cited as TNA–WO), WO 374/71545, personal file for Frank Tempest Walsh, 1916–20; TNA–WO, WO 372/20/202383, Medal card of Frank Walsh, 1914–20.
143Zimmern, ‘The wool trade in war time’, 14.
144P. Reed, ‘Uniforms and equipment of the Great War, 1914–18’, at battlefields1418.50megs.com/uniforms_ww1.htm (accessed 20 September 1916).
145‘Khaki and crossbreds’.
146‘The woollen trade’, Wool Record, 7 (11 February 1915), 133.
147‘The wool trade’, The Economist (30 December 1916), 1,246.
148AM–AF, Minutes, 21 February 1918.
149AM–AF, Minutes, 11 November 1918, 13 November 1918, 20 November 1918, 19 December 1918, 19 March 1919, 24 July 1919, 24 November 1919 and 26 July 1921.
150AM–AF, W. S. Moon to C. H. Walsh, handwritten note offering to sell his interest in Abraham Moon and Sons for £20,000, 8 November 1919.
151AM, Executive files, ‘Analysis of Financial Accounts, 1900–1919’.
152AM–AF, Minutes, 12 January 1920, 5 February 1920; AM–AF, ‘Messrs Abraham Moon & Sons Limited and its liquidators to Messrs Abraham Moon & Sons Limited, agreement for sale and purchase’, 5 February 1920.
153My estimate is based on the tools available at MeasuringWorth.com, ‘Five Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a UK Pound, 1270 to Present’, at www.measuringworth.com/ukcompare/ (accessed 13 December 2016).
154AM–AF, Minutes, 5 February 1920.
155AM–AF, Register of allotment of shares.
156AM–AF, Minutes, 19 August 1921, 1 May 1956; AM–AF, Register of allotment of shares; AM–AF, Copy of register of directors or managers.
157B. Walsh, interview by author, Burnsall, North Yorkshire (3 May 2014).
158‘Big spinning establishment sold’, Textile World Journal, 58 (23 October 1920), 67.
159‘Big spinning establishment sold’; ‘Transfer of mills in Bradford district’, Yorkshire Evening Post (17 April 1919); ‘Fact and comment’, Textile World Journal, 53 (2 March 1918), 39; ‘A leading light in the Bradford trade’, Yorkshire Evening Post (25 February 1920).
160‘The Guiseley District’, Yorkshire Evening Post (20 January 1920).

4 Moving up-market

1‘Yorkshire change to better fabrics starts: Announcement by Moon of new policy confirms general movement’, Women’s Wear Daily (6 September 1927).
2‘The influence of fashion’, Wool Record, 17 (4 March 1920), 12.
3Abraham Moon and Sons rented ‘Higher Gill Mill Eller Ghyll Otley’ from Jonathan Peate starting in 1915, and used the facility to shred and grind rags. Commonly known as Eller Ghyll Mill, this facility was the original manufacturing plant of the Peate brothers. See Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (hereafter cited as AM), Archival files (hereafter cited as AM–AF), Minutes of the Board of Directors (hereafter cited as Minutes), 11 January 1915; AM–AF, ‘Messrs Abraham Moon & Sons Limited and its liquidators to Messrs Abraham Moon & Sons Limited, agreement for sale and purchase’, 5 February 1920; AM–AF, ‘Inventory of the freehold estates known as Netherfield Mills, Guiseley,… the property of Abraham Moon & Sons Limited, woollen manufacturers’, August 1920.
4AM–AF, ‘Inventory’, August 1920; George Hodgson Ltd, announcement, Financial Times (23 May 1898).
5R. Beaumont, Woollen and Worsted: The Theory and Technology of the Manufacture of Woollen, Worsted, and Union Yarns and Fabrics, 4th edn (London: G. Bell and Sons, 1920), vi.
6AM–AF, studio photograph of an unidentified man whom I have identified as Roberts Beaumont based on comparisons with photographs of the professor as an older man.
7‘Notes from the sections’, Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, 37:12 (December 1921), 304; AM–AF, Minutes, 18 February 1920, 21 June 1920, 25 June 1924 and 22 October 1924.
8AMAF, Registration District of Wharfedale, County of York, certified copy of an entry of death for Charles Herbert Walsh, 24 November 1924.
9‘The late Mr. C. H. Walsh, of Guiseley’, Yorkshire Post (24 November 1924).
10‘Recent wills’, Yorkshire Post (1 July 1921); ‘Mr. Jonathan Peate dead’, Yorkshire Evening Post (13 December 1924); ‘Walter Smith Moon’, in Ancestry.com, UK and Ireland, Find a Grave Index, 1300s–Current [database on-line] (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, 2012); ‘Deaths’, Yorkshire Post (29 July 1927).
11Jane Blake, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, Papers related to Crooklands, ‘Trustees of Mr. Isaac Moon, deceased, to John Edward Boden Esq. and Mrs. Georgina Robinson Boden, Conveyance of a dwelling house known as “Crooklands”’, 29 February 1924.
12AM–AF, Mrs Walsh & Others to Mr T. Musgrave, ‘Agreement for the sale of shares in Abraham Moon & Sons Ltd’, 22 March 1926.
13AM–AF, Register of allotment of shares.
14‘Statistics of the wool industry’, Textile Recorder, 44 (15 March 1927), 49.
15‘Cheaper dress goods in demand’, Drapers’ Organiser (December 1924), 49.
16‘Wool textile stoppage almost complete’, Yorkshire Post (25 July 1925).
17‘Believe London purchases by U.S. buyers curtailed due to new American prices’, Women’s Wear (21 August 1925).
18‘Continental mills making inroads on British trade’, Women’s Wear (15 September 1925).
19‘The woollen trade’, Financial Times (12 November 1925); ‘Yorkshire dress goods mills revive clamor for protection’, Women’s Wear (5 November 1925).
20M. Keighley, ‘From four pages to global influence’, Wool Record, 167 (July 2008), 34.
21‘Need seen for confining of cloth patterns’, Women’s Wear (12 May 1926).
22‘Reduced operations of British mills still hamper deliveries’, Women’s Wear (6 August 1926).
23‘Worsted industry anxious’, Financial Times (10 October 1927).
24‘Warm weather and changed customs in styles held to affect woolen demand’, Women’s Wear (3 August 1925).
25‘Dearer fabrics mean less material in garments, says English manufacturer’, Women’s Wear (6 March 1925).
26‘West of England type fabric favored in London at present’, Women’s Wear (12 May 1925).
27‘The woollen industry’, Financial Times (29 June 1925).
28The National Archives, Kew (hereafter cited as TNA), Records of the War Office (TNA–WO), WO 372/20/202383, Medal card of F. T. Walsh, 1914–20.
29AM–AF, Minutes, 2 December 1925.
30AM–AF, Minutes, 23 March 1927.
31‘Yorkshire change to better fabrics starts’.
32‘Guiseley trade’, Yorkshire Post (12 January 1928).
33AM–AF, Minutes, 5 August 1925, 1 September 1925 and 23 June 1926; Post Office London Directory with County Suburbs for 1925 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1925), p. 1,535.
34AM–AF, Minutes, 21 February 1926, 19 July 1927, 26 July 1927, 24 October 1928, 24 February 1930, 24 March 1930, 22 October 1930, 24 February 1931 and 24 March 1931.
35AM–AF, Minutes, 18 December 1929.
36AM–AF, Minutes, 23 September 1925, 9 February 1926, 19 May 1926, 23 June 1926, 20 January 1927, 25 January 1927, 19 September 1928 and 6 November 1928.
37‘Textiles in Canada: Is the British preference undermined?’, Wool Record, 41 (7 January 1932), 24.
38‘Advertising fabrics’, Textile Recorder, 42 (25 August 1924), 26; Scottish Woollen Trade Mark Association, ‘Order your spring overcoat suit or lady’s costume to-day’, advertisement in Punch (2 February 1921), vi; Scottish Woollen Trade Mark Association, Pure New Wool—And Scottish (1924), short film, at National Library of Scotland. movingimage.nls.uk/film/0571 (accessed 28 October 2016). The association generated a good deal of publicity in the trade journals; see, for example, ‘South of Scotland woollens’, Wool Record, 17 (26 February 1920), 21.
39‘English newspaper sees British woolens sold U.S. by advertising’, Women’s Wear (3 August 1925).
40‘Tweed for women’s styles predicted, as foremost houses make selections’, Women’s Wear (13 July 1925).
41‘Some aspects of British export trade’, Wool Record, 40 (8 October 1931), 26–8.
42AM–AF, Minutes, 23 October 1929; ‘Netherfield Mills name David’s agent’, Women’s Wear (20 February 1928).
43‘Novel designs and colors features in display of woolens for autumn’, Women’s Wear (18 February 1924).
44‘Jacquard patterns in pastel tones appear in extensive import line’, Women’s Wear (8 October 1925).
45‘Soft-surfaced coatings backed with cloth matched by dress fabric, for ensembles’, Women’s Wear Daily (9 April 1928).
46‘Charles G. David returns from abroad’, Women’s Wear Daily (10 September 1926); ‘C. G. David sails tomorrow’, Women’s Wear Daily (18 May 1927).
47AM–AF, Minutes, 23 October 1929.
48West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds (hereafter cited as WYAS–L), WYL2139: Records of A. W. Hainsworth and Sons Ltd (hereafter cited as WYL2139), box 21, J? T? Garnett, G. Garnett & Sons Ltd, Apperley Bridge, to C. Hainsworth, A. W. Hainsworth & Sons, Stanningley, 4 September 1933.
49AM–AF, Minutes, 21 October 1931.
50‘How British manufacturers are meeting the tweed boom’, Daily Mail (4 September 1929).
51‘Six textile companies purchased’, Financial Times (13 November 1943).
52‘Correspondence: Wool textile industry’, Yorkshire Post (13 January 1931).
53‘Wool stoppage begins’, Manchester Guardian (11 April 1930).
54‘Wool crisis’, Manchester Guardian (5 April 1930).
55‘Wool textile dispute’, Manchester Guardian (8 January 1930); ‘Wool textile inquiry to be private’, Manchester Guardian (24 January 1930).
56‘Wool stoppage begins’; ‘Lord Macmillan’s proposals’, Manchester Guardian (7 March 1930); ‘Wool trade in “critical state”’, Manchester Guardian (7 March 1930).
57‘A hard choice’, Manchester Guardian (25 March 1930); ‘Wool wages crisis’, Manchester Guardian (25 March 1930); ‘Wool notices to be posted to-day?’, Manchester Guardian (31 March 1930); ‘Wool notices posted’, Manchester Guardian (1 April 1930); ‘Wool unions’ proposals’, Manchester Guardian (7 April 1930); ‘Numbers working’, Yorkshire Evening Post (17 April 1930); ‘Wool stoppage drifts on’, Manchester Guardian (17 April 1930).
58‘Demand for higher grade cloth’, Wool Record, 40 (10 September 1931), 29.
59‘Wool and woollens: Huddersfield, Tuesday’, Manchester Guardian (21 May 1930).
60‘Woollen mills open and close again’, Manchester Guardian (31 May 1930).
61‘Wool and woollens: Huddersfield, Tuesday’.
62‘Wool textile dispute’, Manchester Guardian (9 April 1930).
63‘Strikers’ tribute’, Yorkshire Post (24 May 1930).
64‘Wool textile dispute’; ‘Numbers working’; ‘Drifting back to textile mills’, Yorkshire Evening Post (25 April 1930).
65‘Breakdown at Guiseley’, Manchester Guardian (7 May 1930); J. B. Perkins, ‘Yorkshire woolen workers return as strike nears end’, Women’s Wear Daily (29 May 1930); ‘The wool stoppage’, Manchester Guardian (20 June 1930); ‘Wool trade wages dispute’, Manchester Guardian (24 June 1930); ‘Textile trade’, Manchester Guardian (1 December 1930); J. B. Perkins, ‘1,500 Yeadon wool workers back on job’, Women’s Wear Daily (25 June 1930).
66‘Gleanings from Golden Square’, Wool Record, 40 (10 December 1931), 24; ‘The piece goods trade’, Wool Record, 40 (31 December 1931), 17.
67D. A. Irwin, ‘Avoiding 1930s-style protectionism: Lessons for today’, 6 May 2009, available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org (accessed 19 May 2016).
68Ibid.; National Institute of Economic and Social Research, Trade Regulations and Commercial Policy of the United Kingdom (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1943), pp. 21–41; D. L. Glickman, ‘The British imperial preference system’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 61:3 (May 1947), 442.
69‘Imperial preference’, Encyclopedia Britannica, 1 April 2004, at www.britannica.com/topic/imperial-preference#ref115604 (accessed 6 December 2016).
70‘Forward!’, Wool Record, 43 (5 January 1933), 2.
71‘The shipping trade’, Wool Record, 41 (28 April 1932), 83.
72‘The piece goods trade’, Wool Record, 41 (7 January 1932), 17.
73‘Gleanings from Golden Square’, Wool Record, 40 (31 December 1931), 26.
74WYAS–L WYL2139, box 21, [R. G. Hainsworth], A. W. Hainsworth & Sons, Stanningley, to [Leeds & District Woollen & Worsted Manufacturers’ Association], Leeds, 22 March 1933 and 5 April 1933.
75WYAS–L, WYL2139, box 21, D. Moffat, Glasgow, to R. G. Hainsworth, Stanningley, 8 December 1933, and typewritten report ‘for information of Mr R. G. Hainsworth’, 1.
76S. Stemp, ‘Lachasse’, in A. de la Haye and E. Ehrman (eds), London Couture, 1923–1975: British Luxury (London: V&A Publishing, 2015), pp. 60–5.
77On tweeds in ladies’ wear, see Williams and West Ltd, ‘Will West Sportswear’, advertisement in Drapers’ Organiser (July 1931), 37; ‘British light weight woollens meet fashion’s latest demands’, Drapers’ Organiser (February 1932), 183; ‘When autumn comes tweed coat time again’, Drapers’ Organiser (July 1932), 24–5; ‘Coats’, Drapers’ Record, 175 (25 August 1934), 20; John Harold Ltd, ‘In line with fashion’s decree’, advertisement in Drapers’ Record, 175 (25 August 1934), 44–5.
78‘Fashion in 1927’, Drapers’ Record, 148 (31 December 1927), 848; ‘Knitted wear and tweeds spring into new life’, Drapers’ Organiser (December 1931), 28; ‘Tweeds de luxe’, Drapers’ Organiser (December 1931), 29.
79‘The piece goods trade’, Wool Record, 40 (26 November 1931), 17.
80E. M. Vigers, ‘Fashion marshalls her forces’, Daily Mail Atlantic Edition (5 September 1930).
81‘British fabrics at the Fashions Exhibition’, Daily Mail (3 September 1930).
82Vigers, ‘Fashion marshalls her forces’.
83‘Heavy woollens’, Wool Record, 40 (4 June 1931), 28.
84‘Gleanings from Golden Square’, Wool Record, 40 (26 November 1931), 26.
85‘Gleanings from Golden Square’, Wool Record, 41 (7 January 1932), 27.
86‘District which is enjoying a “boom”’, Manchester Guardian (27 February 1931).
87‘Readjustment’, Wool Record, 40 (11 June 1931), 2; ‘Exchange gossip: Overindustrialisation and a way out’, Wool Record, 40 (9 July 1931), 73.
88‘Artificial silk progress during the past year’, Drapers’ Organiser (February 1931), 143; ‘Rayon piece goods’, Wool Record, 40 (23 July 1931), 28.
89WYAS–L, WYL2139, box 27, ‘Trade and industry in 1934. Incorporating the chairman’s remarks at the annual ordinary meeting of Reuben Gaunt & Sons, Ltd, on December 14th, 1934’, 29 December 1934, p. 9.
90‘Fashion and tariffs’, Wool Record, 40 (8 October 1931), 31.
91AM, Executive files (hereafter cited as AM–EF), ‘Analysis of Financial Accounts, 1920–1939’.
92A. J. P. Walsh, interview by author, Burnsall, North Yorkshire (3 May 2014); University of Leeds, University Archive, Ledger for evening students, entry for A. Holmes, 1928–29.
93Springhead Mills had sales offices on Queen Street in Glasgow and in St Paul’s Churchyard in the City; see Springhead Mill Company (Guiseley) Ltd, advertisement in Wool Record, 40 (29 October 1931), 40.
94AM–AF, address book, 1930s.
95‘Wholesaler and retailer’, Drapers’ Record, 147 (16 July 1927), 145.
96‘Leeds of to-day’, Financial Times (29 June 1925).
97‘Clothing trade situation’, Financial Times (29 June 1925).
98AM–AF, Ledger, ‘1913–1914’, covering the period July 1913–March 1919; AM–AF, address book, 1930s.
99Thomas Marshall & Company, ‘Marlbeck Tailor Mades’, advertisement in Drapers’ Record, 175 (25 August 1934), 79.
100James Corson & Company, ‘Corsonia Tailor Mades’, advertisement in Drapers’ Record, 175 (15 September 1934), lxx; James Corson & Company, ‘Fashion’s “in the air” again’, advertisement in Drapers’ Organiser (March 1938), 31.
101Dickson, Millar & Company, ‘“Deemarco” inexpensive range’, advertisement in Drapers’ Organiser (September 1931), 55.
102‘Hitchcock, Williams & Company’, advertisement in Drapers’ Record, 145 (5 March 1927), 653; Hitchcock, Williams & Company, ‘New coat frocks’, advertisement in Drapers’ Record, 145 (19 March 1927) lxiv–lxv.
103E. M. Sigsworth, Montague Burton: The Tailor of Taste (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990), 34.
104Lewis Hyland & Company, ‘The Burberry’, advertisement in Bexhill-on-Sea Observer (4 May 1912); ‘Burberry Motor Dress’, advertisement in Illustrated London News (8 May 1915); ‘Burberry airylight weatherproof summer dress’, advertisement in Illustrated London News (31 July 1915); MacGregor & Grant, ‘Burberry exhibition’, advertisement in Yorkshire Evening Post (11 November 1922); Burberry, ‘In every quarter of the globe’, advertisement in Illustrated London News (Christmas 1935).
105‘London—the metropolitan market of the woollen trade’, Textile Recorder, 32 (15 March 1915), 358.
106A History of Burberry ([London: Burberry], 2006).
107AM–AF, Address book, 1930s, entry for Burberry’s Ltd.
108Westminster City Archives, London (hereafter cited as WCA), 1327: Jaeger Archives (hereafter cited as 1327), 1327/27, A. V. May, ‘The Jaeger Legend’, 7–9, 11, 17–22, 29–30; University of Glasgow Archive Services, UG–C, folder: UGD 199/1/20/17: Jaeger Acquisition Papers, 1967, ‘Offers by Morgan Grenfell & Co. Limited on behalf of J&P Coats, Patons & Baldwins Limited to acquire … Jaeger Holdings Limited.
109WCA, 1327, May, ‘The Jaeger Legend’, 22–8; WCA, 1327/569, ‘Shops in stores’, Jaeger Staff Review, 53 (summer 1935), 8.
110AM–AF, address book, 1930s.
111‘Move to stop manufacturers supplying woollens direct to retailers’, Tailor and Cutter, 71 (11 December 1936), 1,590.
112AM–AF, address book, 1930s; Post Office London Directory with County Suburbs for 1930 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1930), pp. 1,441, 1,552.
113‘Sparrow, Hardwick & Company’, Financial Times (17 March 1924).
114Sparrow, Hardwick & Company, ‘Autumn show’, advertisement in Drapers’ Record, 147 (27 August 1927), xxxii.
115Leeds Central Library, Local and Family History Library, A Retrospect and Record of the House of James Hare, Ltd, Leeds and London ([Leeds: James Hare, 1936]), n.p.
116‘Why the Mrs. Smiths prefer madame shops’, Drapers’ Record, 175 (8 September 1934), 18.
117‘Do national brands diminish retailers’ individuality?, Drapers’ Record, 175 (14 July 1934), 33.
118M. Keighley, Wool City: A History of the Bradford Textile Industry in the 20th Century (Ilkley: G. Whitaker & Co., 2007), p. 80.
119Aireborough Civic Society, ‘Guiseley’, at www.aireboroughcivicsociety.org.uk (accessed 1 October 2016).
120‘Leeds wholesale clothing: Cautious buying’, Wool Record, 40 (6 January 1938), 9.
121Keighley, Wool City, p. 82.
122AM, Minutes, 25 January 1938.
123Encyclopaedia Britannica, ‘Munich Agreement’, 10 February 2015, at www.britannica.com/event/Munich-Agreement (accessed 13 November 2016).
124A. Briggs, ‘The framework of the Wool Control’, Oxford Economic Papers, 8 (November 1947), 18–19.
125Briggs, ‘The framework of the Wool Control’, 28; University of Leeds, Brotherton Library, Special Collections, LAVC/NSP/38: Leeds Tailoring Industry Papers, folder 1, C. H. Hargreaves, undated typescript on the history of Montague Burton Ltd.
126‘The human element in industry’, Manchester Guardian (9 May 1941).
127‘Concentration in wool textiles’, Manchester Guardian (16 July 1941); TNA, Records of the Board of Trade and successors, Wool Concentration (hereafter cited as TNA–BT64/855), folder: Board of Trade, Concentration of production, General policy—Woollen & worsted industry, ‘Note on Wool Concentration’, [1941], ‘Wool Concentration’, [1941]; TNA–BT64/855, M. Watkins, ‘Concentration in the woollen and worsted industry’, 8 August 1941.
128‘Wool textile regulation’, Manchester Guardian (16 June 1941).
129‘Concentration in wool textiles’, Manchester Guardian (16 July 1941); TNA–BT64/855, folder: Board of Trade, Concentration of production, General policy—Woollen & worsted industry, Central Concentration Association, ‘Concentration Scheme for the wool-textile industry’, 14 July 1941.
130AM–AF, Minutes, 25 July 1941.
131AM–AF, Minutes, 26 November 1940.
132AM–AF, Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, ‘Netherfield Mills, Guiseley, nr. Leeds, schedule and valuation of buildings, plant & machinery, April 1941’.
133TNA–BT64/855, folder: Board of Trade, Concentration of production, General policy— Woollen & worsted industry, ‘Wool Control’, n.d. [1941].
134AM–AF, Minutes, 2 January 1942.
135‘Labour and output in wool textiles’, Manchester Guardian (3 December 1941); ‘Nucleus wool textile mills’, Manchester Guardian (22 October 1941); ‘“Lost” cotton workers urged to return to mills’, Manchester Guardian (31 October 1941); ‘Wool and woollens’, Manchester Guardian (18 March 1943); TNA–BT64/855, folder: Board of Trade, Concentration of production, General policy—Woollen & worsted industry, C. M. W., ‘Concentration of the woollen industry’, 7 August 1941.
136‘The human element in industry’; ‘Concentration for wool textiles’, Manchester Guardian (2 May 1941); ‘Concentration in wool textiles’, Manchester Guardian (15 August 1941).
137Imperial War Museums, L. Clouting, ‘8 facts about clothes rationing in Britain during the Second World War’, available www.iwm.org.uk (accessed 13 November 2016).
138Ibid.
139Briggs, ‘The framework of the Wool Control’, 34–5.
140‘Burberrys, Ltd: net profit doubled’, Manchester Guardian (22 October 1943).
141TNA–BT64/855, folder: Board of Trade, Concentration of production, General policy— Woollen & worsted industry, ‘Memorandum of a visit to Bradford, 3rd and 4th July 1941’.
142AM–AF, Minutes, 22 December 1944.
143AM–AF, Minutes, 23 January 1945.
144AM–AF, Minutes, 2 May 1946.
145A. J. P. Walsh interview (3 May 2014).
146Ibid.; A. J. P. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, 28 April 2015; AM–EF, G. G. Lockwood to J. P. T. Walsh, 2 May 2008.
147A. J. P. Walsh interviews (3 May 2014 and 28 April 2015).
148AM–EF, Moon: The Abraham Moon Story, booklet, 2012.
149International Wool Secretariat, ‘Do you recognize her?’, advertisement in Fashions and Fabrics, 66 (December 1946), 7.
150‘West Riding Worsted and Woollen Mills’, Financial Times (27 March 1948).
151‘Labour force in Yorkshire mills almost halved’, Manchester Guardian (22 January 1947).
152Keighley, ‘From four pages to global influence’, 34.
153A. Draper, ‘Fine prospects for the weaver’, Guardian (24 March 1964).
154‘Labour force in Yorkshire mills almost halved’.

5 From necessity to fashion

1B. Walsh, interview by author, Burnsall, North Yorkshire (3 May 2014).
2Foyle’s War, created by Anthony Horowitz, ITV, 2002–15.
3B. Walsh interview (3 May 2014); B. Walsh, interview by author, Burnsall, North Yorkshire (24 May 2014).
4B. Walsh interview (24 May 2014).
5A J. P. Walsh, interview by author, Burnsall, North Yorkshire (3 May 2014).
6‘Loose boxy jackets with slim skirts’, Fashions and Fabrics, 71 (January 1950), 36; Fashion and Fabrics, 72 (May 1950), cover; ‘Teen-and-twenty adaptables’, Fashion and Fabrics, 72 (July 1950), 41.
7A. J. P. Walsh interview (3 May 2014).
8‘Utility wool cloths’, Wool Record, 81 (24 January 1952), 275.
9A. J. P. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (21 June 2016); Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, Archival files (hereafter cited as AM–AF), Minutes of the Board of Directors (hereafter cited as Minutes), 8 June 1953.
10A. J. P. Walsh and J. P. T. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (5 May 2014).
11J. B. Jeffreys, Retail Trading in Britain, 1850–1950 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954), p. 349.
12Ibid., p. 340.
13G. Rees, St Michael: A History of Marks and Spencer (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969), p. 229.
14‘Dalton tells the housewives to hold off buying’, Daily Mail (15 September 1951); P. Sergeant, ‘C&A go dividend crazy’, Daily Mail (19 March 1966).
15A. J. P. Walsh and J. P. T. Walsh interview.
16A. J. P. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (21 June 2016).
17B. Walsh interview (3 May 2016).
18‘C&A Modes open apparel store in London’, Women’s Wear Daily (3 October 1922).
19C&A Company, Origins, at www.c-and-a.com/uk/en/corporate/company/about-ca/story/history/ (accessed 29 October 2016); M. Spoerer, C&A: A Family Business in Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, 1911–1961 (Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck, 2016).
20‘C&A: Birmingham’s new home of fashion’, Tamworth Herald (25 September 1926).
21AM–AF, Minutes, 19 January 1953.
22‘Dalton tells the housewives to hold off buying’, Daily Mail (15 September 1951).
23A. J. P. Walsh interview (3 May 2014); A. J. P. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (7 May 2015).
24A. J. P. Walsh interview (21 June 2016).
25AM–AF, Minutes, 21 September 1953, 28 September 1953; Post Office London Directory 1953 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1953), p. 1,408.
26AM–AF, Minutes, 19 October 1953.
27AM–AF, Minutes, 9 November 1953.
28Ibid.
29AM–AF, Minutes, 23 November 1953.
30A. J. P. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (28 April 2015); T. Brann, interview by author, London (17 April 2015).
31AM–AF, Minutes, 5 September 1957.
32A. J. P. Walsh interview (28 April 2015).
33AM–AF, Minutes, 11 January 1954, 1 February 1954, and 1 March 1954.
34A. J. P. Walsh and J. P. T. Walsh interview.
35A. J. P. Walsh interview (28 April 2015).
36A. J. P. Walsh interview (3 May 2014).
37‘Revival continues in wool textile industry’, Financial Times (22 December 1959).
38A. J. P. Walsh interview (28 April 2015); G. Long, interview by author, Yeadon, West Yorkshire (19 April 2016); T. Brann, interview by author, London (27 June 2016); B. Beckett, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (17 March 2015).
39A. J. P. Walsh interview (7 May 2015).
40Peter Ackroyd, Saltaire, West Yorkshire, Records of the National Wool Textile Export Corporation (hereafter cited as PA–NWTEC), Exports of Wool Textiles, 1953–1954 (Bradford: Export Group, National Wool Textile Executive and National Wool Textile Export Corporation, [1954]), p. 34.
41Ibid., p. 36.
42‘Italian wool prospects’, Financial Times (13 September 1955); ‘Heavy wool trade hit’, Financial Times (11 November 1957).
43‘Italian wool problems’, Financial Times (31 March 1952).
44E. Ritaine, ‘Prato: An extreme case of diffuse industrialization’, International Studies of Management and Organization, 20:4 (1990), 64–5; ‘Little firms that loom large’, Financial Times (29 June 1982).
45‘Italian wool prospects’; R. Dodi, ‘Problems in textiles’, Financial Times (23 April 1957).
46‘Heavy wool trade hit by cheap imports from Italy’, Financial Times (11 November 1957); L. Holroyd, ‘Woollen manufacturing: Some apprehension about the future’, Wool Record, 103 (11 January 1963), 62–3.
47‘The National Wool Textile Export Corporation’, Manchester Guardian (1 March 1941); ‘Wool textile exports’, Manchester Guardian (3 March 1941); ‘Levy for publicity’, Manchester Guardian (28 March 1941); ‘Promoting exports of textiles’, Manchester Guardian (24 February 1942).
48‘British exports of woolens sought’, New York Times (10 January 1945); ‘British textile offices open in New York’, New York Times (11 January 1945).
49‘Wool export levy’, Manchester Guardian (22 July 1950); ‘Wool “shop window” in New World’, Manchester Guardian (26 July 1950); ‘Wool textile export levy’, Manchester Guardian (1 August 1950).
50‘Wool textile exports’, Manchester Guardian (17 May 1952).
51‘Woollen imports in U.S.’, Manchester Guardian (20 June 1950).
52‘United Kingdom: Foreign affairs’, The Round Table, 42 (1952), 243.
53‘British wool textiles in U.S.A. and Canada’, Wool Record, 81 (3 January 1952), 34.
54Ibid.
55R. L. Blaszczyk, American Consumer Society, 1865–2005: From Hearth to HDTV (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009), Part III.
56Boston Public Library, Boston, MA, Filene’s marketing archive (hereafter cited as BPL–FA), folder: Fashionations correspondence, Harriet Wilinsky, Paris, to Jack Clark, J. N. Clarke Ltd, Dublin, 18 July [1953].
57PA–NWTEC, Exports of Wool Textiles, 1956–1957 (Bradford: Export Group, National Wool Textile Executive and National Wool Textile Export Corporation, [1957]), pp. 13–15.
58PA–NWTEC, Exports of Wool Textiles, 1958–1959 (Bradford: Export Group, National Wool Textile Executive and National Wool Textile Export Corporation, [1959]), pp. 16–18; ‘Some winter misgivings in the wool trade’, Financial Times (7 December 1961).
59‘Canada’s imports of wool goods’, Wool Record, 81 (10 January 1952), 101–2.
60‘Imported textiles in Canada’, Wool Record, 81 (7 February 1952), 4734.
61‘Topics of the week’, Wool Record, 81 (7 February 1952), 433.
62‘Credit restrictions in Canada’, Wool Record, 81 (24 January 1952), 305–6.
63D. Iddon, ‘Now it is “go west, young salesman”’, Daily Mail (15 April 1953).
64‘36 UK woolen exporters to take part in Canada exhibit’, Women’s Wear Daily (6 August 1953).
65A. J. P. Walsh interview (21 June 2016); AM–AF, Minutes, 23 June 1926.
66‘West Riding Worsted and Woollen Mills Limited’, Financial Times (24 January 1961).
67PA–NWTEC, Exports of Wool Textiles, 1959–1960 (Bradford: Export Group, National Wool Textile Executive and National Wool Textile Export Corporation, [1960]), pp. 5–7.
68‘Some misgivings in the wool trade’, Financial Times (7 December 1961).
69Exports of Wool Textiles, 1959–1960, pp. 36–7; ‘Trading with Europe’, Textile Recorder, 77 (January 1960), 49.
70‘The Common Market’, Textile Recorder, 78 (September 1961), 63; ‘No time to relax’, Textile Recorder, 80 (March 1963), 43.
71‘West Riding Worsted and Woollen Mills Limited’.
72M. O’Connor, ‘Yorkshire’s new dynamic outlook’, Ambassador (October 1965), 62.
73A. Paterson, ‘Canada: Cloth production down but imports up’, Wool Record, 103 (11 January 1963), 98.
74A. J. P. Walsh interview (3 May 2014); ‘US wool cloth duty equals 50 percent of its value’, Wool Record, 103 (25 January 1963), 6.
75B. Walsh interview (24 May 2014).
76AM–AF, Minutes, 1 March 1954.
77A. J. P. Walsh interview (21 June 2016).
78‘West Riding Worsted and Woollen Mills’, Financial Times (30 March 1949); ‘West Riding Worsted and Woollen Mills’, Financial Times (11 February 1953); ‘West Riding Worsted and Woollen Mills’, Financial Times (10 February 1956).
79Albert Holmes was added to the board in October 1962, resigned from the board in March 1970, and retired from his job as production manager in October 1971. AM–AF, Minutes, 3 November 1949, 3 October 1962, 13 March 1970 and 29 October 1971; A. J. P. Walsh interview (3 May 2014); A. J. P. Walsh and J. P. T. Walsh interview.
80AM–AF, Minutes, 15 March 1954, 7 April 1954 and 5 May 1954.
81J. Richmond, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (7 May 2015).
82A. J. P. Walsh interview (3 May 2014).
83A. J. P. Walsh and J. P. T. Walsh interview.
84A. J. P. Walsh interview (3 May 2014).
85A. J. P. Walsh and J. P. T. Walsh interview.
86A. J. P. Walsh interview (3 May 2014).
87A. J. P. Walsh and J. P T. Walsh interview.
88AM–AF, Minutes, 11 November 1954.
89AM–AF, Minutes, 21 December 1961.
90AM–AF, Minutes, 3 August 1953, 21 September 1953 and 28 September 1953.
91AM, Minutes, 19 January 1955, 16 February 1955, 23 February 1955, 21 September 1955, 5 October 1955, 1 November 1955, 11 February 1958, 20 January 1959 and 18 February 1960.
92AM–AF, Minutes, 13 November 1962.
93AM–AF, Minutes, 5 March 1963.
94AM–AF, Minutes, 18 December 1962.
95‘The fashion industry in the United Kingdom’, Textile Recorder, 78 (February 1961), 33; S. Black, ‘New dimensions for the fashion designer’, Financial Times (16 March 1964).
96E. Ehrman, ‘Supporting couture: The Fashion Group of Great Britain and the Incorporated Society of London Fashion Designers’, in A. de la Haye and E. Ehrman (eds), London Couture, 1923–1975: British Luxury (London: V&A Publishing, 2015), p. 33; R. O’Byrne, Style City: How London Became a Fashion Capital (London: Frances Lincoln, 2009), p. 12.
97‘British wool textiles in U.S.A. and Canada’, 34.
98R. L. Blaszczyk, ‘Styling synthetics: DuPont’s marketing of fabrics and fashions in postwar America’, Business History Review, 80:3 (autumn 2006), 485–528.
99M. Shanks, ‘The battle of the fibres’, Financial Times (16 March 1964); A. R. Milne, ‘Polyester’s share of growing market’, Financial Times (16 March 1964); ‘This is Chemstrand’, Chemical and Engineering News, 35 (1957), 24–5.
100AM–AF, Minutes, 23 November 1953.
101AM–AF, Minutes, 7 December 1953.
102AM–AF, Minutes, 19 January 1960.
103BPL–FA, folder: Miracle Fabric Promotion, clipping, ‘Blended synthetics can offer any cloth you want’, Business Week (19 April 1952), 33.
104University of Leeds, Marks and Spencer Company Archive (hereafter cited as UL–M&S), box B2–5, 386, ‘Pyjamas—there’s been a big improvement’, St Michael News, 9 (October 1953), [4]; ‘It’s glamour—all the way’, St Michael News, 10 (October 1953), [1]; UL–M&S, box B2–5, 387, ‘Nylon—talking point in ranges’, St Michael News, 11 (November 1953), [3].
105UL–M&S, box B2–5, 396, ‘Forthcoming attractions’, St Michael News, 6 (September 1959), 2.
106R. Worth, Fashion for the People: A History of Clothing at Marks & Spencer (New York: Berg, 2007), p. 110.
107Richmond interview.
108A. J. P. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (29 May 2015).
109BPL–FA, folder: Miracle Fabric Promotion, Barbara Duke, J. P. Stevens & Company, New York, to Helen Tyler, William Filene’s Sons Company, Boston, 30 April 1952.
110AM–AF, Minutes, 5 March 1963.
111AM–AF, Minutes, 9 April 1963.
112AM–AF, Minutes, 28 May 1963.
113‘Man-Made fibres progress’, Textile Recorder, 81 (March 1964), 51.
114AM, Minutes, 25 February 1964.
115AM, Minutes, 21 April 1964.
116Black, ‘New dimensions’.
117N. Ireland-Smith, ‘High standards in acrylics’, Financial Times (16 March 1964).
118H. Morris, ‘British man-made fibres and world markets’, Financial Times (4 July 1966).
119‘Novelty weaves top British woollen ranges’, International Textiles, 302:4 (1958), 116–17.
120‘IWS to spend £13 millions on wool promotion’, Wool Record, 103 (28 June 1963), 5.
121‘Campaign to promote wool starts this autumn’, Financial Times (5 June 1964); ‘Modifications to the “Woolmark” scheme’, Textile Recorder, 82 (May 1964), 49–50; ‘Woolmark introduced’, Textile Recorder, 82 (October 1964), 53–4.
122‘Improving wool’s image’, Wool Record, 103 (10 May 1963), 12.
123‘Wool on the attack’, Textile Recorder, 82 (October 1964), 61.
124‘M. Ogden, ‘Mini skirts: Are cloth manufacturers feeling the draught?’, Daily Mail (3 June 1966).
125B. Polan and A. Chubb, ‘Cheap chic and snappy suits that helped the 1960s swing’, Daily Mail (16 June 2000).
126P. Tisdall, ‘Wait-to-see policy by shoppers’, The Times (10 October 1970).
127C. Lloyd, ‘How are things with the private shopping empires?’, Daily Mail (2 January 1964).
128M. Allen, ‘How to use The Times 1000’, The Times (15 October 1971).
129‘Detergent giants head the list of big spenders’, The Times (12 February 1969).
130P. Tisdall, ‘Advertising and marketing’, The Times (18 October 1972).
131O’Connor, ‘Yorkshire’s new dynamic outlook’, 66.
132Ibid., 64.
133‘Progress of Italy’s wool textile industry’, Wool Record, 103 (17 May 1963), 33.
134O’Connor, ‘Yorkshire’s new dynamic outlook’, 59.
135Beckett interview.
136Ibid.; Norman Renton, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (17 March 2015).
137‘Looms without shuttles’, Manchester Guardian (18 February 1949); ‘Weaving machinery by Sulzer for £1m’, Financial Times (2 April 1968); ‘Build-up of output at new works’, Guardian (22 May 1968).
138‘Projectile weaves fine fabrics’, Financial Times (2 February 1977).
139O’Connor, ‘Yorkshire’s new dynamic outlook’, 59.
140A. J. P. Walsh and J. P. T. Walsh interview.
141AM–AF, Minutes, 24 June 1983.
142Gerald Long, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, Papers related to James Ives & Company, clippings, ‘Yeadon mills founded 125 years ago’, Wharfedale and Airedale Observer (30 March 1973) and ‘Happy birthday James Ives’, Bradford Telegraph and Argus (29 March 1973).
143A. J. P. Walsh interview (29 May 2015).
144A. J. P. Walsh and J. P. T. Walsh interview.
145‘New looms in Switzerland’, Manchester Guardian (22 October 1945); ‘The Sulzer automatic loom’, Manchester Guardian (28 January 1947); ‘The new automatic loom’, Manchester Guardian (3 February1947).
146D. Brunnschweiler, ‘Quicker cloth-making’, Manchester Guardian (3 May 1955); P. Abbenheim, ‘Textile machinery survey: (iv) Weaving’, Financial Times (11 February 1969).
147Beckett interview.
148Renton interview.
149E. Tenner, Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences (New York: Vintage Book, 1997), chap. 1.
150A. J. P. Walsh and J. P. T. Walsh interview.
151A. J. P. Walsh interview (29 May 2015).
152O’Connor, ‘Yorkshire’s new dynamic outlook’, 59.
153Ibid., 61.
154Ibid., 62.
155Ibid., 63.

6 Adjustments

1Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, Archival files (hereafter cited as AM–AF), Minutes of the Board of Directors (hereafter cited as Minutes), 15 December 1978.
2G. Lockwood, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (17 March 2015).
3National Economic Development Office, The Strategic Future of the Wool Textile Industry: A Report Prepared by W S Atkins & Partners for the Marketing Study Steering Group of the Economic Development Committee for the Wool Textile Industry (London: HMSO, 1969).
4Ibid., pp. xi–xii.
5H. O’Neill,‘A time for reappraisal’, Financial Times (13 January 1970).
6Ibid.
7P. Long, ‘Knitted fabrics find buyers’ approval’, Wool Record, 113 (26 January 1968), 33.
8H. O’Neill, ‘Fashion favours Yorkshire’, Financial Times (21 August 1970).
9H. O’Neill, ‘Clothing trade pattern in the 1970’s’, Financial Times (20 January 1970).
10Ibid.
11‘30% profits increase reflects Coats Patons geographical strength’, Financial Times (31 May 1972).
12H. O’Neill, ‘How Coats Patons bought a future in textiles’, Financial Times (24 July 1970); ‘J. & P. Coats, Patons & Baldwins Limited’, Financial Times (3 June 1965); ‘Coats Patons’, Financial Times (1 June 1967); ‘Coats Patons Limited’, Financial Times (17 November 1967).
13H. O’Neill, ‘Textile trends’, Financial Times (27 July 1970).
14AM–AF, Minutes, 16 June 1970.
15Post Office London Directory for 1962 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1962), pp. 1,845, 1,908; ‘The next steps ahead: The Financial Times Review of British Industry’, Financial Times (4 July 1966).
16Trevor Brann, interview by author, London (17 April 2015); A. J. P. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (21 June 2016).
17A. J. P. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (28 April 2015).
18G. M. Smith, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (5 May 2015).
19Leeds Central Library, Local and Family History Library, Leeds City Council, Aireborough, Horsforth and Bramhope Local Plan (Leeds: Leeds City Council, Department of Planning, 1989), p. 21; S. Burt and K. Grady, The Illustrated History of Leeds, 2nd edn (Derby: Breedon Books, 2002), p. 229.
20A. Laurence, Murgatroyd: The Yeadon Legends (n.p.: no publisher, [after 2005]), pp. 3, 12, 14.
21‘Factory bought’, Manchester Guardian (24 June 1972).
22‘30% profits’.
23L. F. Gray and J. Love (eds), Jane’s Major Companies of Europe (London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1974), p. C67.
24‘WR Fabrics’, Guardian (17 December 1974); J. Love (ed.), Jane’s Major Companies of Europe (London: Jane’s Yearbooks, 1976), p. C46.
25A. J. P. Walsh, interview by author, Burnsall, North Yorkshire (3 May 2014)
26‘Japan will continue to buy steadily’, Wool Trend, 31 (June 1974), 4–5.
27‘Wool consumption lowest ever as crisis bites’, Wool Record, 125 (8 March 1974), 18.
28‘Woollen manufacturers to close one of their mills’, Wool Record, 125 (6 September 1974), 27.
29L. Elliott, ‘British recessions: A short history’, Guardian (7 December 2012).
30National Economic Development Council, Wool Textile EDC: Progress Report 1980 (London: National Economic Development Office, 1980), p. 2; R. David, ‘Fears about future for wool textiles’, Financial Times (12 March 1979).
31J. Richmond, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, 7 May 2015.
32AM–AF, Minutes, 3 January 1967, and 10 June 1969; Kelly’s Post Office London Directory for 1970 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1970), p. 1,236.
33Brann interview (17 April 2015); Post Office London Directory for 1960 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1960), p. 3,186.
34Brann interview (17 April 2015); P. Long, ‘Huddersfield survey: The relationship with Golden Square’, Wool Record, 114 (20 September 1968), 29.
35Brann interview (17 April 2015); Post Office London Directory for 1960, pp. 1,277, 1,438, 1,671, 1,927; S. Stemp, ‘Lachasse’, in A. de la Haye and E. Ehrman (eds), London Couture, 1923–1975: British Luxury (London: V&A Publishing, 2015), pp. 60–5; P. Golbin (ed.), Balenciaga Paris (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2006), pp. 86, 98, 111, 135.
36Brann interview (17 April 2015); T. Brann, interview by author, London (6 June 2016); The Yorkshire Textile Industry, 197071, 85th edn (Croydon: Thomas Skinner & Company, 1970), pp. 65, 105, 107, 112, 118, 133.
37Brann interview (17 April 2015).
38Ibid.; Post Office London Directory for 1941 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1941), p. 1,999; Post Office London Directory for 1942 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1942), p. 1,678; Post Office London Directory for 1962, p. 1,964.
39Post Office London Directory for 1962, p. 1,743; Brann interviews (17 April 2015 and 6 June 2016).
40Brann interview (17 April 2015).
41‘Calderdale writer Jean Illingworth sparks nostalgia for Huddersfield workers penning book about life in Harella clothing factory in the 1960s’, Huddersfield Daily Examiner (18 November 2015).
42‘Windsmoor PLC’, Financial Times (7 July 1986); R. Tomkins, ‘Offer values Windsmoor at £23m’, Financial Times (7 July 1986); Kelly’s Post Office London Directory 1976 (Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey: Kelly’s Directories, 1976), p. 1,440.
43Brann interview (17 April 2015); T. Brann, interview by author, London (27 June 2016); Kelly’s Post Office London Directory 1976, p. 1,194.
44H. Riches, ‘The making of Mansfield’, Drapers’ Record (22 February 1986), 15; K. Whitehorn, ‘Top dressing time’, Observer (10 May 1987); ‘The big chance’, Guardian (24 October 1979).
45Kelly’s Post Office London Directory 1976, p. 1016.
46‘Short particulars: Ellis & Goldstein, Limited’, Financial Times (2 November 1936); ‘Ellis & Goldstein’, Financial Times (10 March 1939); ‘Ellis & Goldstein’, Financial Times (26 March 1940).
47‘Ellis & Goldstein acquisition’, Financial Times (14 December 1946).
48‘Ellis & Goldstein Limited’, Financial Times (12 April 1951).
49‘Ellis & Goldstein’, Financial Times (20 June 1955).
50‘Ellis & Goldstein Ltd’, Financial Times (27 June 1957).
51Brann interview (6 June 2016); D. Ritter, advertisement, Times (London), (24 March 1945); Deréta of London, advertisement, Sunday Times (London), (15 April 1956).
52‘Ellis & Goldstein (Holdings) Limited’, Financial Times (28 June 1967).
53‘Ellis & Goldstein setback’, Financial Times (30 March 1968).
54‘Ellis & Goldstein (Holdings) Limited’, Financial Times (19 April 1972); ‘Ellis & Goldstein forecasts £1.35m’, Financial Times (25 August 1972); ‘Ellis & Goldstein ahead’, Financial Times (29 March 1973); ‘Ellis & Goldstein record’, Financial Times (22 August 1973); ‘£3.1m. by Ellis & Goldstein’, Financial Times (24 April 1974), ‘Ellis & Goldstein overseas’, Financial Times (13 May 1974).
55‘Taking shops in shops abroad’, Financial Times (1 May 1974).
56‘Ellis & Goldstein (Holdings) Limited’, Financial Times (2 May 1973).
57‘Ellis & Goldstein prospects’, Financial Times (19 May 1977).
58‘Ellis & Goldstein (Holdings) Limited’, Financial Times (18 May 1978).
59Brann interviews (6 June 2016 and 27 June 2016).
60S. Brompton and R. Tyler, ‘Everything Ted Heath ought to know about Margaret Thatcher’, Daily Mail (24 January 1975).
61‘Country Casuals’, Financial Times (3 November 1973); ‘Country Casuals’, Financial Times (7 September 1974); ‘Co-ordinates cut a dash’, Financial Times (28 September 1985).
62‘Country Casuals’, Financial Times (7 September 1974).
63Rosalind Coward, Diana: The Portrait (Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2004), pp. 106–7.
64Brann interview (27 June 2016).
65A. J. P. Walsh and J. P. T. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (5 May 2014).
66J. Zeitlin, ‘The clothing industry in transition: International trends and British response’, in S. D. Chapman (ed.), The Textile Industries, vol. 4: Twentieth-Century Developments (London: I. B. Tauris, 1997), pp. 142–3.
67‘Long term investment the way to retail supremacy’, The Times) (17 July 1970); M. Corina, ‘High street battle with the multiples’, The Times (12 January 1971); ‘Change over the counter’, The Times (6 June 1971); B. Polan and A. Chubb, ‘Cheap chic and snappy suits that helped the 1960s swing’, Daily Mail (16 June 2000).
68A. J. P. Walsh and J. P. T. Walsh interview.
69L. van der Post, ‘What ever happened to the traditional winter coat?’, Financial Times (23 October 1976).
70‘Cloth designers and buyers call for “closer liaison”’, Wool Record, 114 (20 December 1968), 14.
71‘Producing a menswear collection’, Wool Record, 125 (22 March 1974), 12.
72J. Richmond, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (7 May 2015).
73A. J. P. Walsh interview (21 June 2016).
74M. Aveyard, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (22 April 2015).
75P. Long, ‘Strong British contingent for Paris shows’, Wool Record, 103 (23 February 1963), 36; P. Long, ‘Exporters disappointed by the new budget’, Wool Record, 103 (12 April 1963), 25; P. Long, ‘British wool garments top the bill in Paris’, Wool Record, 103 (24 May 1963), 36.
76P. Long, ‘Golden opportunities for British cloth makers’, Wool Record, 104 (22 November 1963), 30, 40.
77‘Milan Samples Fair of world-wide importance’, International Textiles, 302:4 (1958), 119.
78‘Tenth industries fair at Dornbirn, Austria’, International Textiles, 301:3 (1958), 85.
79B. Wubs and T. Maillet, ‘Building competing fashion textile fairs in Europe, 1970–2010: Première Vision (Paris) vs. Interstoff (Frankfurt)’, Journal of Macromarketing, 37 (March 2017), 25–39.
80Ibid.
81‘12 British firms at Frankfurt Interstoff’, Wool Record, 104 (6 December 1963), 7.
82‘Frankfurt’s rag time’, Guardian (26 November 1974).
83Aveyard interview (22 April 2015).
84Peter Ackroyd, Saltaire, West Yorkshire, Records of the National Wool Textile Export Corporation (hereafter cited as PA–NWTEC), British Wool Textile Exports 1966–67 (Bradford: National Wool Textile Executive and National Wool Textile Export Corporation, 1967), p. 6.
85PA–NWTEC, British Wool Textile Exports 1963–64 (Bradford: National Wool Textile Executive and National Wool Textile Export Corporation, 1964), p. 26.
86‘British wool cloth does well at Interstoff’, Wool Record, 103 (31 May 1963), 3.
87PA–NWTEC, British Wool Textile Exports 1968–69 (Bradford: National Wool Textile Executive and National Wool Textile Export Corporation, [1969]), p. 21, and PANWTEC, British Wool Textile Exports 1969–70 (Bradford: National Wool Textile Executive and National Wool Textile Export Corporation, [1970]), p. 28.
88‘British world textile fair suggested’, Wool Record, 126 (13 December 1974), 6.
89‘Bonus for men’s wear at 33rd Interstoff’, Wool Record, 127 (30 May 1975), 20.
90‘World-wide Woolmark fashion textiles sustain natural look for Interstoff’, Wool Record, 127 (2 May 1975), 28.
91PANWTEC, British Wool Textile Exports: Annual Report of the National Wool Textile Export Corporation 1977–78 (Bradford: National Wool Textile Export Corporation, [1978]), pp. 18–20.
92P. Kerwien, Historisches Arhiv, Messe Frankfurt GmBH, email to author, 4 November 2016.
93M. Aveyard, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (21 June 2016).
94Aveyard interview (22 April 2015).
95Westminster City Archives, London, 1327: Jaeger Archives, 1327/414: Editorial press book, vol. 21, January–December 1974, clipping, A. Chubb, ‘Why the girls of Paris are buying terribly British’, Evening News (28 January 1974).
96National Economic Development Council, Wool Textile EDC: Progress Report 1980, p. 10.
97‘Dutch newsletter: How trade with Common Market partners has developed’, Wool Record, 103 (3 May 1963), 39; ‘Italian imports causing difficulties in Holland’, Textile Recorder, 85 (July 1967), 43.
98‘Marked rise in Italian wool cloth shipments to Britain’, Wool Record, 127 (24 January 1975), 27.
99R. David, ‘British textile mills facing an uphill struggle’, Financial Times (4 December 1979); ‘Little firms that loom large’, Financial Times (29 June 1982).
100‘An uphill stretch for textiles’, Financial Times (11 May 1976).
101Z. A. Silberston, The Future of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement: Implications for the UK Economy (London: HMSO, 1989), 1–3.
102David, ‘British textile mills facing an uphill struggle’.
103Ibid.
104G. Portland, telephone interview by author (8 October 2015); Aveyard interview (22 April 2015); T. Brann, email to author, 10 November 2016.
105National Economic Development Council, Wool Textile EDC: Progress Report 1980, p. 16.
106Portland interview; J. P. T. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, 22 April 2015; Brann email.
107AM–AF, G. Portland, Purley, Surrey to J. P. T. Walsh, 24 January 2000.
108Smith interview; Kelly’s Post Office London Directory 1981 (East Grinstead, West Sussex: Kelly’s Directories, 1981), p. 1,779.
109A. J. P. Walsh interview (21 June 2016).
110Smith interview.
111Ibid.; Federal Trade Commission, Commission Decision Volumes: N, Complaint in the matter of Norlic Import Company, Inc., et al., Decision 22 October 1974, 1173, available at www.ftc.gov/enforcement/cases-proceedings/commission-decision-volumes/n (accessed 2 November 2016).
112Smith interview; J. Barrett, ‘House panel warns U.S. stores on Marianas’ goods’, Women’s Wear Daily (31 July 1992); P. Shenon, ‘Made in the U.S.A.?—hard labor on a Pacific island’, New York Times (18 July 1983).
113J. Ramey, ‘U.S. seeking to reform Mariana’s apparel industry’, Women’s Wear Daily (23 July 1997).
114Aveyard interview (22 April 2015).
115Aveyard interview (21 June 2016).
116Ibid.
117P. Ackroyd, interview by author, Saltaire, West Yorkshire (12 May 2015).
118Aveyard interview (21 June 2016); P. Ackroyd, telephone interview by author, 21 October 2016.
119Aveyard interview (21 June 2016).
120Ibid.
121Ibid.
122Ibid.
123AM–AF, Minutes, 23 February 1979.
124Ibid.
125Aveyard interview (22 April 2015).
126‘Facing up to the future’, Financial Times (20 September 1980).
127Ibid.
128AM–AF, Minutes, 18 April 1979.
129AM–AF, Minutes, 30 November 1979.
130I. Owen, ‘Problems of textiles industry “exaggerated”’, Financial Times (14 November 1979).
131R. David, ‘Textile import controls to stay’, Financial Times (1 February 1980).
132AM–AF, Minutes, 24 November 1978.
133Ibid.

7 What’s next?

1Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (hereafter cited as AM), Archival files, Minutes of the Board of Directors (hereafter cited as AM–AF, Minutes), 19 February 1982.
2‘Britain’s Fabrex ’79 ends on upbeat’, Women’s Wear Daily (2 May 1979).
3AM, Executive files (hereafter cited as AM–EF), P. Long, ‘Fabric, a certain taste in fashion’, in Fashion Fabrex ’79, National Hall Olympia October 30th–November 2nd, not paginated.
4International Wool Secretariat, ‘Wool comes to town’, advertisement in Fashion Fabrex ’79 not paginated.
5T. Brann, interview by author, London (27 June 2016).
6L. Robbins, ‘Bulk orders spark Fabrex despite a slow opening day’, Women’s Wear Daily (22 March 1984).
7Fabrex, ‘Fashion Fabrex’, advertisement in Women’s Wear Daily (28 July 1981); Fabrex, ‘Around the world in one day’, advertisement in Women’s Wear Daily (8 March 1984).
8L. Robbins, ‘Sales strong but traffic softer at ’84 Fabrex fair’, Women’s Wear Daily (26 March 1984).
9National Economic Development Council, Wool Textile EDC: Progress Report 1980 (London: National Economic Development Office, 1980), pp. 9–10, 16–18, 20, 25.
10Ibid., 20; R. David, ‘Persuading the textile trade to think Italian’, Financial Times (13 March 1980).
11AM–AF, Minutes, 22 October 1980.
12M. Monden, ‘Ivy in Japan: A regalia of non-conformity and privilege’, in P. Mears (ed.), Ivy Style: Radical Conformists (New Haven: Yale University Press; New York: Fashion Institute of Technology, 2012), pp. 176, 179.
13M. Aveyard, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (22 April 2015).
14G. M. Smith, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (21 June 2016).
15‘Deaths’, The Times (30 September 1967); ‘Business appointments: New chairman for Switchgear’, The Times) (28 October 1967); ‘Leafield Mills’, advertisement in Guardian (4 October 1980); D. Hildrew, ‘Foreign buyers claim bargains from wool mills they helped close’, Guardian (20 August 1980); G. Long, interview by author, Yeadon, West Yorkshire (19 April 2016).
16Aireborough Historical Society, images for James Ives & Company, at www.aireboroughhistoricalsociety.com (accessed 31 October 2016).
17West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds (hereafter cited as WYAS–L), WYL2139: Records of A. W. Hainsworth and Sons Ltd (hereafter cited as WYL2139), box 36, D. Gaunt, Reuben Gaunt & Sons Ltd, Pudsey, ‘Chairman’s statement’, 1 April 1982.
18AM–AF, Minutes, 12 December 1980.
19AM–EF, folder: Analysis of export, ‘London district sales’ (September 1980–February 1981); T. Brann, interview by author, London (6 June 2016).
20Brann interview (6 June 2016); Post Office London Directory for 1960 (London: Kelly’s Directories, 1960), p. 223.
21J. Richmond, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (7 May 2015); S. Chapman, ‘The decline and rise of textile merchanting, 1880–1990’, Business History, 32:4 (November 1990), 183.
22AM–EF, R. A. Hammond, ‘Report for business potential for next year in the U.K. excluding the protected London accounts’, 4 December 1981.
23Kelly’s Post Office London Directory 1981 (East Grinstead, West Sussex: Kelly’s Directories, 1981), p. 1,603.
24Hammond, ‘Report for business potential’.
25AM–EF, folder: Analysis of export, ‘Monthly analysis of sales, 1982/83’.
26AM–EF, folder: Analysis of export, ‘Comparison of exports by turnover’, 1980–83.
27Kelly’s Post Office London Directory 1981, p. 1,747; Kelly’s Post Office London Directory 1982 (East Grinstead, West Sussex: Kelly’s Directories, 1982), p. 1,469.
28Aveyard interview (22 April 2015).
29G. M. Smith, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (5 May 2015); G. Portland, telephone interview by author (8 October 2015).
30M. Aveyard, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (21 June 2016).
31M. L. Gavenas, ‘Who decides the color of the season? How a trade show called Première Vision changed fashion culture’, in R. L. Blaszczyk and U. Spiekermann (eds), Bright Modernity: Color, Commerce, and Consumer Culture (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017), pp. 251–69.
32‘Changes in wool export promotion’, Guardian (18 July 1967); Peter Ackroyd, Saltaire, West Yorkshire, Records of the National Wool Textile Export Corporation (hereafter cited as PA–NWTEC), British Wool Textile Exports 196869 (Bradford: National Wool Textile Executive and National Wool Textile Export Corporation, [1969]), pp. 16, 20–1.
33‘Car prizes to promote wool’, Guardian (18 September 1969); British Wool Textile Exports 196869, pp. 22–6.
34PA–NWTEC, British Wool Textile Exports: Annual Report of the National Wool Textile Export Corporation for 198384 (Bradford: National Wool Textile Export Corporation, 1984), pp. 9–16.
35Gavenas, ‘Who decides the color of the season?’, pp. 251–69.
36AM–EF, British Wool Textile Export Corporation, ‘The British wool textile industry, visit of HRH the Duke of York to Premiere Vision, 13th February 2003’, 21 January 2003, 11; AM–EF, National Wool Textile Export Corporation Annual Report for 1996/1997 (Bradford: British Wool Textile Export Corporation, 1996), p. 8; ‘Textiles show the way says Sir Digby’, West Yorkshire and North Yorkshire Counties Publications (14 March 2005).
37P. Ackroyd, interview by author, Saltaire, West Yorkshire (12 May 2015); ‘Founder of Première Vision dies in Lyon’, Wool Record, 165 (October 2006), 15.
38AM–EF, ‘Minutes of a meeting of the council of the National Wool Textile Export Corporation’, 7 April 1981.
39‘Paris exhibitions’, Wool Record, 139 (April 1981), 15; ‘British business at Paris shows’, Wool Record, 139 (May 1981), 49.
40Aveyard interview (21 June 2016).
41‘British business at Paris shows’, p. 49.
42AM–EF, ‘Minutes of a meeting of the council of the National Wool Textile Export Corporation’, 5 January 1982.
43AM–EF, ‘Minutes of a meeting of the council of the National Wool Textile Export Corporation’, 23 March 1982; AM–EF, National Wool Textile Export Corporation, Weekly letter no. 1643, 26 March 1982.
44AM–EF, National Wool Textile Export Corporation, Weekly letter no. 1644, 2 April 1982.
45‘We invite you to discover British Woollens at the Waldorf’, advertisement in Women’s Wear Daily (13 August 1980).
46AM–EF, ‘Minutes of a meeting of the council of the National Wool Textile Export Corporation’, 15 September 1981.
47E. B. Brill and O. Wilde, ‘British Woollens show off to rosy start’, Women’s Wear Daily (1 September 1982).
48‘British woolen, worsted show slated for June 22–23 in New York’, Women’s Wear Daily (25 May 1993).
49The Dorchester show was launched by the Wool Textile Manufacturers’ Federation of Bradford in 1981. The National Wool Textile Export Corporation assumed responsibility for the show in October 1982. P. Ackroyd, telephone interview by author (21 October 2016).
50‘Good response to Dorchester show’, Wool Record, 140 (September 1981), 19; T. Brann interview by author, London (27 June 2016); Ackroyd interview (21 October 2016).
51AM–EF, National Wool Textile Export Corporation, Weekly letter no. 1951, 19 August 1988.
52Gerald Long, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, Papers related to James Ives & Company, James Ives & Company Ltd, ‘125th Anniversary (1848–1973)’ and ‘Reply by Mrs. E. Kenneth Ives’, [both March 1973].
53Long interview.
54AM–AF, Minutes, 26 June 1981.
55AM–AF, Minutes, 7 December 1981.
56AM–AF, Minutes, 15 January 1982.
57AM–AF, Minutes, 19 February 1982.
58AM–AF, Minutes, 14 May 1982.
59AM–AF, Minutes, 21 June 1982.
60AM–AF, Minutes, 14 May 1982.
61‘Ellis & Goldstein cuts payout as profits fall’, Financial Times (14 May 1981); ‘Ellis & Goldstein profits slide midway’, Financial Times (3 November 1982).
62‘Ellis & Goldstein moves ahead to £1.4m for year’, Financial Times (13 May 1982).
63M. Keighley, ‘Better prospects for Colne Valley woollen manufacturers’, Wool Record, 139 (June 1981), 54; Kelly’s Post Office London Directory 1981, p. 2,358.
64AM–AF, Minutes, 19 February 1982.
65‘Windsmoor PLC’, Financial Times (7 July 1986).
66‘Facing up to the future’, Financial Times (20 September 1980).
67Ibid.
68A. Moreton, ‘Export buoyancy aids woven cloth’, Financial Times (26 January 1982).
69R. David, ‘British textile mills facing an uphill struggle’, Financial Times (4 December 1979); J. Buxton, ‘Little firms that loom large’, Financial Times (29 June 1982).
70AM–AF, Minutes, 22 June 1981.
71AM–AF, Minutes, 7 December 1981.
72G. Davies and J. Davies, What’s Next? (London: Century, 1989), p. 63; D. Churchill, ‘Clothes: How the big empires are striking back’, Financial Times (4 May 1984); ‘A double-quick creation’, Financial Times (10 August 1984); ‘Next man’, Financial Times (28 December 1984); The UK Fashion Report ([Great Britain]: EMAP Fashion, [1997]), p. 353.
73E. Musgrave, ‘The Next move aims at a largely untapped market’, Drapers’ Record (13 February 1982), 47.
74Churchill, ‘Clothes: How the big empires are striking back’; D. Churchill, ‘The Next collection of developments’, Financial Times (21 August 1986).
75AM–AF, Minutes, 19 February 1982.
76Ibid.
77Davies and Davies, What’s Next?, p. 55.
78Ibid., p. 56; ‘A double-quick creation’.
79AM–AF, Minutes, 19 February 1982.
80AM–AF, Minutes, 6 January 1983.
81Ibid.
82AM–AF, Minutes, 24 June 1983.
83Linked In, resumé for Rona Stean, available at www.linkedin.com/in/rona-stean-81a12770 (accessed 27 October 2016).
84Aveyard interview (22 April 2015).
85AM–AF, Minutes, 19 July 1983.
86Smith interview (5 May 2015).
87AM–EF, folder: Analysis of export, ‘London district sales [and] sundry district sales’, September 1979–February 1980, and ‘London district sales [and] sundry district sales’, March 1980–August 1980.
88AM–EF, folder: Analysis of export, ‘Monthly analysis of sales, 1982/83’.
89AM–AF, Minutes, 19 July 1983; AM–EF, V. S. Smith, Fowler & Orr, London, to Abraham Moon and Sons, 12 July 1983.
90J. P. T. Walsh, interview by author, Weeton, North Yorkshire (23 May 2015); J. P. T. Walsh, email to author (5 July 2016).
91J. P. T. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (25 October 2016).
92AM–AF, Minutes, 5 July 1984, 5 December 1984.
93AM–AF, Minutes, 23 August 1985.
94J. P. T. Walsh interview (25 October 2016).
95AM–AF, Minutes, 19 July 1983.
96AM–EF, ‘Analysis of home sales, ½ to 30.9.84’; G. M. Smith, email to author, 21 December 2015; A. Moreton, ‘End of a long courtship’, Financial Times (26 June 1985).
97Classiq, ‘Style in film: Richard Gere in American Gigolo’, 23 July 2014, at http://classiq.me/style-in-film-richard-gere-american-gigolo (accessed 28 October 2016).
98A. Stanley, ‘Fighting crime, setting trends’, New York Times (6 January 2006); G. Trebay, ‘Roll up your sleeves and indulge in a Miami vice’, New York Times (20 July 2006); J. Serwer, ‘“The sky started raining panties”: Don Johnson on 30 years of “Miami Vice”,’Rolling Stone (9 October 2014), at www.rollingstone.com/tv/features/don-johnson-on-30-years-of-miami-vice-20141009 (accessed 30 October 2016).
99‘Ellis & Goldstein down year end’, Financial Times (11 May 1983); ‘Ellis & Goldstein recovers’, Financial Times (3 November 1983); ‘Ellis & Goldstein’s Dash to £1.3m’, Financial Times (1 November 1984); ‘Ellis profits reach £3.6m as Dash growth continues’, Financial Times (25 April 1985); ‘Ellis & Goldstein profits increase to over £4m’, Financial Times (23 April 1986); ‘Lower interest helps Ellis & Goldstein profits to £1.53m’, Financial Times (31 October 1986).
100A. Rawsthorn, ‘Berkertex attacks Ellis for allowing brands to “languish”’, Financial Times (10 June 1988); Ellis & Goldstein (Holdings) plc.,‘Ellis & Goldstein: Strength from specialisation’, advertisement in Financial Times (5 July 1988).
101‘Ellis & Goldstein downturn to £3.7m’, Financial Times (23 April 1987).
102AM–EF, J. Morris, MEAD (Manufacturing Eastex Alexon Division), Luton, to Abraham Moon and Sons, 19 June 1989.
103AM–EF, Agenda and appendices for directors’ meeting, 30 June 1988, ‘Schedule 10’.
104AM–EF, Agenda and appendices for directors’ meeting, 30 June 1988, ‘Schedule 1’.
105J. P. T. Walsh, email to author (11 November 2016).
106AM–EF, folder: Analysis of export, ‘Comparison of exports—By percentage, share of export turnover, [1982–86]’.
107AM–EF, Agenda and appendices for directors’ meeting, 30 June 1988, ‘Schedule 6. Comparison of exports by % share of export turnover’.
108Paul Stuart, ‘Our story’, at www.paulstuart.com (accessed 10 November 2016).
109P. Smith, D. Sudjic, and D. Loveday, Hello, My Name is Paul Smith: Fashion and Other Stories (New York: Rizzoli, 2013), 88–9.
110Ackroyd interview (12 May 2015); Stuart, ‘Our story’.
111AM–EF, National Wool Textile Export Corporation, British Wool Textile Exports: Annual Report for 1988/89 (Bradford: National Wool Textile Export Corporation, 1989), not paginated.
112J. P. T. Walsh, email to author, 7 November 2016.
113AM–AF, Minutes, 29 January 1987; 26 June 1987.
114AM–AF, Minutes, 19 October 1987.
115WYAS–L, WYL2139, box 36, D. Gaunt, ‘Chairman’s statement’, 10 April 1981, in Reuben Gaunt & Sons Ltd, ‘Report and accounts statement, 3rd October 1980’.
116Aveyard interview (22 April 2015).
117Aveyard interviews (22 April 2015 and 21 June 2016).
118AM–AF, Minutes, 23 March 1988; AM–EF, ‘Present structure’, [ca. 1987]; Linked in, resumé for Rona Stean; J. L. Coates, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (5 May 2015).
119Coates interview; AM–EF, National Wool Textile Export Corporation, Weekly letter no. 1955, 30 September 1988.
120‘St. Andrews Textile to move’, Women’s Wear Daily (25 January 1926); ‘Monotones of unusual weave distinguish dressy coatings in Picardie New York line’, Women’s Wear Daily (2 May 1929); ‘Bright Irish green with white cited among new vivid shades for spring’, Women’s Wear Daily (15 August 1929); ‘A. H. Campbell joins St. Andrews Textile Company’, Women’s Wear Daily (21 September 1933); ‘English quality shirtings make renewed appeal in woven stripes and fancy Jacquards’, Women’s Wear Daily (17 October 1929).
121‘A. H. Campbell joins St. Andrews Textile Company’; ‘Colorful nubbed tweeds considered promising for fall’, Women’s Wear Daily (20 February 1930).
122‘Fashions from the Scotch tweeds for fall’, Women’s Wear Daily (18 April 1938).
123‘Dreschel resigns post with Carson’s’, Women’s Wear Daily (15 December 1948); ‘Dreschel leaves Wilson Bros.’, Women’s Wear Daily (16 August 1950); ‘Dressy tweeds, three-piece costume scheme’, Women’s Wear Daily (17 December 1957).
124Coates interview; David Hudson, telephone interview by author, 11 November 2016. Hudson was the main designer at the St. Andrews Textile Company from 1986 to 2003.
125Hudson interview.
126‘Milan and Florence report’, International Textiles, 688 (February 1988), 104–19.
127Hudson interview; Coates interview; J. P. T. Walsh interview (25 October 2016).
128Hudson interview; Coates interview.
129Government of Canada, ‘Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA)’, 19 May 2016, at www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/agr-acc/us-eu.aspx?lang=eng (accessed 30 October 2016); J. Romalis, ‘NAFTA’s and CUSFTA’s impact on international trade’, NBER Working Paper No. 11059, January 2005, at www.nber.org/papers/W11059 (accessed 30 October 2016).
130Hudson interview.
131‘Windsmoor PLC’.
132‘Marriage of Giants’, Drapers’ Record (12 April 1986), 6; A. Rawsthorn, ‘Coats Viyella falls 36% to £135m’, Financial Times (11 March 1989); ‘Coats Viyella sells Country Casuals chain’, Women’s Wear Daily (21 March 1989).
133Aireborough Historical Society, images for Nunroyd Mills, at www.aireboroughhistoricalsociety.com (accessed 31 October 2016).
134AM–AF, Minutes, 3 October 1985.
135AM–AF, Minutes, 5 December 1985.
136AM–EF, ‘Comparative performance, Spring ’90/Winter ’89, Pieces sold by market’.
137AM–AF, Minutes, 17 March 1989 and 23 March 1989.
138J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).

8 Reinvention

1A. Bounds and C. Tighe, ‘High-end demand revives Yorkshire’s mills’, Financial Times (3 November 2013).
2Première Vision, ‘Historique’, at www.premierevision.com/fr/historique/?lang=fr (accessed 12 November 2016).
3J. P. T. Walsh, interview by author, Weeton, West Yorkshire (23 May 2015).
4Ibid.
5Ibid.
6Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (hereafter cited as AM), Executive files (hereafter cited as AM–EF), Confederation of British Wool Textiles, ‘Wool Textile Manufacturers’ Federation, Meeting 30th November 1988’.
7AM–EF, Confederation of British Wool Textiles, ‘Wool Textile Manufacturers’ Federation: chairman’s report for the year 1987/88’, 23 November 1988.
8AM–EF, Confederation of British Wool Textiles, ‘Note of a meeting of the IWTO Cloth Committee held in Paris on Thursday, 8th December, 1988’.
9Parliamentary Business, House of Commons, ‘The future of Multi-Fibre Arrangement’, 12 January 1990, column 1240, available www.parliament.uk (accessed 12 November 2016).
10Ibid., column 1244.
11Ibid., column 1243.
12‘Czech the winter scene’, International Textiles, 692 (1988), 66–7.
13‘The future of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement’, column 1243.
14Ibid.
15Ibid., column 1244.
16J. Sewell, ‘Performing masculinity through objects in postwar America: The playboy’s pipe’, in A. Moran and S. O’Brien (eds), Love Objects: Emotion, Design and Material Culture (London: Bloomsbury, 2014), pp. 63–71.
17M. Kielmas, ‘Questions over trade weave through Britain’s wool revival’, Christian Science Monitor (23 September 1988).
18J. P. T. Walsh, interview by author, Weeton, North Yorkshire (23 May 2015).
19Kielmas, ‘Questions over trade’.
20A. Rawsthorn, ‘No brass for the Yorkshire mills’, Financial Times (27 June 1989).
21G. Jackson-Stops (ed.), The Treasure Houses of Britain: Five Hundred Years of Private Patronage and Art Collecting (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art; New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985).
22T. Graham and T. Blanchard, Dressing Diana (Princeton, NJ: Benford Books; New York: Welcome Rain, 1998), pp. 146–7.
23J. A. Trachtenberg, Ralph Lauren: The Man Behind the Mystique (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1988), pp. 140, 205–11, 221–3, 266–7, 270; L. Birnbach, The Official Preppy Handbook (New York: Workman, 1980).
24‘Textile workers’ village wears the crown of World Heritage status’, Financial Times (5 August 2002); ‘Breathing life into an old mill’, Financial Times (6 March 1984).
25‘Laura Ashley’, Financial Times (25 November 1985).
26M. Aveyard, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, 21 June 2016; AM, Design department files (hereafter cited as AM–DD), Derek Harvey and Associates, press pack, The GB Clothing Company, Autumn 85/Winter 86.
27S. Roberts, ‘Elliot Gant, marketer of the button-down shirt, dies at 89’, New York Times (18 March 2016).
28Aveyard interview (21 June 2016); Gant Heritage, at www.gant.Companyuk/heritage/the-heritage (accessed 4 November 2016); ‘Gant Company’, Real Deals, 1 October 2004, at http://realdeals.eu.com (accessed 4 November 2016); AM–DD, Gant Martha’s Vineyard Fall Collection 1989; Fall in Connecticut Valley, Gant American Sportswear (Autumn 1990); and Gant in the Adirondacks, Fall 1991.
29AM–EF, National Wool Textile Export Corporation, Weekly letter no. 1643, 26 March 1982; AM–EF, National Wool Textile Export Corporation, Weekly letter no. 1990, 23 June 1989; M. Mazzaraco, ‘British wool show returns to New York after eight years’, Women’s Wear Daily (29 June 1993).
30J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015); J. P. T. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (21 June 2016).
31J. Simms, ‘A corporate image of some substance’, Independent (5 September 1989).
32AM–EF, Tom Clarke, Department of Trade and Industry, Leeds, ‘Business review: Report by the enterprise counsellor’ (23 December 1988), [p. 10].
33AM, Archival files (hereafter cited as AM–AF), Minutes of the Board of Directors (hereafter cited as Minutes), 8 February 1989; Aveyard interview (21 June 2016).
34C. Dowdy, ‘Designers’ creative flair fails to draw the money men’, Financial Times (3 August 2004); B. Ginns, ‘Elmwood boss’, Yorkshire Post (26 August 2014).
35Aveyard interview.
36J. P. T. Walsh interview (21 June 2016); AM–EF, Creating the cloth, promotional brochure designed by Haluk Gurer, ca. 1989.
37AM–AF, Minutes, 11 February 1993.
38West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds (hereafter cited as WYAS–L), WYL2139: Records of A. W. Hainsworth and Sons Ltd (hereafter cited as WYL2139), box 36, R. Gaunt & Sons (Holdings) Ltd, Report and Accounts, 30 September 1995, ‘Chairman’s speech given at the A. G. M. 1996’.
39WYAS–L, WYL2139, box 36, A. Turner, chairman, R. Gaunt & Sons (Holdings) Ltd, ‘Exit route from textiles’, 7 October 1998.
40AM–EF, ‘Phase 2’ postcards, October 1996; ‘A trend to tweed and towards typical “English” look’, Wool Record, 155 (November 1996), 66.
41J. L. Coates, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, 5 May 2015; M. Aveyard, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, 22 April 2015; ‘A story behind every cloth’, Wool Record, 167 (July 2008), 52.
42AM–EF, J. P. T. Walsh, Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, Guiseley, to G. Portland, Purley, Surrey, 4 March 1997.
43J. P. T. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, 25 October 2016; AM-EF, ‘Analysis of Export Turnover on a Monthly Basis Year to March ’94’.
44J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
45R. Negrini, email to author, 7 November 2016; Essevi archive, Milan, J. Walsh to Ennetex s.a.s. di R. Negrini & C., Milan, 30 March 1987.
46J. P. T. Walsh, email to author, 7 November 2016.
47J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
48‘New patterns of production in the Prato textile trade’, Wool Record, 153 (July 1994), 37.
49AM–EF, ‘UK customers, winter 92/93’, 21 November 1991.
50J. P. T. Walsh, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (26 May 2016); ‘Italians beaten at their own game’, Yorkshire Post (22 April 1996).
51World Trade Organization, ‘Understanding the WTO: who we are’, at www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/who_we_are_e.htm (accessed 12 November 2016).
52‘Dormeuil give an added meaning to Entente Cordiale’, Wool Record, 151 (March 1992), 55; D. E. and J. Levy, ‘Dormeuil House: The most spectacular new office building in the West End’, advertisement in Financial Times (23 September 1994).
53S. Roberts, ‘Dormeuil see bright future for high-quality wool suits: Joint ventures in the Far East’, Wool Record, 155 (January 1996), 12.
54P. Ackroyd, telephone interview by author (21 October 2016); AM–EF, National Wool Textile Export Corporation Report for 1996/1997 (Bradford: British Wool Textile Export Corporation, 1996), p. 8; AM–EF, British Wool Textile Export Corporation, British Wool Textile Exports 1997/98 (Bradford: British Wool Textile Export Corporation, 1997), p. 2.
55P. Ackroyd, interview by author, Saltaire, West Yorkshire, 12 May 2015; AM–EF, British Wool Textile Export Corporation, National Wool Textile Export Corporation Annual Report for 1996/97, pp. 4–9; AM–EF, British Wool Textile Export Corporation, ‘Chairman’s briefing note, joint meeting of the council of the corporation and the promotion committee of NWTEC’, 12 December 2007.
56A. Garrett, ‘Handing out the gongs for industry’, Observer (21 April 1996); ‘The 1996 winners of the Queen’s Awards’, Independent (21 April 1996).
57N. Renton, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, 17 March 2015.
58J. Luesby, ‘The Queen’s Awards: Designs on global markets’, Financial Times (22 April 1996).
59T. L. Friedman, ‘Big Mac I’, New York Times (8 December 1996); T. L. Friedman, ‘Big Mac II’, New York Times (11 December 1996).
60J. Luesby, ‘Forget the width—feel the quality’, Financial Times (8 May 1996).
61P. Brown, ‘When cloth is cut to suit the market’, The Times (22 April 1996).
62Luesby, ‘The Queen’s Awards’.
63AM–EF, John P. T. Walsh to Richard Bruce, Dept. T16, Marks and Spencer, London, 8 October 1998.
64AM–EF, Ashley Portland, ‘A critical evaluation of the production techniques adopted by Moon & Sons Ltd as compared with Neill Johnstone Ltd’ (autumn 1997), p. 3; AM–EF, Konen Herrenkleiderfabrik KG to Abraham Moon and Sons, 21 February 1989; AM–EF, ‘Seasonal statistics report—summary as of 27/4/97’; J. P. T. Walsh interview (21 June 2016).
65AM–EF, Textile and Clothing Strategy Group, A National Strategy for the UK Textile and Clothing Industry [2000], pp. 7, 22.
66‘C&A to close all 109 UK stores’, Financial Times (16 June 2000); P. Hollinger and C. Tighe, ‘C&A was forced down-market and now out’, Financial Times (16 June 2000).
67‘Interstoff opens new trade doors in Asia’, Wool Record, 151 (January 1992), 10.
68The dates of the first Intertextile shows are documented in the Messe Frankfurt archive; P. Kerwien, Historisches Archiv, Messe Frankfurt, Frankurt am Main, Germany, email to author, 9 December 2016; AM–EF, British Wool Textile Export Corporation, National Wool Textile Export Corporation Annual Report for 1996/97, p. 10.
69J. P. T. Walsh, email to author, 14 November 2016; J. P. T. Walsh interview (21 June 2016); AM–EF, British Wool Textile Export Corporation, National Wool Textile Export Corporation Annual Report for 1996/97, p. 10; AM–EF, British Wool Textile Export Corporation, British Wool Textile Exports 1998/99: Annual Report of the National Wool Textile Export Corporation (Bradford: British Wool Textile Export Corporation, 1999), n.p.; AM–EF, National Wool Textile Export Corporation, Weekly letter no. 2778, 4 May 2007.
70‘Consumer confidence severely shaken since September 11 attacks’, Wool Record, 160 (January 2002), 7; ‘United States downturn hurts Europe’, Wool Record, 160 (January 2002), 62; ‘Wool popular in fancies for summer 2003’, Wool Record, 160 (February 2002), 16–17; H. Williams, ‘Doubts over early shows’, Wool Record, 160 (April 2002), 53.
71H. Williams, ‘Positive signs after a tough year in luxury markets’, Wool Record, 161 (September 2002), 40.
72H. Williams, ‘Industry leaders define keys to recovery’, Wool Record, 161 (November 2002), 53.
73H. Williams, ‘Bond between Italy and Britain’, Wool Record, 161 (January 2003), 11.
74‘Another hard year for luxury apparel’, Wool Record, 162 (September 2003), 73.
75H. Williams, ‘Première Vision to look beyond Europe’, Wool Record, 161 (April 2002), 7; H. Williams, ‘Stylish return to the 1940s’, Wool Record, 161 (November 2002), 43.
76AM–EF, British Wool Textile Export Corporation, ‘The British wool textile industry: Visit of HRH the Duke of York to Première Vision, 13th February 2003’, 21 January 2003; ‘Royal visit boosts British weaving sector’, Wool Record, 162 (April 2003), 11.
77Founded by entrepreneur Sidney Kimmel in 1970 as a division of W. R. Grace, Jones New York took inspiration from Cacharel Paris, producing clothes for the 26-year-old career girl who wanted a good fit and a slightly edgy look. Kimmel made Jones New York into one of Seventh Avenue’s top women’s wear designer-manufacturers using a multi-brand strategy that included the eponymous Jones label along with Evan-Picone, Rena Rowan and Lauren by Ralph Lauren.
78Jones Apparel Group, 1996 Annual Report, pp. 5, 13.
79J. P. T. Walsh interview (21 June 2016).
80A. D’Innocenzio, ‘Jones’s new take on Evan-Picone’, Women’s Wear Daily (17 February 1999).
81E. Wilson and T. J. Ryan, ‘Polo-Jones new deal: A global presence for Lauren, Ralph lines’, Women’s Wear Daily (16 November 2000).
82Jones Apparel Group, 2002 Annual report, pp. 9–11; L. Lockwood, ‘Sidney Kimmel: The quiet giant tells his story’, Women’s Wear Daily (21 April 2014).
83J. P. T. Walsh interview (21 June 2016).
84AM–EF, S. S. Markowitz, Todtman, Nachamie, Spizz & Johns, New York, to creditors of the St. Andrews Textile Company, Inc., 9 April 2003; ‘John Dreschel: Obituary’, NorthJersey.com, 26 May 2013, at www.legacy.com/obituaries/northjersey/obituary.aspx?pid=165010007 (accessed 5 November 2016).
85David Hudson, telephone interview by author, 11 November 2016; AM–EF, list of customers with appointments at trade fairs, autumn 2004.
86AM, Minutes, 19 July 1996 and 30 July 1997.
87AM–EF, ‘Management meeting’, 19 April 1999.
88AM–EF, G. Strange, Fabric Brokers UK, Bradford, to J. P. T. Walsh, 15 April 1999; A. Morton, KPMG, Huddersfield, to J. P. T. Walsh, 30 September 1996.
89J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
90Minimalism dominated Elle Decoration in September and October 2003. The astute reader, however, might anticipate the return of bold colour and textured embellishments from features such as ‘Just hanging around’, Elle Decoration (September 2003), 128–35, which paired modern and vintage styles.
91‘Things we love’, Country Homes & Interiors (October 2004), 13; ‘City charm’, Country Homes & Interiors (October 2004), 51–7; ‘A history lesson’, Country Homes & Interiors (October 2004), 43–6; ‘Mix and match pastel tweeds’, Country Homes & Interiors (October 2004), 65–73.
92J. Liddle, ‘Rapid growth in the United States’, Wool Record, 160 (August 2001), 28.
93J. P. T. Walsh interviews (23 May 2015 and 25 October 2016).
94J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015); AM–EF, confidential reports by the home furnishings consultant, 2003–2005.
95AM–EF, press release, ‘Heimtextil 2004’; AM–EF, Moon Established 1837, brochure for furnishings collection, ca. 2004.
96AM–EF, Design and Decoration Awards 2004, p. 8.
97‘Hainsworth launches new interiors business’, Wool Record, 165 (June 2006), 33; ‘Study urges re-launch for wool in interior textiles’, Wool Record, 165 (July 2006), 21.
98J. Carracher, ‘British fabrics go high-end’, Daily News Record (19 July 2004).
99T. Wyatt, ‘Textiles show the way says Sir Digby’, West Yorkshire and North Yorkshire Counties Publications (14 March 2005).
100AM–EF, ‘U.S. visit 11th October’, [2002].
101Minutes of the management meeting, 19 April 1999; AM–EF, ‘Abraham Moon, Marketing Plan Proposal’, 3 May 2000.
102J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
103‘Desire for fashion as prosperity spreads’, Wool Record, 160 (July 2001), 24.
104G. de Jonquières, ‘Clothes on the line’, Financial Times (19 July 2004).
105M. Keighley, ‘China’s textile engine moves into a higher gear’, Wool Record, 162 (April 2003), 1.
106‘“Surrendering without a fight” on Chinese imports’, Wool Record, 164 (May 2005), 1.
107‘Intense competition in the UK apparel market’, Wool Record, 162 (January 2004), 15; S. Bain, ‘High street stores move to new pricing structures’, Wool Record, 165 (February 2006), 32.
108‘Jaeger and Viyella businesses have new owners’, Wool Record, 162 (April 2003), 6.
109S. Bain, ‘How high street stores source clothing’, Wool Record, 164 (October 2005), 44; Bain, ‘High street stores move to new price structures’.
110J. P. T. Walsh interview (25 October 2016); AM–EF, ‘Sales meeting’, 20 October 2005.
111‘Luxury market is ripe for product evolution’, Wool Record, 162 (December 2003), 82–3; J. Sugden, telephone interview by author, 21 October 2016.
112‘British mills advised to aim at the top end’, Wool Record, 163 (July 2004), 21.
113‘Boho chick meets luxury pup’, Elle Decoration (October 2005), 173.
114J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015); J. P. T. Walsh, email to author (14 March 2017). Tempest Bailey was subsequently folded into Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd.
115H. Williams, ‘Men and women abandon dressing down’, Wool Record, 160 (May 2001), 4; ‘Return to formal dress’, Wool Record, 160 (May 2001), 37; ‘Smartness back in vogue’, Wool Record, 160 (July 2001), 43.
116J. Liddle, ‘Dormeuil continues to support British mills’, Wool Record, 161 (April 2002), 60–1.
117S. Hoppough, ‘The Sophisticate’, Daily News Record (21 July 2008).
118J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
119S. Bain, ‘Women thinking twice before spending on fashion’, Wool Record, 165 (July 2006), 31.
120J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
121AM–EF, ‘Analysis of export turnover on a monthly basis year to March 2006’.
122J. P. T. Walsh interview (21 June 2016).
123J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
124‘Lifetime’s creativity, Wool Record, 162 (September 2003), 77.
125‘Renewed optimism at Neill Johnstone’, Wool Record, 166 (October 2007), 43.
126G. Lockwood, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (17 March 2015); J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
127AM–EF, British/National Wool Textile Export Corporation, ‘Minutes of the joint meeting of the council and the promotion committee of the British/National Wool Textile Export Corporation’, 12 December 2007.
128AM–EF, ‘Sales plan/review’, 6 July 2006.
129‘Chance for quality as people seek to escape empty lives’, Wool Record, 164 (November 2005), 13.
130J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015); ‘Vertical mill’s new horizons’, Wool Record, 161 (January 2003), 25; AM–EF, J. P T. Walsh, ‘Purchase of the assets, stock and business of Wallass & Company Ltd’, 2007; ‘Companies get together to save jobs’, Yorkshire Post (13 September 2007); ‘Abraham Moon saves Bradford worsted firm’, Wool Record, 166 (November 2007), 6.
131A. McIntyre, ‘The big dilemma: Green fields of the survival of a local company?’,Wharfedale Observer (23 October 2007); ‘Guiseley group opposes company bid to build houses’, Wharfedale Observer (14 February 2008).
132R. E. Wilkinson, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire (23 June 2016); J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2016).
133‘Johnstons install new dyehouse’, Wool Record, 160 (September 2001), 19–21.
134Wilkinson interview; ‘Tweed production is consolidated’, Wool Record, 149 (September 1990), 15.
135AM–EF, J. P. T. Walsh, ‘Moon announcement to all employees of J. D. Matthewman based at Morley’, [2009]; AM–EF, ‘Bronte Tweeds sales order list’, 12 December 2009; J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
136‘Be inspired by modern rustic style’, Country Homes & Interiors (October 2009), 72–5.
137Wilkinson interview.
138Ibid.
139J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
140D. Thomas, Deluxe: How Luxury Lost Its Luster (New York: Penguin, 2007).
141AM–EF, British Wool Textile Export Corporation, Weekly letter no. 2802, 1 February 2008.
142J. Dyson, ‘Meeting the demands of today’s consumer’, Wool Record, 167 (January 2008), 3.
143AM–DD, promotional materials for Heritage Collection, 2007; S. O’Grady, ‘Minor British institutions: Prince of Wales check’, Independent (1 October 2010).
144J. P. T. Walsh interview (21 June 2016).
145AM–EF, ‘Abraham Moon & Sons Limited: P&L forecast based on client information’, 18 October 2007; AM–EF, ‘New York 2007’; J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
146J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
147Marsh, ‘Men’s designers see allure in fabrics from Britain’.
148Ackroyd interview (12 May 2015); AM–EF, B. Greenwood, Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, London, to G. Lockwood, Abraham Moon and Sons, 25 January 2008; AM–EF, British Wool Textile Export Corporation, Weekly letter no. 2802, 1 February 2008; AM–EF, ‘Minutes of the joint meeting of the council and the promotion committee of the British/National Wool Textile Export Corporation’, 29 April 2008; AM–EF, Geoffrey Martin & Company, Leeds, to J. Walsh, Leeds, 30 April 2010.
149AM–EF, Malcolm Jarvis, President, Confederation of British Wool Textiles Ltd, Huddersfield, to All Member Firms, 29 June 2009.
150F. Britten, ‘Made in Britain—manufacturing in the UK?’, Sunday Times (22 January 2012).
151E. Marsh, ‘Men’s designers see allure in fabrics from Britain’, Women’s Wear Daily (9 April 2009).
152‘Turning history into heritage’, Daily Telegraph (28 November 2011).
153AM–EF, John P.T. Walsh, Memo re: Jon Wall, 3 January 2011.
154AM–EF, ‘Yorkshire furnishings firm Moon boosts sales & profits’, The Furnishing Report (23 October 2012).
155Britten, ‘Made in Britain—manufacturing in the UK?’
156‘Turning history into heritage’.
157J. Warren, ‘Why wool is spinning back into fashion’, Express (25 March 2013); G. Ruddick, ‘M&S turns to “Best of British” for clothing revival’, Telegraph (19 February 2013); B. Barrow, ‘Would you go to M&S for an £800 suit?’, DailyMail.com (19 July 2013); University of Leeds, Marks and Spencer Company Archive, press release, ‘M&S Collection, Best of British, M&S Menswear to show at London Collections: Men’, June 2013, and booklet, ‘Marks & Spencer, Best of British, Autumn Winter 13’.
158D. Nicholls, ‘Men’s hotlist’, Telegraph Magazine (24 August 2013); ‘M&S Best of British menswear range’, Guardian (11 October 2013).
159‘Quintessentially British collection launching for Autumn/Winter 2014’, Country Homes & Interiors (October 2014), 15, 83–90.
160‘Turning history into heritage’.
161‘Boom time as Moon balloons from its Guiseley mill’, Yorkshire Post (24 June 2013); ‘Guiseley woollen mill is expanded’, Bradford Telegraph and Argue (20 July 2013).
162J. P. T. Walsh interview (23 May 2015).
163Ibid.
164‘Gripping yarn of mill success’, Yorkshire Post (5 July 2015).
165‘Textile jobs to boost Yorkshire’, Yorkshire Post (10 February 2015).

9 Fashionability: the way forward

1Author’s observations, Top Drawer, 18–19 January 2016; Olympia London, ‘Our story’, at http://olympia.london/about-us/our-story (accessed 20 November 2016); Top Drawer, ‘About Top Drawer’, at www.topdrawer.co.uk/about (accessed 20 November 2016).
2Author’s observations, Top Drawer.
3Ibid.
4K. Anderson, telephone interview by author, 8 July 2016.
5Author’s observations, Top Drawer.
6P. Birchenall, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, 22 June 2016.
7A. Seal, interview by author, Bradford, West Yorkshire, 21 October 2016.
8A. Dougill, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, 22 June 2016.
9C. Pearson, interview by author, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, 22 June 2016.
10Birchenall interview.
11J. Crew, ‘Ludlow blazer in herringbone English tweed’, comments on ‘Terribly Tasty Tweed’ by a consumer from Pittsburgh, PA, 4 December 2015, at www.jcrew.com/uk/p/C8778 (accessed 19 November 2016).
12Crew, ‘Ludlow blazer in herringbone English tweed’.
13Abraham Moon and Sons Ltd, Guiseley, West Yorkshire, Executive files (AM–EF), B. Northcote, Clarence House, London, to J. P. T. Walsh, 21 December 2009; S. Conti, ‘Prince Charles touts wool’, Women’s Wear Daily (28 January 2010); Australian Wool Innovation, ‘AWI’s History’, at www.wool.com/about-awi/who-we-are/awis-history/ (accessed 19 November 2016).
14‘HRH, Prince of Wales attends global Campaign for Wool event’, Wireless News, 17 November 2012; ‘UK Wool Week’, Twist, 47 (December 2012), 12.
15‘Campaign for Wool launches in China’, Twist, 41 (May 2012), 7; C. Rogers, ‘Optimistic outlook’, Twist, 43 (July/August 2012), 5; ‘C. Rogers, ‘Campaign catch up’, Twist, 49 (February/March 2013), 48–9.
16AM–EF, Campaign for Wool, ‘The Dumfries House Wool Declaration’, issued at the Dumfries House Conference, 9 September 2016.
17J. Sugden, telephone interview by author, 21 October 2016.
18P. Ackroyd, telephone interview by author, 21 October 2016.
19C. Rogers, ‘Getting it right’, Twist, 45 (October 2012), 4; ‘Bangladesh fire reverberations continue’, Twist, 48 (January 2013), 7; C. Rogers, ‘Too high a price to pay’, Twist, 52 (June 2013), 6; ‘Taking responsibility’, Twist, 52 (June 2013), 12–13.
20L. Siegle, ‘Am I a fool to expect more than corporate greenwashing?’, Guardian (3 April 2016); R. L. Blaszczyk, American Consumer Society, 1865–2005: From Hearth to HDTV (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009).
21J. Crew, ‘Social Responsibility’, at www.jcrew.com/uk/flatpages/social_res_april1.jsp?bmUID=lxSQ3i_&bmLocale=en_GB (accessed 19 November 2016).
22C. Rogers, ‘Best of British’, Twist, 49 (February/March 2013), 21–2.
23‘Sugden “profoundly optimistic” for UK textiles industry’, Twist, 46 (November 2012), 7.

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Fashionability

Abraham Moon and the creation of British cloth for the global market

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