Notes
in Vanguardia

Notes

Introduction: a thousand contradictions

1See David Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). The Group of Eight (G7), the World Trade Organisation and the International Monetary Fund are the main institutions that represent the member nations whose concentrated wealth and military power have been the basis for neoliberal policy since the 1970s. Neoliberal reforms to trade and public policy seek to deregulate and devolve government responsibility for welfare state provisions against poverty, sickness, unemployment and ecology. The privatisation and corporatisation of the public sector has consistently met with protests on the part of citizens’ movements and anti-globalisation activists since the late 1990s. Governments since then, along with the support of corporate-owned media, have increasingly sought to criminalise protest.
2Alain Badiou, The Return of History: Times of Riots and Uprising, trans. Gregory Elliott (London: Verso, [2011] 2012); Slavoj Žižek, The Year of Dreaming Dangerously (London: Verso, 2012). See also my essay, ‘Culture and the Communist Turn,’ in Marc James Léger, The Neoliberal Undead: Essays on Contemporary Art and Politics (Winchester: Zero Books, 2013), 17–37.
3Peter Bürger, ‘Avant-Garde and Neo-Avant-Garde: An Attempt to Answer Certain Critics of Theory of the Avant-Garde,’ New Literary History 41:4 (2010): 695–715.
4Marc James Léger, ‘Welcome to the Cultural Goodwill Revolution: On Class Composition in the Age of Classless Struggle,’ in Brave New Avant Garde: Essays on Contemporary Art and Politics (Winchester: Zero Books, 2012), 82–99.
5Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, trans. Richard Nice (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, [1979] 1984), 318–71.
6See Peter Bürger, Theory of the Avant Garde, trans. Michael Shaw (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, [1974] 1984).
7Gregory Sholette, Dark Matter: Art and Politics in the Age of Enterprise Culture (London: Pluto Press, 2011); Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class, And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002).
8The French sociologist Bernard Lahire has provided empirical data on the predominance today of the petty-bourgeois habitus across different class factions. See Tony Bennett, ‘Habitus Clivé: Aesthetics and Politics in the Work of Pierre Bourdieu,’ New Literary History 38:1 (2007): 201–28.
9John Roberts, Revolutionary Time and the Avant-Garde (London: Verso, 2015), 1.
10See Jacques Rancière, Aesthetics and Its Discontents, trans. Steven Corcoran (Cambridge: Polity Press, [2004] 2009).
11Marc James Léger, ‘Introduction: 1 + 1 + a,’ in Drive in Cinema: Essays on Film, Theory and Politics (Bristol: Intellect, 2015), 1–25. Gene Ray, ‘On the Conditions of Anti-Capitalist Art: Radical Cultural Practices and the Capitalist Art System,’ Transversal (November 2006), http://eipcp.net/transversal/0303/ray/en. For a critique of class reductionism and an analysis of the distinction between class being, class standpoint, class attitude and class culture, see Alain Badiou, ‘The Autonomy of the Aesthetic Process (1965),’ Radical Philosophy 178 (March/April 2013): 32–9.
12Slavoj Žižek, ‘It’s the Political Economy, Stupid!’ in Gregory Sholette and Oliver Ressler, eds. It’s the Political Economy, Stupid: The Global Financial Crisis in Art and Theory (London: Pluto Press, 2013), 17.
13See BAVO, eds. Cultural Activism Today: The Art of Over-Identification (Rotterdam: Episode Publishers, 2007) and ‘The Spectre of the Avant-Garde,’ Andere Sinema 176 (2006): 24–40. See also Marc James Léger, ‘The Subject Supposed to Over-Identify: BAVO and the Fundamental Fantasy of a Cultural Avant Garde,’ in Brave New Avant Garde, 100–26.
14Léger, Brave New Avant Garde, 76.
15The four discourses are defined in Jacques Lacan, The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, Book XVII: The Other Side of Psychoanalysis, 1969–1970, trans. Russell Grigg, ed. Jacques Alain Miller (New York: W.W. Norton, [1991] 2007). For Lacan’s discussion of the Discourse of the Capitalist, see Jacques Lacan, Lacan in Italia, 1953–1978 / Lacan en Italie, 1953–1978 (Milan: La Salamandra, 1978).
16Dave Beech, Art and Value: Art’s Economic Exceptionalism in Classical, Neoclassical and Marxist Economics (Leiden: Brill, 2015).
17Franco ‘Bifo’ Berardi, The Uprising: On Poetry and Finance (Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2012), 9.
18Cited in Marc James Léger, ‘Bruce Barber and the Parenthetical Suspension of Performance,’ in Bruce Barber, Performance, [Performance] and Performers, ed. Marc James Léger (Toronto: YYZ BOOKS, 2007), 19.
19Gene Ray, ‘Culture Industry and the Administration of Terror,’ in Gerald Raunig, Gene Ray and Ulf Wuggenig, eds. Critique of Creativity: Precarity, Subjectivity and Resistance in the ‘Creative Industries’ (London: MayFly Books, 2011), 167–79.
20See Lee Baxandall, ed. Marx and Engels on Literature and Art (New York: International General, 1974).
21Georg Lukács, ‘Narrate or Describe?’ in Writer and Critic, and Other Essays (London: Merlin Press, 1970), 110–48.
22Roberts, Revolutionary Time and the Avant-Garde, 1–3.
23See George Yúdice, The Expediency of Culture: The Uses of Culture in the Global Era (Durham: Duke University Press, 2004).
24Roberts, Revolutionary Time and the Avant-Garde, 32–3.
25Alain Badiou, The Communist Hypothesis, trans. David Macey and Steve Corcoran (London: Verso, 2010), 40.
26Slavoj Žižek, Trouble in Paradise: From the End of History to the End of Capitalism (London: Allen Lane, 2014), 181.
27Alain Badiou, ‘Does the Notion of Activist Art Still Have Meaning?’ Lecture presented at the Miguel Abreu Gallery, New York City, 13 October 2010, www.lacan.com/thevideos/10132010.html.
28Badiou, ‘Does the Notion of Activist Art Still Have Meaning?’
29Badiou, ‘Does the Notion of Activist Art Still Have Meaning?’
30Badiou, ‘Does the Notion of Activist Art Still Have Meaning?’
31Žižek, Trouble in Paradise, 185.
32Žižek, Trouble in Paradise, 185.
33Slavoj Žižek, ‘Answers Without Questions,’ in Žižek, ed. The Idea of Communism 2: The New York Conference (London: Verso, 2013), 203.
34Žižek, ‘Answers Without Questions,’ 204.
35Jacques Derrida, Spectres of Marx: The State of Debt, the Work of Mourning, and the New International, trans. Peggy Kamuf (New York: Routledge, [1993] 1994).
36Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (New York: Avon Books, 1992), xv.
37Derrida, Spectres of Marx, 80.
38Derrida, Spectres of Marx, 81–3.
39Derrida, Spectres of Marx, 37–9.
40The United States Government Accountability Office announced in a January 2013 report to Congress that the 2008 financial crisis cost the US economy more than $22 trillion. See www.gao.gov/assets/660/651322.pdf. See also the website Costs of War, http://costsofwar.org, and ‘Marx popular amid credit crunch,’ BBC News (20 October 2008), http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7679758.stm.
41David Harvey, The Enigma of Capital and the Crises of Capitalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 90. See also Sam Gindin and Leo Panitch, The Making of Global Capitalism: The Political Economy of American Empire (London: Verso, 2013).
42Harvey, The Enigma of Capital, 93.
43István Mészáros, The Challenge and Burden of Historical Time: Socialism in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2008), 82.
44Bruno Bosteels, ’The Leftist Hypothesis: Communism in the Age of Terror,’ in Costas Douzinas and Slavoj Žižek, eds. The Idea of Communism (London, Verso, 2010), 35.
45Bosteels, ’The Leftist Hypothesis,’ 38. See also Nancy Fraser, ‘Against Anarchism,’ Public Seminar 1:1 (9 October 2013), www.publicseminar.org/2013/10/against-anarchism/#.VL6lNsaJndn.
46Bosteels, ‘The Leftist Hypothesis,’ 41.
47Michael Hardt, ‘The Common in Communism,’ in Žižek and Douzinas, eds. The Idea of Communism, 143–4.
48Étienne Balibar, ‘Communism as Commitment, Imagination, and Politics,’ in Žižek, ed. The Idea of Communism 2, 14.
49Balibar, ‘Communism as Commitment, Imagination, and Politics,’ 15.
50Balibar, ‘Communism as Commitment, Imagination, and Politics,’ 22.
51Balibar, ‘Communism as Commitment, Imagination, and Politics,’ 23.
52Balibar, ‘Communism as Commitment, Imagination, and Politics,’ 26.
53Slavoj Žižek, ‘The Barred One,’ in Incontinence of the Void: Economico-Philosophical Spandrels (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2017), 11–50.
54On the depoliticisation of Gramsci by the new left and by cultural studies, see Perry Anderson, ‘The Antinomies of Antonio Gramsci,’ New Left Review (November/December 1976): 5–78, and Timothy Brennan, Wars of Position: The Cultural Politics of the Left and Right (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006).
55Chantal Mouffe, ‘Artistic Activism and Antagonistic Spaces,’ Art & Resesarch: A Journal of Ideas, Contexts and Methods 1:2 (Summer 2007): 1–5.
56Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics (London: Verso, 1985).
57See Slavoj Žižek, ‘Over the Coalition Rainbow!’ in The Parallax View (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2006), 359–65, and Žižek, ‘Multiculturalism, or, the Cultural Logic of Multinational Capitalism,’ in The Universal Exception: Selected Writings, Volume Two, eds. Rex Butler and Scott Stephens (London: Continuum, 2006), 151–82. See also Walter Benn Michaels, The Trouble with Diversity: How We Learned to Love Identity and Ignore Inequality (New York: Holt, 2006).
58Slavoj Žižek, ‘Class Struggle or Postmodernism? Yes Please!’ in Judith Butler, Ernesto Laclau and Slavoj Žižek, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality: Contemporary Dialogues on the Left (London: Verso, 2000), 90–135. See also Žižek, ‘The “Dream Work” of Political Representation,’ in The Year of Dreaming Dangerously, 19–34.
59Slavoj Žižek, The Courage of Hopelessness: Chronicles of a Year of Acting Dangerously (London: Allen Lane, 2017) eBook, 121–2.
60Slavoj Žižek, Absolute Recoil: Towards a New Foundation of Dialectical Materialism (London: Verso, 2014), 218.
61On the question of an avant-garde ‘traversal of the fantasy,’ see Slavoj Žižek, ‘The Enlightenment in Laibach’ (1994), in Zdenka Badovinac, Eda Čufer and Anthony Gardner, eds. NSK from Kapital to Capital: Neue Slowenische Kunst, An Event of the Final Decade of Yugoslavia (Ljubljana/Cambridge: Moderna galerija/The MIT Press, 2016), 205–12. See also Jacques Lacan, The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, Book XIV: The Logic of Phantasy, 1966–1967, trans. Cormac Gallagher, www.lacaninireland.com/web/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/14-Logic-of-Phantasy-Complete.pdf, 9.

1 Alter-globalisation, revolutionary movement and the state mode of production

1For a study of the anti-democratic ideology of neoliberal institutions, see Maude Barlow and Tony Clarke, Global Showdown: How the New Activists Are Fighting Global Corporate Rule (Toronto: Stoddart, 2001).
2Nicos Hadjinicolaou, ‘On the Ideology of Avant-Gardism,’ Praxis 6 (1982): 38–70.
3Raymond Williams, Politics of Modernism: Against the New Conformists (London: Verso, [1987] 1989), 35.
4See for example, David Byrne, Bicycle Diaries (New York: Viking, 2009) and Morrissey, Autobiography (London: Penguin Classics, 2013).
5Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen, ‘A Note on Socially Engaged Art Criticism,’ FIELD: A Journal of Socially-Engaged Art Criticism 6 (Winter 2017), http://field-journal.com/issue-6/a-note-on-socially-engaged-art-criticism.
6Oliver Ressler, ‘A World Where Many Worlds Fit. A section on the counter-globalisation movement for the Taipei Biennial 2008, curated by Oliver Ressler,’ Transversal (3 September 2008), http://transform.eipcp.net/correspondence/1220542296#redir; Oliver Ressler, ‘Curator’s Statement,’ in A World Where Many Worlds Fit/Un monde dans lequel plusieurs mondes s’inscrivent (Lennoxville: Foreman Art Gallery/Bishop’s University, 2010), 3–4.
7Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000). For an introduction to Italian workerism, also known as autonomist Marxism and post-operaismo, see Sylvère Lotringer and Christian Marazzi, eds. Autonomia: Post-Political Politics (Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2007).
8Isabell Lorey, ‘Governmentality and Self-Precarization: On the Normalization of Cultural Producers,’ Transversal (January 2006), www.eipcp.net/transversal/1106/lorey/en.
9See Emma Dowling, Rodrigo Nunes and Ben Trott’s introduction to the special issue on ‘Immaterial and Affective Labour’ in Ephemera: Theory & Politics in Organization 7:1 (February 2007), www.ephemerajournal.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/7–1ephemera-feb07.pdf.
10See Paolo Virno, A Grammar of the Multitude: For an Analysis of Contemporary Forms of Life (New York: Semiotext(e), 2004).
11See the chapter on ‘Co-operation’ in Karl Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Volume 1, trans. Ben Fowkes (London: Penguin, [1976] 1990), 450. See also Maurizio Lazzarato, ‘Construction of Cultural Labour Market,’ Framework 6 (January 2007), http://eipcp.net/policies/cci/lazzarato/en.
12Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello, The New Spirit of Capitalism, trans. Gregory Elliot (London: Verso, [1999] 2006).
13Slavoj Žižek, First as Tragedy, Then as Farce (London: Verso, 2009), 51–5.
14See the Left Views interview with Hugo Blanco in ‘Hugo Blanco: Indigenous People are the Vanguard of the Fight to Save the Earth,’ Socialist Voice (13 October 2009), www.socialistvoice.ca/?p=701.
15Slavoj Žižek, The Plague of Fantasies (London: Verso, 1997), 28.
16See ‘John Holloway and Alex Callinicos Debate,’ organised by the British Socialist Workers Party, YouTube (7 July 2008), www.youtube.com/watch?v=2liVjkA30T4. See also Costas Douzinas and Slavoj Žižek, eds. The Idea of Communism (London: Verso, 2010); Slavoj Žižek, ed. The Idea of Communism 2: The New York Conference (London: Verso, 2013); Alex Taek-Gwang and Slavoj Žižek, eds. The Idea of Communism 3: The Seoul Conference (London: Verso, 2016).
17See issue 1 of the journal Turbulence, ‘What would it mean to win?,’ http://turbulence.org.uk/turbulence-1/.
18See Brian Holmes, ‘Answer to Chto Delat Questionnaire,’ (2008), formerly available at http://brianholmes.wordpress.com.
19Karl Marx, Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy (Rough Draft), trans. Martin Nicolaus (London: Penguin, 1973), 101.
20See Alain Badiou, ‘One, Multiple, Multiplicities,’ in Theoretical Writings, trans. and eds. Ray Brassier and Alberto Toscano (London: Continuum, 2006), 68–82.
21Two of the editors of Turbulence, Tadzio Mueller and Michal Osterweil, are featured in What Would It Mean to Win? Also featured are John Holloway and Emma Dowling.
22Obama cited in Dave Zirin, ‘Chicago 2016? Why Obama’s wrong to boost Olympic bid,’ rabble.ca (1 October 2009), http://rabble.ca/news/2009/10/chica-go-2016-why-obamas-wrong-boost-olympic-bid.
23John Jordan, ‘Diary of a Revolution,’ The Guardian (25 January 2003), www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/jan/25/argentina.weekend71.
24Franco ‘Bifo’ Berardi, ‘Ten Years After Seattle, One Strategy, Better Two, For the Movement Against War and Capitalism,’ InterActivist Info Exchange (29 August 2009), http://interactivist.autonomedia.org/node/12965.
25John Holloway, Change the World Without Taking Power: The Meaning of Revolution Today (London: Pluto Press, 2002).
26See Alex Callinicos, ‘How Do We Deal with the State?’ in the Revista Herramienta online debate concerning Holloway’s Change the World Without Taking Power (no date), www.herramienta.com.ar/debate-sobre-cambiar-el-mundo/presentacion-e-indice-de-articulos.
27See Slavoj Žižek, ‘Revolutionary Terror from Robespierre to Mao,’ in In Defense of Lost Causes (London: Verso, 2008), 183.
28Luke Stobart, ‘Letter from Venezuela,’ Socialist Review (October 2009), http://socialistreview.org.uk/340/letter-venezuela.
29Henri Lefebvre, De L’État, Tome II: De Hegel à Mao par Staline (La théorie ‘marxiste’ de l’état) (Paris: 10/18, 1976).
30Lefebvre, De L’État, Tome II, 129.
31Henri Lefebvre, Hegel – Marx – Nietzsche, ou le royaume des ombres (Tournai: Casterman, 1975).

2 A brief history of Occupy Wall Street

1See Ben Davis, ‘How a Canadian Culture Magazine Helped Spark Occupy Wall Street,’ Blouin Artinfo (5 October 2011), www.artinfo.com/news/story/38786/how-a-canadian-culture-magazine-helped-spark-occupy-wall-street?comment_sort=desc. See also Rod Mickleburgh, ‘Anti-Wall Street protests take off thanks to a Canadian idea,’ The Globe and Mail (4 October 2011), www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/americas/anti-wall-street-protests-take-off-thanks-to-a-canadian-idea/article2191364/.
2See ‘Occupywallstreet Orientation Guide,’ Adbusters (16 September 2011), www.adbusters.org/action/occupywallstreet/occupywallstreet-orientation-guide/.
3Paul B. Farrell, ‘America’s Tahrir Moment: Does the American Left have the guts to pull this off?’ Adbusters Blog (6 September 2011), www.adbusters.org/action/occupywallstreet/does-the-american-left-have-the-guts-to-pull-this-off/. See also Joseph E. Stiglitz, ‘Of the 1%, by the 1%, for the 1%,’ Vanity Fair (May 2011), www.vanityfair.com/news/2011/05/top-one-percent-201105.
4Nathan Schneider, ‘Who Will Occupy Wall Street on September 17?’ Huffington Post Blog (14 September 2011), www.huffingtonpost.com/nathan-schneider/occupy-wall-street_b_961374.html.
5Henri Lefebvre, The Critique of Everyday Life, Volume 1, trans. John Moore (London: Verso, [1947] 1991); Ben Highmore, Everyday Life and Cultural Theory: An Introduction (London: Routledge, 2002).
6Jodi Dean, ‘Claiming Division, Naming a Wrong,’ Theory & Event (online supplement) 14:4 (2011), http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v014/14.4S.dean01.html.
7Dean, ‘Claiming Division, Naming a Wrong.’
8Sarah Ledesman, ‘Romney Compares Occupy Wall Street to “Class Warfare”,’ Neon Tommy (4 October 2011), www.neontommy.com/news/2011/10/romney-compares-occupy-wall-street-class-warfare.
9Jeremy White, ‘Occupy Wall Street Denounced by Cain, Romney as “Class Warfare”,’ International Business Times (6 October 2011), www.ibtimes.com/occupy-wall-street-denounced-cain-romney-class-warfare-321650.
10Nicos Poulantzas, Les classes sociales dans le capitalisme aujourd’hui (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974), 195.
11Leon Trotsky cited in William Keach, ‘Introduction,’ in Trotsky, Literature and Revolution (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2005), 11.
12See Bill Van Auken, ‘Mayor Bloomberg backs mass arrests of Wall Street protesters,’ World Socialist Web Site (4 October 2011), www.wsws.org/articles/2011/oct2011/wall-o04.shtml. See also ‘Michael Bloomberg: Occupy Wall Street is trying to destroy jobs,’ The Guardian (8 October 2011), www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/08/bloomberg-occupy-wall-street-jobs.
13Warren Buffett, ‘Stop Coddling the Super-Rich,’ The New York Times (14 August 2011), www.nytimes.com/2011/08/15/opinion/stop-coddling-the-super-rich.html.
14Paul Ryan cited in Dominic Rushe, ‘Obama’s millionaire tax is class war, say Republicans,’ The Guardian (18 September 2011), www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/sep/18/obama-millionaire-tax-war.
15Paul Ryan cited in Rushe, ‘Obama’s millionaire tax is class war, say Republicans.’
16John Boehner cited in Rushe, ‘Obama’s millionaire tax is class war, say Republicans.’
17Stephanie Condon, ‘Obama: “This is not class warfare – It’s math”,’ CBS News (19 September 2011), www.cbsnews.com/news/obama-this-is-not-class-warfare-its-math/.
18‘Bipartisan corporatism: “Class War!”,’ The Economist (20 September 2011), www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2011/09/bipartisan-corporatism-2.
19Patrick Martin, ‘The many frauds of the “Buffett Rule”,’ World Socialist Web Site (26 September 2011), www.wsws.org/articles/2011/sep2011/pers-s26.shtml. See also ‘20 Facts About U.S. Inequality that Everyone Should Know,’ Stanford Center for Poverty & Inequality (2011), https://inequality.stanford.edu/publications/20-facts-about-us-inequality-everyone-should-know.
20Stiglitz, ‘Of the 1%, by the 1%, for the 1%.’
21Stiglitz, ‘Of the 1%, by the 1%, for the 1%.’
22David Harvey, ‘Their Crisis, Our Challenge,’ Red Pepper (March 2009), www.redpepper.org.uk/Their-crisis-our-challenge/.
23Harvey, ‘Their Crisis, Our Challenge.’
24James Laxer, ‘Income and wealth inequality: An underlying cause of the crash,’rabble. ca (23 December 2009), http://rabble.ca/blogs/bloggers/james-laxer/2009/12/income-and-wealth-inequality-underlying-cause-crash.
25Thomas Frank, Listen, Liberal, or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2016).
26David Graeber cited in Karen McVeigh, ‘Wall Street protesters: over-educated, under-employed and angry,’ The Guardian News Blog (19 September 2011), www.theguardian.com/world/2011/sep/19/wall-street-protesters-angry.
27‘David Graeber: The Debt of the American Poor Should Be Forgiven,’ Democracy Now (19 September 2011), www.democracynow.org/2011/9/19/david_graeber_the_debt_of_the. See also David Graeber, Debt: The First 500 Years (New York: Melville House, 2011).
28See for example, Ari Lipsitz and Rebecca Nathanson, ‘Is This What Democracy Looks Like? Observing the Launch of Occupy Wall Street,’ The Village Voice (19 September 2011), www.villagevoice.com/2011/09/19/is-this-what-democracy-looks-like-observing-the-launch-of-occupy-wall-street/.
29Kalle Lasn cited in Michael Saba, ‘Wall Street protesters inspired by Arab Spring movement,’ CNN (17 September 2011), www.commondreams.org/headline/2011/09/17–1.
30Kalle Lasn cited in Ilana Greene, ‘Invading Wall Street: Who Did It?’ Forbes (19 September 2011), www.forbes.com/sites/ilanagreene/2011/09/19/invading-wall-street-who-did-it/.
31Micah White cited in Jenny Uechi, ‘Adbusters’ “Occupy Wall Street” modeled on Egypt protests,’ The Vancouver Observer (19 September 2011), www.vancouverobserver.com/blogs/world/2011/09/19/adbusters-occupy-wall-street-modeled-egypt-protests.
32Some of these included: www.meetup.com/USDaysOfRage, www.occupywallstreet.org, wearethe99percent.tumblr.com and http://anonops.blogspot.com. For commentary, see D.E. Wittkower, ‘Wall Street Protests: Will the Revolution Be Tweeted?’ The Wall Street Journal (19 September 2011), http://blogs.wsj.com/speakeasy/2011/09/19/wall-street-protests-will-the-revolution-be-tweeted/.
33Noam Chomsky cited in Velcrow Ripper, ‘The revolution will be tweeted,’ rabble.ca (26 September 2011), http://rabble.ca/blogs/bloggers/velcrow-ripper/2011/09/revolution-will-be-tweeted.
34Michael Moore cited in Velcrow Ripper, ‘The revolution will be tweeted.’
35‘Michael Moore: “Occupy Wall Street will only get bigger”,’ rabble.ca (28 September 2011), http://rabble.ca/rabbletv/program-guide/2011/09/best-net/michael-moore-occupy-wall-street-will-only-get-bigger.
36‘“Something Has Started”: Michael Moore on the Occupy Wall St. Protests That Could Spark a Movement,’ Democracy Now (28 September 2011), www.democracynow.org/2011/9/28/something_has_started_michael_moore_on.
37‘Cornel West on Occupy Wall Street: It’s the Making of a U.S. Autumn Responding to the Arab Spring,’ Democracy Now (29 September 2011), www.democracynow.org/blog/2011/9/29/cornel_west_on_occupy_wall_street_its_the_makings_of_a_us_autumn_responding_to_the_arab_spring.
38Suzy Khimm, ‘Congressional Democrats embrace Occupy Wall Street,’ The Washington PostWonkblog (5 October 2011), www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/ezra-klein/post/congressional-democrats-embrace-occupy-wall-street/2011/10/05/gIQAEvNIOL_blog.html.
39See Andy Kroll, ‘Video: Obama: Occupy Wall St. “Expresses the Frustrations the American People Feel”,’ Mother Jones (6 October 2011), http://motherjones.com/mojo/2011/10/obama-biden-occupy-wall-street.
40Naomi Klein, ‘Naomi Klein speaks at Occupy Wall Street,’ rabble.ca (7 October 2011), http://rabble.ca/columnists/2011/10/naomi-klein-speaks-occupy-wall-street.
42Mark Read, ‘Mic Check! Notes on How the Mo(ve)ment talks and learns from itself during the American Autumn,’ Journal of Aesthetics and Protest (October 2011), http://joaap.org/webspecials/read.html.
43Barbara Adams, ‘Notes from the Periphery,’ Journal of Aesthetics and Protest (October 2011), http://joaap.org/webspecials/Adams_periphery.html.
44See McKenzie Wark’s distinction between ‘drum circle’ ambiences and ‘chanters’ in ‘Zuccotti Park, a psychogeography,’ Verso Books Blog (6 October 2011), www.versobooks.com/blogs/735.
45Aidan Rowe, ‘Politics Averted: Thoughts on the “Occupy X” Movement,’ Workers Solidarity Movement (12 October 2011), www.wsm.ie/c/politics-averted-occupy-movement.
46Rowe, ‘Politics Averted.’
47Immanuel Wallerstein, ‘Occupy Wall Street is the most important political happening in America since 1968,’ Verso Books Blog (18 October 2011), www.versobooks.com/blogs/752.
48Joseph Kishore, ‘Amidst police crackdowns, widespread public support for Occupy movement,’ World Socialist Web Site (27 October 2011), www.wsws.org/articles/2011/oct2011/occu-o27.shtml.
49Patrick Martin, ‘A day of international action against Wall Street,’ World Socialist Web Site (17 October 2011), www.wsws.org/articles/2011/oct2011/pers-o17.shtml.
50On this subject, see Manissa Maharawal, ‘Standing Up,’ in Astra Taylor and Keith Gessen, eds. Occupy! Scenes from Occupied America (London: Verso, 2011), 34–40.
51‘Occupying Washington Square Park With Angela Davis,’ Seismologik (1 November 2011), formerly available at www.seismologik.com.
52See Slavoj Žižek, ‘A Leftist Plea for Eurocentrism,’ in The Universal Exception: Selected Writings, Volume Two, eds. Rex Butler and Scott Stephens (London: Continuum, 2006), 183–208. See also Žižek, ‘Tolerance as an Ideological Category,’ Critical Inquiry 34 (Summer 2008): 660–82.
53See Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge, ‘On the Dialectic Between the Bourgeois and the Proletarian Public Sphere,’ in Public Sphere and Experience: Toward an Analysis of the Bourgeois and Proletarian Public Sphere, trans. Peter Labanyi et al. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, [1972] 1993), 54–95.
54Slavoj Žižek, ‘Multiculturalism, or, the Cultural Logic of Multinational Capitalism,’ in The Universal Exception, 171.
55Slavoj Žižek, The Parallax View (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2006), 361.
56Ken Knabb, ‘The Awakening in America,’ InterActivist Info Exchange (16 October 2011), http://interactivist.autonomedia.org/node/32866.
57Franco ‘Bifo’ Berardi and Geert Lovink, ‘A Call to the Army of Love and to the Army of Software,’ InterActivist Info Exchange (12 October 2011), http://interactivist.autonomedia.org/node/32852.
58Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, ‘The Fight for “Real Democracy” at the Heart of Occupy Wall Street,’ Foreign Affairs (11 October 2011), www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/136399/michael-hardt-and-antonio-negri/the-fight-for-real-democracy-at-the-heart-of-occupy-wall-street.
59Hardt and Negri, ‘The Fight for “Real Democracy” at the Heart of Occupy Wall Street.’
60Slavoj Žižek, In Defense of Lost Causes (London: Verso, 2008), 342.
61Žižek, In Defense of Lost Causes, 343.
62See Slavoj Žižek, ‘Thinking the Occupation.’ Lecture delivered at St. Mark’s Bookshop, NYC, 26 October 2011, https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0069/6232/files/SlavojZizek_St.Marks_102711.pdf.
63See J. Nicole Jones, ‘Six Questions for Slavoj Žižek,’ Harper’s (11 November 2011), http://harpers.org/archive/2011/11/hbc-90008306.
64Yates McKee, Strike Art: Contemporary Art and the Post-Occupy Condition (London: Verso, 2016), 5, 17.

3 Vanguardia

1Brian Holmes, ‘Extradisciplinary Investigations: Toward a New Critique of Institutions,’ in Escape the Overcode: Activist Art in the Control Society (Eindhoven, Neth.: Van Abbemuseum, 2009), 98–109.
2Renato Poggioli, The Theory of the Avant-Garde, trans. Gerald Fitzgerald (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, [1962] 1968), 53.
3Martin Jay, Marxism and Totality: The Adventures of a Concept from Lukács to Habermas (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 10.
4Maurizio Lazzarato, ‘Construction of Cultural Labour Market,’ Transversal (November 2006), http://eipcp.net/policies/cci/lazzarato/en.
5Siegfried Kracauer, The Salaried Masses: Duty and Distraction in Weimar Germany, trans. Quintin Hoare (London: Verso, [1930] 1998); C. Wright Mills, White Collar: The American Middle Class (New York: Oxford University Press, 1953).
6John Roberts, Revolutionary Time and the Avant-Garde (London: Verso, 2015), 23.
7Tiqqun, Preliminary Materials for a Theory of the Young-Girl (Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2012).
8Jen Delos Reyes, ‘What Are We Trying to Get Ahead of? Leaving the Idea of the Avant-Garde Behind,’ Blade of Grass (24 September 2014), www.abladeofgrass.org/growing-dialogue/growing-dialogue-the-latest-thing-2–2/.
9Lane Relyea, Your Everyday Art World (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2013).
10Eric Cazdyn and Imre Szeman, After Globalization (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011).
11Gene Ray, ‘Toward a Critical Art Theory,’ in Marc James Léger, ed. The Idea of the Avant GardeAnd What It Means Today (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2014), 135. Ray has more recently questioned the limits of critical theory as a means to resist domination. See Ray, ‘Writing the Ecocide-Genocide Knot: Indigenous Knowledge and Critical Theory in the Endgame,’ documenta 14 (2017), www.documenta14.de/en/south/895_writing_the_ecocide_genocide_knot_indigenous_knowledge_and_critical_theory_in_the_endgame.
12Gerald Raunig, Art and Revolution: Transversal Activism in the Long Twentieth Century, trans. Aileen Derieg (Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2007).
13BAVO, eds. Cultural Activism Today: The Art of Over-Identification (Rotterdam: Episode Publishers, 2007).
14Pierre Bourdieu, Contre-feux: Propos pour servir à la résistance contre l’invasion néolibérale (Paris: Éditions Raisons d’agir, 1998), 119.
15Slavoj Žižek, The Parallax View (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2006).
16Gregory Sholette, Dark Matter: Art and Politics in the Age of Enterprise Culture (London: Pluto Press, 2011).
17Gregory Sholette and Oliver Ressler, eds. It’s the Political Economy, Stupid: The Global Financial Crisis in Art and Theory (London: Pluto Press, 2013).
18Gregory Sholette and Oliver Ressler, ‘Unspeaking the Grammar of Finance,’ in Sholette and Ressler, eds. It’s the Political Economy, Stupid, 11.
19John Roberts, ‘The Political Economisation of Art,’ in Sholette and Ressler, eds. It’s the Political Economy, Stupid, 63.
20Roberts, ‘The Political Economisation of Art,’ 64.
21Grant Kester, The One and the Many: Contemporary Collaborative Art in a Global Context (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011).
22Kester, The One and the Many, 9–10.
23Kester, The One and the Many, 123.
24Michel Foucault, ‘Two Lectures,’ in Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977, trans. Colin Gordon et al., ed. Colin Gordon (New York: Pantheon, 1980), 80.
25Miwon Kwon, One Place After Another: Site-Specific Art and Locational Identity (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2002), 152.
26Grant Kester, Conversation Pieces: Community + Communication in Modern Art (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 160.
27Critical Art Ensemble, Digital Resistance: Explorations in Tactical Media (Brooklyn: Autonomedia, 2001), 24.
28Critical Art Ensemble, Disturbances (London: Four Corners Books, 2012).
29Critical Art Ensemble, Disturbances, 158.
30Brian Holmes, ‘Three Keys and No Exit: A Brief Introduction to Critical Art Ensemble,’ in Critical Art Ensemble, Disturbances, 11–12.
31See Nato Thompson and Gregory Sholette, eds. The Interventionists: Users’ Manual for the Creative Disruption of Everyday Life (North Adams/Cambridge: MASS MoCA/The MIT Press, 2004); Nato Thompson, ed. Living as Form: Socially Engaged Art from 1991–2011 (New York/Cambridge: Creative Time Books/The MIT Press, 2012).
32Nato Thompson, Seeing Power: Art and Activism in the 21st Century (Brooklyn: Melville House, 2015).
33Thompson, Seeing Power, 72.
34Thompson, Seeing Power, 80.
35Thompson, Seeing Power, 49.
36Yates McKee, Strike Art: Contemporary Art and the Post-Occupy Condition (London: Verso, 2016).
37McKee, Strike Art, 5–6.
38McKee, Strike Art, 81, 156.
39McKee, Strike Art, 238.
40Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen, Crisis to Insurrection: Notes on the Ongoing Collapse (Brooklyn: Minor Compositions, 2015).
41Rasmussen, Crisis to Insurrection, 58.
42Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen, ‘A Note on Socially Engaged Art Criticism,’ FIELD: A Journal of Socially Engaged Art Criticism 6 (Winter 2017), http://field-journal.com/issue-6/a-note-on-socially-engaged-art-criticism.
43Grant Kester cited in Rasmussen, ‘A Note on Socially Engaged Art Criticism.’
44Grant Kester, ‘The Limitations of the Exculpatory Critique: A Response to Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen,’ FIELD: A Journal of Socially Engaged Art Criticism 6 (Winter 2017), http://field-journal.com/issue-6/mikkel-bolt-rasmussen.
45See Claire Bishop, Artificial Hells: Participatory Art and the Politics of Spectatorship (London: Verso, 2012).
46Rebecca Gordon-Nesbitt, To Defend the Revolution Is to Defend Culture: The Cultural Policy of the Cuban Revolution (Oakland: PM Press, 2015).
47On this subject, see Fredric Jameson, An American Utopia: Dual Power and the Universal Army, ed. Slavoj Žižek (London: Verso, 2016).
48Rebecca Gordon-Nesbitt, ‘Whose Side Are You On? Response to Coco Fusco (“The State of Detention: Performance, Politics, and the Cuban Public” (e-flux, 3 January 2015),’ Mute (29 January 2015), www.metamute.org/community/your-posts/whose-side-are-you-response-to-coco-fusco-’-state-detention-performance-politics-and-cuban-public’-e-flux-0.

4 Psychoprotest: dérives of the Quebec Maple Spring

1See Armine Yalnizyan, ‘The Rise of Canada’s Richest 1%,’ Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (1 December 2010), www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/rise-canadas-richest-1.
2Avi Lewis, ‘Students of the World Unite: Nothing to Lose But Everything.’ Lecture presented at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, 14 February 2006.
3Student strikes against rising tuition have been particularly acute in Chile, Honduras, Columbia, Brazil, Italy, Greece and the UK. In the United States, the government now receives approximately $50 billion in annual revenue from student loan interest, an amount that is equal to the combined profits of the four largest US banks. For information on the significance of student debt to the Quebec struggle, see Andrew Gavin Marshall, ‘Student Strikes, Debt Domination, and Class War in Canada,’ Andrewgavinmarshall Blog (17 April 2012), http://andrewgavinmarshall.com/2012/04/17/student-strikes-debt-domination-and-class-war-in-canada-class-war-and-the-college-crisis-part-4/.
4André Frappier, Richard Poulin and Bernard Rioux, Le printemps des carrés rouges: Lutte étudiante, crise sociale, loi liberticide, démocratie de la rue (Montréal: M éditeur, 2012), 14.
5David Harvey, Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution (London: Verso, 2012), xi.
6Harvey, Rebel Cities, 131.
7Leanne Serbulo, ‘This Is Not a Riot: Minimization, Criminalization and the Policing of Protest in Seattle Prior to the 1999 WTO Shut-Down,’ in Jeff Shantz, ed. Protest and Punishment: The Repression of Resistance in the Era of Neoliberal Globalization (Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 2012), 111.
8Robert Dutrisac and Lisa-Marie Gervais, ‘Le Sommet sur l’enseignement supérieur – Désaccord persistant sur les droits de scolarité, “Essayons de réfléchir au fait qu’il faut sortir de ce psychodrame,” dit Pauline Marois,’ Le Devoir (26 February 2013), www.ledevoir.com/politique/quebec/371878/desaccord-persistant-sur-les-droits-de-scolarite.
9For a more detailed chronology than is provided here, see Cayley Sorochan, ‘The Quebec Student Strike: A Chronology,’ Theory & Event 15:3 special supplement (Summer 2012), http://muse.jhu.edu/issue/26026.
10The details of Law 78 are available on the Quebec government website: www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca.
11The municipal mask law P-6 is still in effect today and a similar law, titled Bill C-309, was passed by the federal Conservative government in June 2013.
12See David Graeber, The Democracy Project: A History, A Crisis, A Movement (New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2013).
13This is the case in Merlin Coverley’s Psychogeography (Harpenden, Herts: Pocket Essentials, 2006).
14Rémi Hess, Henri Lefebvre et l’aventure du siècle (Paris: A.M. Métailié, 1988), 45.
15Henri Lefebvre, Le temps des méprises (Paris: Editions Stock, 1975), 48–50.
16Henri Lefebvre, The Critique of Everyday Life, Volume 1, trans. John Moore (London: Verso, [1947] 1991), 110–12.
17According to Ben Highmore, this approach to gradual and reformist revolution allowed Lefebvre to have a ‘more amenable relationship with government agencies and institutions.’ See Highmore, Everyday Life and Cultural Theory: An Introduction (London: Routledge, 2002), 142.
18Lefebvre, Critique of Everyday Life, 92.
19See Tom McDonough, ‘Introduction: Ideology and the Situationist Utopia,’ in McDonough, ed. Guy Debord and the Situationist International (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2002), ix–x.
20On the relation between Situationism and Surrealism, see Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen, ‘The Situationist International, Surrealism, and the Difficult Fusion of Art and Politics,’ Oxford Art Journal 27:3 (2004): 365–87.
21Ivan Chtcheglov, ‘Formula for a New Urbanism,’ [1953] in Ken Knabb, ed. Situationist International Anthology (Berkeley: Bureau of Public Secrets, [1981] 1995), 1.
22Chtcheglov, ‘Formula for a New Urbanism,’ 3.
23Chtcheglov, ‘Formula for a New Urbanism,’ 3–4.
24See Potlatch 1 and 2 (1954).
25Guy Debord, ‘Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography’ (originally published in the Belgian journal Les Lèvres Nues 6 (September 1955)), in Knabb, ed. Situationist International Anthology, 5–8.
26Debord, ‘Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography,’ 5.
27Debord, ‘Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography,’ 5.
28Debord, ‘Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography,’ 6.
29Debord, ‘Methods of Détournement’ (originally published in Les Lèvres Nues 8 (May 1956)), in Knabb, ed. Situationist International Anthology, 9.
30Guy Debord, ‘Report on the Construction of Situations and on the International Situationist Tendency’s Conditions of Organization and Action’ (prepared for a conference in Italy in 1957), in Knabb, ed. Situationist International Anthology, 17–25
31Debord, ‘Report on the Construction of Situations,’ 23. As the first significant example of psychogeographical research, see Abdelhafid Khatib, ‘Essai de description psychogéographique des Halles,’ Internationale Situationniste 2 (December 1958): 13–17. A three-day dérive is also mentioned as part of an S.I. exhibition at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam in 1959 in ‘Die Welt Als Labyrinth,’ Internationale Situationniste 4 (June 1960): 5–7.
32Debord, ‘Preliminary Problems in Constructing a Situation’ (published in the Internationale Situationniste 1 (June 1958)), in Knabb, ed. Situationist International Anthology, 44.
33See Guy Debord, ‘Theory of the Dérive’ (written in 1956 and published in the Internationale Situationniste 2 (December 1958)), in Knabb, ed. Situationist International Anthology, 50–54. We prefer the term terrain in this case to Knabb’s use of the word space.
34Debord, ‘Theory of the Dérive,’ 50.
35Ivan Chtcheglov, ‘Letters from Afar,’ Internationale Situationniste 9 (August 1964) cited by Knabb in an editor’s note, in Knabb, ed. Situationist International Anthology, 373.
36Thomas F. McDonough, ‘Situationist Space,’ October 67 (Winter 1994): 59–77. Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendall (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984).
37According to della Porta and Diani, protests represent ‘nonroutinized ways of affecting political, social, and cultural processes.’ Donatella della Porta and Mario Diani, eds. Social Movements: An Introduction, second edition (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), 165.
38The site http://manifencours.diametrick.com is now defunct.
39Attila Kotányi, ‘Gangland and Philosophy’ (published in the Internationale Situationniste 4 (June 1960)), in Knabb, ed. Situationist International Anthology, 59.
40The failure to pursue the social strike is described in detail by Frappier et al., Le printemps des carrés rouges.
41See ‘Nous sommes avenir: Manifeste de la CLASSE,’ July 2012, http://issuu.com/asse.solidarite/docs/manifeste_classe/3, also available in English as ‘The CLASSE Manifesto: Share our future,’ rabble.ca (12 July 2012), http://rabble.ca/blogs/bloggers/campus-notes/2012/07/classe-manifesto-share-our-future.
42See David Harvey, The Enigma of Capital and the Crises of Capitalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 253–59. For an analysis of social movements in Québec, see Francis Dupuis-Déri, ed. Québec en mouvements. Idées et pratiques militantes contemporaines (Montréal: Lux, 2008).
43Attila Kotányi and Raoul Vaneigem, ‘Elementary Program of the Bureau of Unitary Urbanism,’ in Knabb, ed. Situationist International Anthology, 65.
44Richard Day, ‘From Hegemony to Affinity: The Political Logic of the Newest Social Movements,’ Cultural Studies 18:5 (September 2004): 716–48.
45‘The Beginning of an Era,’ in Knabb, ed. Situationist International Anthology, 225–56 (originally from Internationale Situationniste 12 (September 1969). On the contributions of the Situationists to the events of May 68, see René Viénet, Enragés et situationnistes dans le mouvement étudiant (Paris: Gallimard, 1968).
46Slavoj Žižek, ‘Class Struggle or Postmodernism? Yes Please!’ in Judith Butler, Ernesto Laclau and Slavoj Žižek, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality: Contemporary Dialogues on the Left (London: Verso, 2000), 98–9.
47Bruno Bosteels, Badiou and Politics (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011), 25.

5 The unrealised extravagance of the avant garde: Test Dept and the subsumption of labour

1Sarah Charalambides, ‘Precarity as Activism,’ Mute (1 July 2015), www.metamute.org/editorial/articles/precarity-activism. See also Isabell Lorey, State of Insecurity: Government of the Precarious, trans. Aileen Derieg (London: Verso, 2015).
2Graham Cunnington, Angus Farquhar and Paul Jamrozy, Test Dept: Total State Machine, eds. Alexei Monroe and Peter Webb (Bristol: PC Press, 2015). Thanks to Alexei Monroe for making this book available to me for review and for his corrections to a draft version of this text.
3Alexei Monroe, ‘Introduction,’ in Test Dept: Total State Machine, 2.
4Monroe, ‘Introduction,’ 3.
5Monroe, ‘Introduction,’ 5.
6Test Dept, ‘The Revolutionary Camera: A Conversation Between Paul Jamrozy and Brett Turnbull,’ in Test Dept: Total State Machine, 24.
7Michel Serres cited in Paul Jamrozy and Gray Cunnington, ‘Nomadic Frequencies: In Conversation with Russ MacDonald (Frequency Nomad) and (Agent) Simon Hyde,’ in Test Dept: Total State Machine, 320.
8Marek Kohn, ‘The Industrial Revolution: The Social and Cultural Context in Britain from the 1970s to the Present Day,’ in Test Dept: Total State Machine, 85.
9Jordi Blanchar, ‘From “New World Order” to “Crisis”: Recalling a 1991 Test Dept Event in Brixton and the Evolution of the Social and Political Climate that Has Evolved Since that Time,’ in Test Dept: Total State Machine, 328.
10Peter Bürger cited in Monroe, ‘Introduction,’ 1.
11See Jochen Schulte-Sasse, ‘Theory of Modernism versus Theory of the Avant-Garde,’ in Peter Bürger, Theory of the Avant-Garde, trans. Michael Shaw (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press [1974] 1984), vii–xxxix.
12Schulte-Sasse, ‘Theory of Modernism versus Theory of the Avant-Garde,’ x.
13Schulte-Sasse, ‘Theory of Modernism versus Theory of the Avant-Garde,’ xii.
14Schulte-Sasse, ‘Theory of Modernism versus Theory of the Avant-Garde,’ xxiii.
15Schulte-Sasse, ‘Theory of Modernism versus Theory of the Avant-Garde,’ xxxiii.
16Schulte-Sasse, ‘Theory of Modernism versus Theory of the Avant-Garde,’ xxx.
17Schulte-Sasse, ‘Theory of Modernism versus Theory of the Avant-Garde,’ xxxv.
18See in Test Dept: Total State Machine: Angus Farquhar, ‘Test Dept European Network Tour,’ 94–113; Laibach, ‘Anglo-Slowenische Freundschaft,’ 118; and Alexei Monroe, ‘Laibach/Test Dept Perspectives,’ 118–19.
19See Nathan Brown, ‘The Distribution of the Insensible,’ Mute (28 January 2014), www.metamute.org/editorial/articles/distribution-insensible.
20David Graeber, ‘On the Phenomenon of Bullshit Jobs,’ Strike! (17 August 2013), http://strikemag.org/bullshit-jobs/.
21Graeber, ‘On the Phenomenon of Bullshit Jobs.’ The Greeks voted sixty-one percent in favour of the No option in the referendum, giving the left-wing Syriza party a better standing to refuse the austerity policies of the Troika. The failure of Syriza to do so reflects Greece’s status as one of the failing economies of the Eurozone since its exports are among the least complex and so cannot compete with the cheap labour of poor countries. Like Portugal and Spain, Greece is affected by the European Union’s colonial relation to emerging nations. The Eurozone’s solution to Greece’s economic status is labour productivity and wage repression, which belies the notion of a post-industrial economy. See John Smith, Imperialism in the Twenty-First Century: The Globalization of Production, Super-Exploitation, and the Crisis of Capitalism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2016), 88, 90, 183.
22Charalambides, ‘Precarity as Activism.’
23Gregory Sholette, ‘Delirium and Resistance after the Social Turn,’ FIELD: A Journal of Socially Engaged Art Criticism 1 (Spring 2015): 97, http://field-journal.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/FIELD-01-FULL-ISSUE.pdf.
24Gregory Sholette, Delirium and Resistance: Activist Art and the Crisis of Capitalism, ed. Kim Charnley (London: Pluto Press, 2017), 212.
25Gregory Sholette, Dark Matter: Art and Politics in the Age of Enterprise Culture (London: Pluto Press, 2011).
26See Marc James Léger, Brave New Avant Garde: Essays on Contemporary Art and Politics (Winchester: Zero Books, 2012) and The Neoliberal Undead: Essays on Contemporary Art and Politics (Winchester: Zero Books, 2013).
27Sholette, ‘Delirium and Resistance after the Social Turn,’ 106.
28Sholette, ‘Delirium and Resistance after the Social Turn,’ 108.
29Sholette, ‘Delirium and Resistance after the Social Turn,’ 128.
30Sholette, ‘Delirium and Resistance after the Social Turn,’ 114.
31See Slavoj Žižek, ‘Slavoj Žižek on Greece: This is a chance for Europe to awaken,’ New Statesman (6 July 2015), www.newstatesman.com/politics/2015/07/Slavoj-Zizek-greece-chance-europe-awaken.
32Christian Fuchs, Digital Labour and Karl Marx (New York: Routledge, 2014), 286.
33Paul Mason makes use of the labour theory of value as a basis for understanding its gradual disappearance in a more fully automated, ‘zero marginal cost’ world in Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future (London: Penguin Books, 2015).
34According to the Endnotes collective, ‘[t]he only revolutionary perspective afforded by the current cycle of struggles is that of the self-negation of the proletariat and the concomitant abolition of capital through the communisation of relations between individuals.’ See ‘The History of Subsumption,’ in Endnotes 2 (April 2010), https://endnotes.org.uk/issues/2/en/endnotes-the-history-of-subsumption. For both a use and a critique of communisation theory, see Nick Dyer-Witheford, Cyber-Proletariat: Global Labour in the Digital Vortex (London/Toronto: Pluto Press/Between the Lines, 2015).

6 No strawman for the revolution

1John Roberts, Revolutionary Time and the Avant-Garde (London: Verso, 2015).
2See McKenzie Wark, ‘Žižek and me,’ Public Seminar (4 June 2015), www.publicseminar.org/2015/06/zizek-and-me/#.WRYqGVLMyHo.
3McKenzie Wark, The Spectacle of Disintegration (London: Verso, 2013), 2.
4Wark, The Spectacle of Disintegration, 3. See also Mark Fisher, Capitalist Realism: Is There No Alternative? (Winchester: O Books, 2009).
5See McKenzie Wark, ‘Molecular Red: Theory for the Anthropocene (On Alexander Bogdanov and Kim Stanley Robinson),’ e-flux journal 63 (March 2015), www.e-flux.com/journal/molecular-red-theory-for-the-anthropocene-on-alexander-bogdanov-and-kim-stanley-robinson/. See also McKenzie Wark, Molecular Red: Theory for the Anthropocene (London: Verso, 2016).
6Slavoj Žižek, ‘Ecology Against Mother Nature: Slavoj Žižek on Molecular Red,’ Verso Blog (26 May 2015), www.versobooks.com/blogs/2007-ecology-against-mother-nature-slavoj-zizek-on-molecular-red.
7Wark, ‘Molecular Red.’ See Andreas Malm, ‘The Anthropocene Myth,’ Jacobin (30 March 2015), www.jacobinmag.com/2015/03/anthropocene-capitalism-climate-change/.
8Slavoj Žižek, ‘Censorship Today: Violence, or Ecology as a New Opium of the Masses.’ Lecture presented at the Jack Tilton Gallery, 26–28 November 2007, www.lacan.com/zizecology1.htm. See also Slavoj Žižek, Living in the End Times (London: Verso, 2010). The activist journalist Naomi Klein mentions how investors are aware of the fact that climate change threatens capitalist ideology. She adds that even climate scientists are reluctant to discuss the political and economic implications of their work. Her hope lies with what she calls a ‘blockadia’ of ‘transnational conflict zones.’ She adds that a bloackadia has no need for the rejection of institutionalisation, leadership and programmatic demands, a stance that she argues is a luxury that today’s social movements can no longer afford. On the other hand she rejects the role of revolutionary vanguards, which she associates with violence and undemocratic practices. See Naomi Klein, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate (Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014), 294.
9This in fact is the basis of the social ecology movement. See for example, Murray Bookchin, Remaking Society (Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1989).
10Žižek, ‘Censorship Today: Violence, or Ecology as a New Opium of the Masses.’
11Žižek, ‘Censorship Today: Violence, or Ecology as a New Opium of the Masses.’
12Wark, ‘Žižek and me.’
13Slavoj Žižek, For They Know Not What They Do: Enjoyment as a Political Factor (London: Verso, [1991] 2008).
14Alain Badiou, ‘One, Multiple, Multiplicities,’ in Theoretical Writings, trans. and eds. Ray Brassier and Alberto Toscano (London: Continuum, 2006), 70.
15Wark, ‘Žižek and me.’
16Wark, ‘Žižek and me.’ A similarly unsubstantiated ‘attack meme,’ pretending to distinguish the ‘queer’ Bogdanov from the ‘patriarchal’ Lenin is put out by Wark in a different text, where he writes: ‘We need another worldview … that works as low theory extracted from worker and hacker practices, rather than a high theory trying to legislate about them from above. It is not hard to see here what infuriated Lenin about Bogdanov. For Bogdanov, both proletkult and tektology are experimental practices, of prototyping ideas and things, trying them out, modifying them. There’s no correct and controlling über-theory, as there is in different ways in Lenin or Lukács. There is more of a hacker ethos here, rather than of the authoritarian worldview one still finds in a Lenin or a Lukács or in parody form in Žižek, where those in command of the correct dialectical materialist worldview are beyond question.’ One is tempted to reply, according to the familiar discussion by Žižek, that the traditional father is less authoritarian than the permissive postmodern father, not to mention potentially also less capitalist. The free choice – for example between Bodganov and Lenin – that is presented by the postmod-ern father is not simply imposed, say, through a well-reasoned and substantiated argument, but one that we should simply prefer, thereby emphasising the logic of choice that is a feature of capitalist reflexivisation. Žižek elsewhere compares this logic to the hacker ethos and its basis in symbolic mandates. ‘Believing there is a code to be cracked,’ Žižek says, ‘is of course much the same as believing in the existence of some Big Other: in every case what is wanted is an agent who will give structure to our chaotic lives.’ In this case, the official choice is Bogdanov, but the big Other is Lenin. Consequently, ‘Žižek and me’ should rather be read as ‘Žižek or me.’ Those who might still prefer Žižek and his Lacanian reading of Hegel are guilty in advance of authoritarianism. See McKenzie Wark, ‘Digital Labor and the Anthropocene,’ DIS Magazine (no date, c.2015), formerly available at http://dismagazine.com/disillusioned/discussion-disillusioned/70983/mcken-zie-wark-digital-labor-and-the-anthropocene/; and Slavoj Žižek, ‘You May! Slavoj Žižek writes about the Post-Modern Superego,’ London Review of Books 21:6 (18 March 1999), www.lrb.co.uk/v21/n06/slavoj-zizek/you-may.
17Žižek, For They Know Not What They Do, 199.
18Žižek, For They Know Not What They Do, 200.
19McKenzie Wark, ‘Notes on Žižek’s Absolute Recoil,’ Public Seminar (28 November 2014), http://www.publicseminar.org/2014/11/notes-on-zizeks-absolute-recoil/#.Va00–3iJndl.
20Wark, ‘Molecular Red.’
21On this subject, see also Henri Lefebvre, Dialectical Materialism, trans. John Sturrock (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, [1940] 2009).
22Wark, ‘Molecular Red.’
23Sven Lütticken, ‘Cultural Revolution: From Punk to the New Provotariat,’ New Left Review 87 (May/June 2014): 115–31.
24See Herbert Marcuse, ‘Cultural Revolution’ (c.1970), discussed in Lütticken, ‘Cultural Revolution,’ 117.
25Lütticken, ‘Cultural Revolution,’ 119–22.
26Lütticken, ‘Cultural Revolution,’ 122.
27Lütticken, ‘Cultural Revolution,’ 125.
28See Sven Lütticken, ‘Secrecy and Publicity: Reactivating the Avant-Garde,’ New Left Review 17 (September/October 2002): 129–48.
29Yates McKee, ‘DEBT: Occupy, Postcontemporary Art, and the Aesthetics of Debt Resistance,’ The South Atlantic Quarterly 112:4 (Fall 2013): 784–803.
30McKee, ‘DEBT,’ 798.
31Despite this claim, Suzanne Lacy outlined some twenty years ago already a ‘critical language for public art’ and ‘art activism’ in her anthology on ‘new genre public art.’ See Suzanne Lacy, ed. Mapping the Terrain: New Genre Public Art (Seattle: Bay Press, 1995). For a genealogy of politicised art practice, focused also in this case on the notion of the art strike, see Gregory Sholette, ‘Art Out of Joint: Artists’ Activism Before and After the Cultural Turn’ (2015), www.academia.edu/15087437/Art_Out_of_Joint_Artists_Activism_Before_and_After_the_Cultural_Turn.
32McKee, ‘DEBT,’ 793.
33McKee, ‘DEBT,’ 784.
34McKee, ‘DEBT,’ 798.
35For a critique of Occupy Wall Street along these lines, see Saroj Giri, ‘Communism, Occupy and the Question of Form,’ Ephemera 13:3 (2013): 577–601, www.ephemerajournal.org/contribution/communism-occupy-and-question-form.
36McKee, ‘DEBT,’ 793.
37Doug Henwood and Charlie Bertsch, ‘I am a Fighting Atheist: Interview with Slavoj Žižek,’ Bad Subjects (February 2002), http://bad.eserver.org/issues/2002/59/zizek.html. Žižek’s focus on questions of leadership does not address other of kinds of problems as they were confronted for instance in the US in the 1960s by Students for a Democratic Society and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. These experiences also find that consensus-based organisation often sacrifices decision-making ability, political effectiveness, general public interest, as well as lack of expertise due to rotating leadership. See Francesca Poletta, ‘How Participatory Democracy Became White: Culture and Organizational Choice,’ FIELD: A Journal of Socially Engaged Art Criticism 1 (Spring 2015): 215–54, http://field-journal.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/FIELD-01-Poletta-HowDemocracyBecameWhite.pdf.
38For a simplified version of his argument, see ‘LUX PRIZE 2014: Slavoj Zizek on Class Enemy,’ YouTube (5 December 2014), www.youtube.com/watch?v=gw_2LWULIdk.
39Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen, ‘Is the Revolution Going to Be Communist?’ Mute (6 February 2015), www.metamute.org/community/your-posts/revolution-going-to-be-communist.
40On this see Slavoj Žižek, ‘Afterword: Lenin’s Choice,’ in Žižek, ed. Revolution at the Gates: A Selection of Writings from February to October 1917 (London: Verso, 2002), 167–336. What is interesting about this text is that it associates the party with the Discourse of the Analyst and the function of truth and so in this regard there is a slight shift of emphasis in Žižek’s recent work. See also Slavoj Žižek, ‘The Fetish of the Party,’ in The Universal Exception: Selected Writings, Volume Two, eds. Rex Butler and Scott Stephens (London: Continuum, 2006), 67–93. Note also that in his accentuation of the psychoanalytic concept of drive, Žižek’s theory of the subject comes closest to the Discourse of the Hysteric, whose goal it is to understand the cause of subjectivisation. In this Žižek distinguishes his work from Badiou’s work, which relies on a distinction between democratic and dialectical materialism that Žižek tends to avoid. See Slavoj Žižek, ‘Toward a Unified Theory of Four Discourses and Sexual Difference,’ in Incontinence of the Void: Economico-Philosophical Spandrels (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2017), 87–110.
41Rasmussen, ‘Is the Revolution Going to Be Communist?’
42Rasmussen, ‘Is the Revolution Going to Be Communist?’
43Wark, ‘Notes on Žižek’s Absolute Recoil.’
44See Slavoj Žižek, Absolute Recoil: Towards a New Foundation of Dialectical Materialism (London: Verso, 2014) and Trouble in Paradise: From the End of History to the End of Capitalism (London: Allen Lane, 2014).
45Slavoj Žižek, ‘Answers Without Questions,’ in Žižek, ed. The Idea of Communism 2: The New York Conference (London: Verso, 2013), 177–205.
46Žižek, ‘Answers Without Questions,’ 197.
47Žižek, ‘Answers Without Questions,’ 198.
48Žižek, ‘Answers Without Questions,’ 198.
49Žižek, Absolute Recoil, 45.
50Žižek, Absolute Recoil, 46.
51Jacques Lacan, The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, Book XVII: The Other Side of Psychoanalysis, 1969–1970, trans. Russell Grigg, ed. Jacques-Alain Miller (New York: W.W. Norton, [1991] 2007).
52Žižek, Absolute Recoil, 47.
53Žižek, Absolute Recoil, 47.

7 Beyond socially enraged art

1See for example, Art After Modernism: Rethinking Representation, ed. Brian Wallis (New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art, 1984).
2Jacques Rancière, Aesthetics and Its Discontents, trans. Steven Corcoran (Cambridge: Polity Press, [2004] 2009), 21. For an example of theory that reduces the social and political significance of art to that of heterodox singularities, see Nathalie Heinich, Le Paradigme de l’art contemporain: Structures d’une révolution artistique (Paris: Gallimard, 2014).
3Ben Davis, 9.5 Theses on Art and Class (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2013).
4Alain Badiou, ‘Does the Notion of Activist Art Still Have a Meaning?’ Lecture presented at the Miguel Abreu Gallery, New York City, 13 October 2010, www.lacan.com/thevideos/10132010.html.
5Alain Badiou, Handbook of Inaesthetics, trans. Alberto Toscano (Stanford: Stanford University Press, [1998] 2005).
6See Susan Buck-Morss, ‘A Commonist Ethics,’ in Slavoj Žižek, ed. The Idea of Communism 2: The New York Conference (London: Verso, 2013), 60–1.
7Kim Charnley, ‘Dissensus and the Politics of Collaborative Practice,’ Art and the Public Sphere 1:1 (2011): 50.
8Charnley, ‘Dissensus and the Politics of Collaborative Practice,’ 51. For Grant Kester’s critique of vanguardism, see Kester, The One and the Many: Contemporary Collaborative Art in a Global Context (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011); ‘The Sound of Breaking Glass, Part I: Spontaneity and Consciousness in Revolutionary Theory,’ e-flux journal 30 (December 2011), www.e-flux.com/journal/the-sound-of-breaking-glass-part-i-spontaneity-and-consciousness-in-revolutionary-theory/; and ‘The Sound of Breaking Glass, Part II: Agonism and the Taming of Dissent,’ e-flux journal 31 (January 2012), www.e-flux.com/journal/the-sound-of-breaking-glass-part-ii-agonism-and-the-taming-of-dissent/.
9Alain Badiou, ‘True and false contradictions of the crisis,’ Verso Blog (29 May 2015), www.versobooks.com/blogs/2014-alain-badiou-true-and-false-contradictions-of-the-crisis.
10Alain Badiou, ‘La crise: vraie et fausse contradiction du monde contemporain,’ Libération (13 April 2015), www.liberation.fr/politiques/2015/04/13/la-crise-vraie-et-fausse-contradiction-du-monde-contemporain_1240409.
11Marc James Léger, ‘Introduction: 1 + 1 + a,’ in Drive in Cinema: Essays on Film, Theory and Politics (Bristol: Intellect, 2015), 1–25.
12Gerald Raunig, ‘On the Breach,’ Artforum 46:9 (May 2008): 341–3.
13Raunig, ‘On the Breach,’ 342.
14Raunig, ‘On the Breach,’ 342.
15Raunig, ‘On the Breach,’ 342. See Cornelius Castoriadis, Claude Lefort and Edgar Morin, La Brèche. Premières Réflexions sur les événements (Paris: Fayard, 1968). See also Situationist International, ‘The Beginning of an Era,’ in Ken Knabb, ed. Situationist International Anthology (Berkeley: Bureau of Public Secrets, [1981] 1995), 225–56, and René Viénet, Enragés et situationnistes dans le mouvement étudiant (Paris: Gallimard, 1968).
16Raunig, ‘On the Breach,’ 342.
17Sven Lütticken, ‘Cultural Revolution: From Punk to the New Provotariat,’ New Left Review 87 (May/June 2014): 115.
18Bruno Bosteels, ‘Post-Maoism: Badiou and Politics,’ Positions 13:3 (Winter 2005): 586.
19Bosteels, ‘Post-Maoism,’ 589.
20Alain Badiou, ‘The Cultural Revolution: The Last Revolution?’ Positions 13:3 (Winter 2005): 481–514.
21Badiou, ‘The Cultural Revolution,’ 489, 494.
22Badiou, ‘The Cultural Revolution,’ 496.
23Badiou, ‘The Cultural Revolution,’ 495.
24Badiou, ‘The Cultural Revolution,’ 506.
25See for example Badiou’s axiom according to which ‘[t]he universality of truths rests on subjective forms that cannot be either individual or communitarian,’ in ‘Democratic Materialism and Materialist Dialectic,’ in Logics of Worlds: Being and Event, 2, trans. Alberto Toscano (London: Continuum, [2006] 2009), 9.
26See Andrea Fraser, Museum Highlights: The Writings of Andrea Fraser, ed. Alexander Alberro (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2005) as well as Nato Thompson and Gregory Sholette, eds. The Interventionists: Users’ Manual for the Creative Disruption of Everyday Life (North Adams/Cambridge: MASS MoCA/The MIT Press/, 2004).
27The proceedings of the event from 9–11 January 2015, which took place at Hebbel am Ufer Theatre, Berlin, Germany, are available at https://vimeo.com/user36179003.
28John Roberts, Revolutionary Time and the Avant-Garde (London: Verso, 2015), 35.
30Andrea Liu, ‘Report: Artist Organisations International Conference,’ Afterimage 42:6 (May/June 2015): 3. Against this notion that activists have moved or should move away from organisation, see Astra Taylor, ‘Against Activism,’ The Baffler 30 (March 2016), https://thebaffler.com/salvos/against-activism. See also Malcolm Gladwell, ‘Small Change: Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted,’ The New Yorker (4 October 2010), www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/10/04/small-change-malcolm-gladwell.
31Slavoj Žižek, ‘Afterword: Lenin’s Choice,’ in Žižek, ed. Revolution at the Gates: A Selection of Writings from February to October 1917 (London: Verso, 2002), 167–336.
32Brian Holmes, ‘1968 in the USA: Political Crisis in the Keynesian-Fordist Economy,’ Continental Drift (2011), https://brianholmes.wordpress.com/2011/11/08/1968-in-the-usa/.
33Holmes, ‘1968 in the USA.’
34See Régis Debray, Revolution in the Revolution? Armed Struggle and Political Struggle In Latin America, trans. Bobbye Ortiz (New York: Grove Press, 1967), 37–8.
35Debray, Revolution in the Revolution? 39.
36Debray, Revolution in the Revolution? 80.
37Debray, Revolution in the Revolution? 80.
38See Raoul Vaneigem,The Revolution of Everyday Life, trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith (London: Rebel Press, [1967] 2001) and Alain Badiou, Philosophy for Militants, trans. Bruno Bosteels (London: Verso, [2011] 2012).
39Debray, Revolution in the Revolution? 112.
40On this matter, see Rodrigo Nunes, ‘Organisation of the Organisationless: Collective Action After Networks,’ Mute (20 May 2014), www.metamute.org/editorial/books/organisation-organisationless-collective-action-after-networks.
41Antonio Negri, ‘Charlie Hebdo, fear and world war: two questions for Toni Negri,’ Verso Blog (21 January 2015), translated from a January 23 article in Dinamo Press, www.versobooks.com/blogs/1814-charlie-hebdo-fear-and-world-war-two-questions-for-toni-negri. See also Jerome Roos, ‘An Interview with Toni Negri: From the refusal of labour to the seizure of power,’ Roar (January 2015), https://roarmag.org/essays/negri-interview-multitude-metropolis/.
42Felicity Dale Scott, ‘“Vanguards”,’ e-flux journal 64 (April 2015), www.e-flux.com/journal/vanguards/.
43Scott, ‘“Vanguards”.’
44For a critique of the ways in which Foucault’s late work approaches neoliberal ideology, see Daniel Zamora and Michael C. Behrent, eds. Foucault and Neoliberalism (Cambridge: Polity Press, [2014] 2016).
45David Graeber, The Utopia of Rules: On Technology, Stupidity and the Secret Joys of Bureaucracy (Brooklyn: Melville House, 2015), 65–6.
46Graeber, The Utopia of Rules, 31, 82, 100.
47Graeber, The Utopia of Rules, 97–100. Graeber approvingly refers to the work of the collective Crimethink, a group that David Harvey associates with Murray Bookchin’s notion of ‘lifestyle anarchism.’ In contrast to Graeber, Harvey mentions that most of the mutual aid societies that gave rise to anarchism were based on shared commons, rules and codes of behaviour. See David Harvey, ‘Listen, Anarchist!’ davidharvey.org (10 June 2015), http://davidharvey.org/2015/06/listen-anarchist-by-david-harvey/#more-1871.
48Kristin Ross, Communal Luxury: The Political Imaginary of the Paris Commune (London: Verso, 2015), 11–12.

8 The only game in town

1Slavoj Žižek, ‘Freud Lives!’ London Review of Books 28:10 (25 May 2006), www.lrb.co.uk/v28/n10/slavoj-zizek/freud-lives.
2Johanne Lamoureux, ‘Avant Garde: A Historiography of a Critical Concept,’ in Amelia Jones, ed. A Companion to Contemporary Art Since 1945 (London: Blackwell, 2006), 207.
3Henri Lefebvre, Le temps des méprises (Paris: Éditions Stock, 1975), 20.
4Patricia Latour and Francis Combes, Conversation avec Henri Lefebvre (Paris: Messidor, 1991), 100–13.
5Judith Butler, Ernesto Laclau and Slavoj Žižek, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality: Contemporary Dialogues on the Left (London: Verso, 2000).
6Butler, Laclau and Žižek, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality, 22.
7Butler, Laclau and Žižek, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality, 58–9.
8Butler, Laclau and Žižek, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality, 94.
9Butler, Laclau and Žižek, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality, 100–1. One could say that such a positivisation of capitalism is the premise and limitation of Wendy Brown’s approach to neoliberalism as a process of marketisation and monetisation of social life. See Wendy Brown, Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2015). In relation to the limits of discourse theory for radical praxis, see Heiko Feldner and Fabio Vighi, Žižek Beyond Foucault (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).
10G.W.F. Hegel, The Science of Logic, trans. George DiGiovanni (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, [c.1812–1831] 2010).
11See Biennale Arte, All the World’s Futures (2015), www.labiennale.org/en/art/exhibition/56/.
12Biennale Arte, All the World’s Futures.
13Biennale Arte, All the World’s Futures.
14Biennale Arte, All the World’s Futures.
15See ‘Reading Capital,’ the online courses on Capital volumes one and two taught by Harvey, http://davidharvey.org/reading-capital/. See also David Harvey, Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).
16See Okwui Enwezor, ‘Introduction: All the World’s Futures.’ Curatorial statement for All the World’s Futures (2015), www.labiennale.org/en/art/exhibition/enwezor/.
17From Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri’s Empire (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000), xii, cited in Okwui Enwezor, ‘Reckoning with Empire,’ Artforum 48:2 (October 2009): 175.
18Enwezor cited in Charlotte Higgins, ‘Das Kapital at the Arsenale: How Okwui Enwezor Invited Marx to the Biennale,’ The Guardian (7 May 2015), www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2015/may/07/das-kapital-at-venice-biennale-okwui-enwezor-karl-marx.
19Cited in Higgins, ‘Das Kapital at the Arsenale.’
20Niles Williamson, ‘Ukrainian Government Blacklists Russian Actors and Musicians,’ World Socialist Web Site (10 August 2015), www.wsws.org/en/articles/2015/08/10/ukra-a10.html.
21Cited in Higgins, ‘Das Kapital at the Arsenale.’
22Cited in Higgins, ‘Das Kapital at the Arsenale.’
23David Harvey, ‘“Listen, Anarchist!” A personal response to Simon Springer’s “Why a Radical Geography Must be Anarchist”,’ davidharvey.org (10 June 2015), http://davidharvey.org/2015/06/listen-anarchist-by-david-harvey/#more-1871.
24Rosalyn Deutsche, ‘Men in Space,’ Artforum 28:6 (February 1990): 23. See also Rosalyn Deutsche, Evictions: Art and Spatial Politics (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1996).
25Deutsche’s work was influenced at this time by feminist psychoanalysis and by the radical democracy of Laclau and Mouffe. See Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics (London: Verso, 1985).
26Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space, trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith (Oxford: Blackwell, [1974] 1991).
27Homi Bhabha cited in Rosalyn Deutsche, ‘Surprising Geography,’ Annals of the Association of American Geographers 85:1 (1995): 172.
28Harvey, ‘“Listen, Anarchist!”’
29See Alain Badiou, Philosophy and the Event (with Fabien Tarby), trans. Louise Burchill (Cambridge: Polity, [2010] 2013) and Slavoj Žižek, Less Than Nothing: Hegel and the Shadow of Dialectical Materialism (London: Verso, 2012).
30Slavoj Žižek, ‘The Prospects of Radical Politics Today,’ in The Universal Exception: Selected Writings, Volume Two, eds. Rex Butler and Scott Stephens (London: Continuum, 2006), 239.
31See Jela Krečič, ed. The Final Countdown: Europe, Refugees and the Left (Vienna: Wiener Festwochen, 2017). See also the NSK Biennale website, http://nsk-state-pavilion.org.
32David Harvey, ‘The Most Dangerous Book I Have Ever Written: A Commentary on Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism,’ davidharvey.org (9 May 2015), http://davidharvey.org/2015/05/the-most-dangerous-book-i-have-ever-written-a-commentary-on-seventeen-contradictions-and-the-end-of-capitalism/#more-1866.
33Harvey, Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism, 42.
34See John Smith, Imperialism in the Twenty-First Century: Globalization, Super-Exploitation, and Capitalism’s Final Crisis (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2016).
35Some of these criticisms are due to the fact that the oratorio of Das Kapital was being directed by filmmaker Isaac Julien and that Julien’s personal project in Venice at the Palazzo Malipiero-Barnabò was sponsored by the Rolls Royce Motor Car Company. See Natalie Hegert, ‘Capital and Contradiction: Okwui Enwezor’s 2015 Venice Biennale,’ The Huffington Post (21 May 2015), www.huffingtonpost.com/mutualart/capital-and-contradiction_b_7347796.html.
36Slavoj Žižek, ‘The Courage of Hopelessness.’ Lecture delivered at the Wiener Festwochen, 20 May 2017, uploaded by Ippolit Belinski on YouTube (23 May 2017), www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNlW3HnNqlk.
37Malik Gaines, Black Performance on the Outskirts of the Left: A History of the Impossible (New York: New York University Press, 2017), 198.
38Gaines, Black Performance on the Outskirts of the Left, 3.
39For a critique of the ways in which postcolonial theory and subaltern studies have undermined leftist solidarity, see Vivek Chibber, Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital (London: Verso, 2013).
40Gaines, Black Performance on the Outskirts of the Left, 17.
41Gaines, Black Performance on the Outskirts of the Left, 182.
42Gaines, Black Performance on the Outskirts of the Left, 191.
43Slavoj Žižek, Iraq: The Borrowed Kettle (London: Verso, 2004), 98.
44Slavoj Žižek, ‘The Lesson of Rancière,’ in Jacques Rancière, The Politics of Aesthetics: The Distribution of the Sensible, trans. Gabriel Rockhill (London: Continuum, [2000] 2004), 71.
45See Karl Heinz Roth, ‘Global Crisis – Global Proletarianisation – Counter- Perspectives’ (21 December 2008), www.wildcat-www.de/en/actual/e068roth_crisis.html.
46Smith, Imperialism in the Twenty-First Century, 113.
47A symptom of this is the 2016 decision in the US by the National Labor Relations Board that employers (like T-Mobile) could not oblige employees to be constantly positive at work.
48Shane Mage, ‘Response to Heinrich – In Defense of Marx’s Law,’ Monthly Review (1 December 2013), https://monthlyreview.org/commentary/response-heinrich-defense-marxs-law/.
49Michael Heinrich, An Introduction to the Three Volumes of Karl Marx’s Capital, trans. Alexander Locascio (New York: Monthly Review Press, [2004] 2012), 13–14, 79.
50Slavoj Žižek, ‘Multiculturalism, or, the Cultural Logic of Multinational Capitalism,’ in The Universal Exception, 151–82.
51Alain Badiou, The Century, trans. Alberto Toscano (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2007).
52Alain Badiou, Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil (London: Verso, [1993] 2001), 16.
53‘London Critical Theory/Summer School 2015,’ YouTube (14 July 2015), Part 1 of 4, www.youtube.com/watch?v=TaR7riRmgm4.
54Hillary Clinton cited in Seth Ackerman, ‘Yes, Racism Is Rooted in Economic Inequality,’ Jacobin (29 July 2015), www.jacobinmag.com/2015/07/hillary-clinton-democatic-primary-sanders-netroots/.
55Endnotes, ‘Brown v. Ferguson,’ Endnotes 4 (October 2015), https://endnotes.org.uk/issues/4/en/endnotes-brown-v-ferguson.
56Richard Hofstadter, ‘Reflections on Violence in the United States,’ (1970) in The Baffler 28 (July 2015), http://thebaffler.com/ancestors/reflections-violence-united-states.
57Slavoj Žižek, The Courage of Hopelessness: Chronicles of a Year of Acting Dangerously (London: Allen Lane, 2017) eBook, 320–1.
58Anonymous, ‘Things That Anarchists Say to Me in Private But Never Repeat Publicly,’ anarchistnews.org (2 August 2015), www.anarchistnews.org/content/things-anarchists-say-me-private-never-repeat-publicly.
59The comment in Le Monde was criticised by the otherwise neoliberal French Socialist Party for defending the right to inconvenience others as a kind of freedom of promiscuity. It also received criticism for its neoliberal stance, which could also be interpreted in relation to post-feminist politics. See for example, Françoise Vergès, ‘La liberté d’importuniter est une ode à l’idéologie néolibérale,’ Le nouveau magazine littéraire (17 January 2018), www.nouveau-magazine-litteraire.com/idees/liberte-dimportuner-est-une-ode-ideologie-neoliberale. See also the website https://metoomvmt.org.
60Yohana Desta, ‘Matt Damon Apologizes for His #MeToo Comments: “I Am Really Sorry”,’ Vanity Fair (16 January 2018), www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2018/01/matt-damon-hollywood-reckoning-apology.
61Ashifa Kassam, ‘Margaret Atwood faces feminist backlash on social media over #MeToo,’ The Guardian (15 January 2018), www.theguardian.com/books/2018/jan/15/margaret-atwood-feminist-backlash-metoo.
62See for example, Priscilla Frank, ‘In the #MeToo Era, Do These Paintings Still Belong In a Museum?’ The Huffington Post (14 December 2018), www.huffingtonpost.ca/entry/museums-me-too-sexual-harassment-art_us_5a2ae382e-4b0a290f0507176.
63Meleka Ryzik and Brooks Barnes, ‘Can Woody Allen Work in Hollywood Again?’ The New York Times (28 January 2018), www.nytimes.com/2018/01/28/movies/woody-allen-dylan-farrow.html.
64Coco Fusco, ‘Censorship, Not the Painting, Must Go: On Dana Schutz’s Image of Emmett Till,’ Hyperallergic (27 March 2017), https://hyperallergic.com/368290/censorship-not-the-painting-must-go-on-dana-schutzs-image-of-emmett-till/. See also Coco Fusco’s article on the sexual mores of the art world, ‘How the Art Worlds, and Art Schools, Are Ripe for Sexual Abuse,’ Hyperallergic (14 November 2017), https://hyperallergic.com/411343/how-the-art-world-and-art-schools-are-ripe-for-sexual-abuse/.
65See Fabian T. Pfeffer, Sheldon Danziger and Robert F. Schoeni, Wealth Levels, Wealth Inequality, and the Great Recession, University of Michigan, 23 June 2014, http://web.stanford.edu/group/scspi/_media/working_papers/pfeffer-danziger-schoeni_wealth-levels.pdf.
66On this see, George Yancy’s interview with Judith Butler, ‘What’s Wrong With “All Lives Matter”?’ The New York Times (12 January 2015), http://mobile.nytimes.com/blogs/opinionator/2015/01/12/whats-wrong-with-all-lives-matter/?_r=3&referrer. See also the website http://blacklivesmatter.com.
67See ‘Slavoj Žižek on the Charlie Hebdo massacre: Are the worst really full of passionate intensity?’ New Statesman (10 January 2015), www.newstatesman.com/world-affairs/2015/01/slavoj-i-ek-charlie-hebdo-massacre-are-worst-really-full-passionate-intensity.
68Endnotes, ‘Brown v. Ferguson.’
69Slavoj Žižek, Welcome to the Desert of the Real: Five Essays on September 11 and Related Dates (London: Verso, 2002), 23.
70Robert Kuttner, ‘Steve Bannon, Unrepentant,’ The American Prospect (16 August 2017), http://prospect.org/article/steve-bannon-unrepentant.
71Žižek, The Courage of Hopelessness, 360, 365, 380–1.
72Simon Critchley, Infinitely Demanding: Ethics of Commitment, Politics of Resistance (London: Verso, [2007] 2008).
73Slavoj Žižek, In Defense of Lost Causes (London: Verso, 2008), 337–8. See also Žižek, ‘Resistance Is Surrender,’ London Review of Books 29:22 (15 November 2007), www.lrb.co.uk/v29/n22/slavoj-zizek/resistance-is-surrender.
74Žižek, In Defense of Lost Causes, 342–3.
75Jodi Dean, The Communist Horizon (London: Verso, 2012) and Dean, Crowds and Party (London: Verso, 2016).
76Nizan Shaked, The Synthetic Proposition: Conceptualism and the Political Referent in Contemporary Art (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017). See also Simon Critchley, ‘Violent Thoughts about Slavoj Žižek,’ Naked Punch 11 (10 November 2008), 3–6.
77Shaked, The Synthetic Proposition, 8.
78Shaked, The Synthetic Proposition, 36.
79Žižek, ‘Multiculturalism, or, the Cultural Logic of Multinational Capitalism,’ 176.
80Žižek, ‘Multiculturalism, or, the Cultural Logic of Multinational Capitalism,’ 176.
81Žižek, ‘Multiculturalism, or, the Cultural Logic of Multinational Capitalism,’ 176.
82Shaked, The Synthetic Proposition, 148.
83Ellen Meiksins Wood, Democracy Against Capitalism: Renewing Historical Materialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
84Meiksins Wood, Democracy Against Capitalism, 214.
85Meiksins Wood, Democracy Against Capitalism, 238.
86Meiksins Wood, Democracy Against Capitalism, 256.
87Meiksins Wood, Democracy Against Capitalism, 266.
88Meiksins Wood, Democracy Against Capitalism, 270.
89Angela Nagle, Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan and Tumblr to Trump and the Alt-Right (Winchester: Zero Books, 2017) eBook, 11.
90Slavoj Žižek, ‘We Must Rise from the Ashes of Liberal Democracy,’ In These Times (3 March 2017), http://inthesetimes.com/article/19918/slavoj-zizek-from-the-ashes-of-liberal-democracy.
91Thomas Frank, Listen, Liberal, or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2016).
92See T.J. Clark, The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Art of Manet and His Followers (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), 146.
93Slavoj Žižek, Disparities (London: Bloomsbury, 2016), 368–71.
94John Roberts, ‘Art and Its Negations,’ Third Text 24:3 (May 2010): 290.
95Boris Groys, ‘Beyond Diversity: Cultural Studies and Its Post-Communist Other,’ in Art Power (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2008), 150.
96Badiou, Philosophy and the Event. See also Badiou, Saint Paul: The Foundation of Universalism, trans. Ray Brassier (Stanford: Stanford University Press, [1997] 2003) and Badiou, Infinite Thought: Truth and the Return to Philosophy, trans. Oliver Feltham and Justin Clemens (London: Continuum, 2004).

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