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in Conspiracy theory and American foreign policy

Select Bibliography

See individual endnotes for details of newspaper and popular journal articles not listed here, as well as references to US government documents, speech transcripts and reports.

Ahmed, S., The Cultural Politics of Emotion (New York: Routledge, 2004).

Ajami, Fouad, ‘The Sentry’s Solitude’, Foreign Affairs, 80:6 (2001), pp. 2–16.

Anderson, J. W., ‘Conspiracy Theories, Premature Entextualization, and Popular Political Analysis’, Arab Studies Journal, 4:1 (1996), pp. 96–102.

Ashley, Richard, ‘Untying the Sovereign State: A Double Reading of the Anarchy Problematique’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 17:2 (1988), pp. 227–262.

Bale, Jeffrey, ‘Political Paranoia v. Political Realism: On Distinguishing Between Bogus Conspiracy Theories and Genuine Conspiratorial Politics’, Patterns of Prejudice, 41:1 (2007), pp. 45–60.

Barkin, Michael, A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).

Bartlett, Jamie and Carl Miller, The Power of Unreason: Conspiracy Theories, Extremism and Counter-Terrorism (London: Demos, 2010).

Baum, Mathew and Phillip Potter, ‘The Relationship between Mass Media, Public Opinion and Foreign Policy: Towards a Theoretical Synthesis’, Annual Review of Political Science, 11 (2008), pp. 39–65.

Beam, Thomas E. (ed.), Military Ethics, Vol. II (Falls Church, VA: Office of the Surgeon General, United States Army, 2003).

Beardon, Milton, ‘Afghanistan, Graveyard of Empires’, Foreign Affairs, 80:6 (2001), pp. 17–30.

Bergen, Peter L., The Osama Bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of Al Qaeda’s Leader (New York: Free Press, 2005), p. 205.

Bergen, Peter L., ‘Review: Picking up the Pieces: What We can Learn From – and About – 9/11’, Foreign Affairs, 81:2 (2001), pp. 169–175.

Bernstein, Richard, Beyond Relativism and Objectivism (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983).

Birchall, Claire, Knowledge Goes Pop: From Conspiracy Theory To Gossip (London: Berg Publishers, 2006).

——, ‘Just Because You’re Paranoid, Doesn’t Mean They’re Not Out to Get You’, Culture Machine, 6 (2004), pp. 1–10.

——, ‘Conspiracy Theories and Academic Discourses: The Necessary Possibility of Popular (Over)Interpretation’,

Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies

, 15:1 (2001), pp. 67–76.

Bleiker, Roland, ‘Retracing and Redrawing the Boundaries of Events: Postmodern Interferences with International Theory’, Alternatives, 23 (1998), pp. 471–497.

Bleiker, Roland and Emma Hutchison, ‘Fear No More: Emotions and World Politics’, Review of International Studies, 34:1 (2008), pp. 115–135.

Blum, William, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since WWII (London: Zed Books, 2003).

Booth, Ken and Tim Dunne (eds), Worlds In Collision (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002).

Bratich, Jack, Conspiracy Panics: Political Rationality and Popular Culture (New York: State University of New York Press, 2008).

——, ‘Public Secrecy and Immanent Security’, Cultural Studies, 20:4–5 (2006), pp. 494–499.

Bratich, Jack, Mark Fenster and Hye-Jin Lee, ‘When Theorists Conspire: An Inte(re)view Between Mark Fenster and Jack Bratich’, International Journal of Communications, 3 (2009), pp. 961–972.

Brown, David S., Richard Hofstadter: An Intellectual History (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2006).

——, ‘Redefining American History: Ethnicity, Progressive Historiography and the Making of Richard Hofstadter’, The History Teacher, 36:4 (2003), pp. 527–548.

Buck-Morss, Susan Thinking Past Terrorism: Islamism and Critical Theory on the Left (London: Verso, 2003).

Bunzel, John H., Anti-politics in America: Reflections on the Anti-political Temper and its Distortion of the Democratic Process (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967).

Burke, Anthony, Fear of Security: Australia’s Invasion Anxiety (Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

——, ‘Iraq: Strategy’s Burnt Offerings’, Global Change, Peace and Security, 17:2 (2005), pp. 202–209.

Burke, Anthony and Matt McDonald, Critical Security Studies in the Asia Pacific (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007).

Burke, Jason, Al Qaeda: The True Story of Radical Islam (London: Penguin, 2004).

Burke, John P., Honest Broker? The National Security Advisor and Presidential Decision Making (Texas: Texas A&M Press, 2009).

Butler, J., ‘Explanation and Exoneration, Or What We Can Hear’, Social Text, 20:3 (2002), p. 178.

Campbell, David, ‘Time is Broken: The Return of the Past in Response to September 11’, Theory & Event, 5:4 (2002). (accessed on 28 July 2015).

Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998).

Chomsky, Noam, ‘Middle East Terrorism and the American Ideological System’, Race and Class, 28:1 (1986), pp. 1–28.

Coady, D. ‘Introduction: Conspiracy Theories’, Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology, 4:2 (2007), pp. 131–134.

Conspiracy Theories: The Philosophical Debate (Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate, 2006).

Cohen, Norman, Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World-Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion (New York: Harper & Row, 1967).

Cohen, S., Folk Devils and Moral Panics (St Albans: Paladin, 1973).

Coker, Christopher, Reflections on American Foreign Policy Since 1945 (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1989).

Comor, E. and H. Bean, ‘America’s ‘Engagement’ Delusion: Critiquing a Public Diplomacy Consensus’,

International Communications Gazette

, 74:3 (2012).

Connolly, William, Pluralism (Durham: Duke University Press, 2005).

—— (ed.), The Bias of Pluralism (New York: Atherton Press, 1969).

Croft, Stuart, Culture, Crisis and America’s War on Terror (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

Cuordileone, K. A. ‘Politics in an “Age of Anxiety” ’: Cold War Political Culture and the Crisis in American Masculinity, 1949–60’, The Journal of American History, 87:2 (2000), pp. 515–545.

Curry, Richard O. and Thomas M. Brown (eds), Conspiracy: The Fear of Subversion in American History (New York: Holt, Reinhart & Winston, 1972).

Dahl, Robert, Democracy in the United States (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981).

Dallmayr, Fred (ed.), Border Crossings: Towards a Comparative Political Theory (Oxford: Lexington, 1999).

Dean, Jodi, ‘Theorizing Conspiracy Theory’, Theory and Event, 4:3 (2000). (accessed 28 July 2015).

—— (ed.), Cultural Studies and Political Theory (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000).

——, ‘Virtual Fears’, Signs, 24:4 (1999), pp. 1069–1078.

Aliens in America: Conspiracy Cultures from Outerspace to Cyberspace (New York: Cornell University Press, 1998).

Debord, Guy, Comments of the Society of the Spectacle (London: Verso, 2002).

De Haven-Smith, Lance, Conspiracy Theory in America (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2013).

Der Derian, James (ed.), Critical Practices in International Theory: Selected Essays (New York: Routledge, 2009).

——, ‘The War of Networks’, Theory & Event, 5:4 (2002). (accessed 28 July 2015).

Antidiplomacy: Spies, Lies, Speed and War (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992).

Der Derian, James and Michael Shapiro (eds), International/Intertextual Relations: Postmodern Readings of World Politics (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989).

Devatak, Richard, ‘After the Event: Don Dellillo’s White Noise and September 11 Narratives’, Review of International Studies, 35 (2009), pp. 791–198.

Dirks N. B., Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).

Dolan, Chris, ‘The Shape of Elite Opinion on U.S. Foreign Policy, 1992 to 2004’, Politics & Policy, 36:4 (2008), pp. 542–584.

Doran, Michael Scott, ‘Somebody Else’s Civil War’, Foreign Affairs, 81:1 (2002), pp. 22–42.

Dunne, Tim, Milja Kurki and Steve Smith (eds), International Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Easthope, Anthony and Kate McGowen (eds), A Critical Cultural Studies Reader (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997).

Esposito, John L. and Dalia Mogahed, ‘Battle for Muslims’ Hearts and Minds: The Road Not (Yet) Taken’, Middle East Policy Review, 14:1 (2007), pp. 27–41.

Euben, Roxanne, Enemy in the Mirror: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Limits of Modern Rationalism: A work of Contemporary Political Theory (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999).

Fenster, Mark, Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture (Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 2008).

Fenster, Mark and Jack Bratich, ‘Dialogues in Communication Research’, Journal of Communication Enquiry, 33:3 (2009), pp. 279–286.

Foucault, Michel, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reform (Oxford: Routledge, 2001).

Foucault, Michel, The Archeology of Knowledge (New York: Routledge, 2002).

Gaddis, John Lewis, ‘Grand Strategy in the Second Term’, Foreign Affairs, 84:1 (2005), pp. 2–15.

——, ‘A Grand Strategy of Transformation’, Foreign Policy, 133 (2002), pp. 50–57.

Gamble, Vanessa, ‘Under the Shadows of Tuskegee: African American Health Care’, American Journal of Public Health, 87 (1997), pp. 1773–1778.

Geary, Daniel, ‘Richard Hofstadter Reconsidered’, Reviews in American History, 35:3 (2007), pp. 425–431.

George, Jim, Discourse of Global Politics: A Critical (Re)Introduction to International Relations (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1994).

George, John and Laird Wilcox, American Extremism (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1996).

Goldberg, Robert, ‘Who Profited from the Crime: Intelligence Failure, Conspiracy Theory, and the Case of September 11’, Intelligence and National Security, 19:2 (2004), pp. 249–261.

Enemies Within: The Culture of Conspiracy in Modern America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001).

Goshorn, Keith, ‘Strategies of Deterrence and Frames of Containment: On Critical Paranoia and Anti-conspiracy Discourse’, Theory & Event, 4:3 (2000). (accessed 28 July 2015).

Gray, Fred, The Tuskegee Syphilis Study (Montgomery, AL: Newsouth Books, 1998).

Gray, Matthew, Conspiracy Theories in the Arab World: Sources and Politics (New York: Routledge, 2010).

Griffin, D. R., Debunking 9/11 Debunking: An Answer to Popular Mechanics and Other Defenders of the Official Conspiracy Theory (Petaluma, CA: Olive Branch Press, 2007).

Grovogui, S., ‘Postcolonialism’, in Tim Dunne, Milja Kurki and Steve Smith (eds), International Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 238–256.

Herman, A., The Worldwide Web and Contemporary Cultural Theory: Magic, Metaphor, Power (London: Routledge, 2000).

Hersh, S., ‘An Atrocity Uncovered: November 1969’, reproduced in M. J. Bates et al. (eds), Reporting From Vietnam, Part Two: American Journalism 1969–1975 (Washington: Library of American, 1998), pp. 13–27.

Heywood, Andrew, Political Ideologies: An Introduction (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).

Higgott, Richard, Political Development Theory: The Contemporary Debate (London, Taylor & Francis, 2005).

Hindess, Barry, ‘The Past is Another Culture’, International Political Sociology, 1:4 (2007), pp. 325–338.

Discourses of Power: From Hobbes to Foucault (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996).

Hirsh, M., ‘Bush and the World’, Foreign Affairs, 81:5 (2002), pp. 18–43.

Hoffman, David, ‘Beyond Public Diplomacy’, Foreign Affairs, 81:2 (2002), pp. 83–95.

Hofstadter, Richard, The Paranoid Style and other Essays (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965).

——, ‘The Paranoid Style in American Politics’, Harper’s Magazine (November 1964), pp. 77–86.

Howe, Daniel Walker and Peter Eliot Finn, ‘Richard Hofstadter: The Ironies of an American Historian’, Pacific Historical Review, 43:1 (1974), pp. 1–23.

Huntington, S. P, ‘The Clash of Civilizations’, Foreign Affairs, 72:3 (1993), pp. 22–59.

Hustings, Ginna and Martin Orr, ‘Dangerous Machinery: “Conspiracy Theorist” as a Transpersonal Strategy of Exclusion’, Symbolic Interaction, 30:2 (2007), pp. 127–150.

Irwin, R., ‘An Orientalist Mythology of Secret Societies’, in Arndt Graf, Schirin Fathi and Ludwig Paul (eds), Orientalism and Conspiracy: Politics and Conspiracy Theory in the Islamic World (London: I. B. Tauris, 2001), pp. 99–100.

Jackson, R., ‘Culture, Identity and Hegemony: Continuity and (the Lack of) Change in US Counterterrorism Policy from Bush to Obama’, International Politics, 48:2/3 (2011), pp. 390–411.

——, ‘The Ghosts of State Terror: Knowledge, Politics and Terrorism Studies’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 1:3 (2009), pp. 377–392.

——, ‘Constructing Enemies: ‘Islamic Terrorism’ in Political and Academic Discourse’, Government and Opposition, 42:3 (2007), pp. 394–426.

Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics, and Counter Terrorism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005).

Jackson, Richard, Marie Breen Smyth and Gunning Jereon, Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Agenda (Hoboken: Taylor & Francis, 2009).

James, David Brion, The Fear of Conspiracy: Images of Un-American from the Revolution to the Present (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1971).

Jameson, Fredric, Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991).

Jentleson, Bruce, With Friends Like These: Reagan, Bush and Saddam, 1982–1990 (New York: Norton, 1994).

Joffe, Joseph, ‘Axis of Envy’, Foreign Policy, 132 (2002), pp. 68–69.

Jones, Laura, ‘The Common Place Geopolitics of Conspiracy’, Geography Compass, 6:1 (2012), pp. 44–59.

——, ‘How do the American People Know? Embodying Post-9/11 Conspiracy Discourse’, GeoJournal, 75 (2010), pp. 359–371.

——, ‘A Geopolitical Mapping of the Post 9/11 World: Exploring Conspiratorial Knowledge through Fahrenheit 9/11 and The Manchurian Candidate’, Journal of Media Geography, 111 (2008), pp. 44–50.

Kamalipour, Yahya and Nancy Snow (eds), War, Media, and Propaganda: A Global Perspective (Oxford: Bowman & Littlefield, 2004).

Keeley, B. ‘Of Conspiracy Theories’, The Journal of Philosophy, 96:3 (1999), pp. 109–126.

Khatib, W. Dutton and M. Thelwall, ‘Public Diplomacy 2.0: A Case Study of the US Digital Outreach Team’, The Middle East Journal, 66:3 (2012), pp. 453–472.

Kennedy, Liam and Scott Lucas, ‘Enduring Freedom: Public Diplomacy and US Foreign Policy’, American Quarterly, 57:2 (2005), pp. 309–333.

Knight, Peter (ed.), Conspiracy Nation: The Politics of Paranoia in Post-War America (New York: New York University Press, 2002).

Conspiracy Culture: From Kennedy to the X-Files (London: Duke University Press, 2000).

——, ‘Everything is Connected: Underworld’s Secret History of Paranoia’, Modern Fiction Studies, 45:3 (1999), pp. 811–836.

Krauthammer, Charles, ‘The Neoconservative Convergence’, Commentary (July–August 2005).

Lasswell, Harold, Power and Personality (New York: Viking Press, 1948).

Psychopathology and Politics (New York: Viking Press, 1930).

Lewis, Bernard, ‘What Went Wrong’, The Atlantic (January 2002), pp. 43–45.

——, ‘The Roots of Muslim Rage’, The Atlantic (September 1990), pp. 1–8.

Lipset, Seymour Martin and Earl Raab, The Politics of Unreason: Right Wing Extremism in America, 1790–1970 (New York: Harper & Row, 1970).

Lynch, Mark, ‘Taking Arabs Seriously’, Foreign Affairs, 8:5 (2003), pp. 81–94.

Machiavelli, Niccolo, The Prince and the Discourses (New York: The Modern Library, 1950[1532]).

Malak, Abbas (ed.), News Media and Foreign Relations: A Multifaceted Perspective (Norwood, NJ: Abex, 1996).

Marcus, George (ed.), Paranoia Within Reason: A Casebook on Conspiracy as Explanation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999).

Marshal, Joshua, ‘Remaking the World: Bush and the Neoconservatives’, Foreign Affairs, 82:2 (2002), pp. 142–146.

McCarthy, Thomas A., ‘From Modernism to Messianism: Liberal Developmentalism and American Exceptionalism’, Constellations, 14:1 (2007), pp. 3–30.

Mead, Walter Russell, ‘The American Foreign Policy Tradition’, Foreign Affairs, 81 (2002), pp. 163–176.

Mearsheimer, John J. and Stephen M. Walt, ‘An Unnecessary War’, Foreign Policy, 134:1 (2003), pp. 50–59.

Melly, Timothy, Empire of Conspiracy: The Culture of Paranoia in Post-War America (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000).

Mills, C. Wright, The Power Elite (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Moten, Jonathan, ‘The Roots of the Bush Doctrine: Power, Nationalism, and Democracy Promotion in US Strategy’, International Security, 29:4 (2005), pp. 112–156.

Nelson, Cary and Lawrence Grossberg (eds), Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1988).

Neumann, Iver, ‘Self and Other in International Relations’, European Journal of International Relations, 2:2 (1996), pp. 138–174.

Nietzsche, Freidrich, The Gay Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

Oliver, T. E. and T. J. Wood, ‘Conspiracy Theories and the Paranoid Style(s) of Mass Opinion’, American Journal of Political Science, Early release (2014).

Olmsted, Katherine, Real Enemies: Conspiracy Theories and American Democracy, World War I to 9/11 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

Palmer, Allen W. and Edward L. Carter, ‘The Smith-Mundt Act’s Ban on Domestic Propaganda: An analysis of the Cold War Statute Limiting Access to Public Diplomacy’, Communications Law and Policy, 11:1 (2006), pp. 1–34.

Paltridge, Brian, Discourse Analysis: An Introduction (London: Continuum, 2006), 179–197.

Peterson, Peter G., ‘Public Diplomacy and the War on Terrorism’, Foreign Affairs, 81:5 (2002), pp. 74–94.

Pidgen, C. ‘Conspiracy Theories and the Conventional Wisdom’, The Journal of Philosophy, 96:3 (1999), pp. 219–232.

Pipes, Daniel, The Hidden Hand: Middle East Fears of Conspiracy (London: Macmillan Press 1998).

Conspiracy! How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where it Comes From (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997).

Piscatori, James, ‘Religion and Realpolitik: Islamic Responses to the Gulf War’, Bulletin of the American Academy of the Arts, 45:1 (1991), pp. 17–39.

Post, Jerold M., Leaders and Their Followers in a Dangerous World: The Psychology of Political Behaviour (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004).

Pratt, Ray, ‘Theorising Conspiracy Theory’, Theory and Society, 32 (2003), pp. 255–271.

Roberts, Adam, Fredric Jameson (London: Routledge, 2007).

Roberts, J. M., The Mythology of Secret Societies (London: Secker & Warburg, 1972).

Robins, Robert S. and Jerrold M. Post, Political Paranoia: The Psychopolitics of Hatred (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press: 1998).

Rose, Gideon and Jonathan Tepperman (eds), The U.S. vs. Al Qaeda: A History of the War on Terror (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2011).

Rostow, Walt, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971).

Rouleau, E., ‘Trouble in the Kingdom’, Foreign Affairs, 81:4 (2002), pp. 75–89.

Rubin, B., ‘The Real Roots of Arab Anti-Americanism’, Foreign Affairs, 81:6 (2002), pp. 73–85.

Said, Edward, Power, Politics and Culture: Interviews with Edward Said (New York: Vintage Books, 2002).

Said, Edward, Orientalism (London: Penguin, 2003).

Sargent, Lyman (ed.), Extremism in America: A Reader (New York: New York University Press, 1996).

Shapiro, Michael, ‘Wanted Dead or Alive’, Theory & Event, 5:4 (2002).

Silberstein, Sandra, War of World: Language and Politics After 9/11 (London: Routledge, 2002).

Silverstein, P. A., ‘An Excess of Truth: Violence, Conspiracy Theorizing and the Algerian Civil War’, Anthropological Quarterly, 75:4 (2002), pp. 643–674.

Silverstein, P. A., ‘Regimes of (Un)Truth: Conspiracy Theory and the Transnationalization of the Algerian Civil War’, Middle East Report, 214 (2000), pp. 6–10.

Snyder, Don M., The National Security Strategy: Documenting Strategic Vision (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 1995).

Strauss, Mark, ‘Anti-Globalism’s Jewish Problem’, Foreign Policy, 130 (2003), pp. 58–67.

Sunstein, Cass and Adrian Vermeule, ‘Conspiracy Theories: Causes and Cures’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 17:2 (2009), pp. 202–227.

Sussman, G., Branding Democracy: US Regime Change in Post-Soviet Eastern Europe (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2010), p. 41.

Talbot, Strobe and Nayan Chanda (eds), The Age of Terror: America and the World After 9/11 (New York: Basic Books, 2001).

Tarnas, Richard, The Passion of the Western Mind (London: Pimlico, 1991).

Todd, Paul, Jonathan Bloch and Patrick Fitzgerald, Spies, Lies and the War on Terror (London: Zed Books, 2009).

Van der Veer, P. Imperial Encounters: Religion and Modernity in India (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).

Van Dijk, T. A., ‘Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis’, Discourse and Society, 4:2 (1993), pp. 249–283.

Victoroff, Jeff, ‘The Mind of the Terrorist: A review and Critique of Psychological Approaches’, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49:1 (2005), pp. 3–42.

Von Clausewitz, Carl (J.J. Graham, Trans.), On War (Radford, VA: Wilder Publications, 2008).

Weis, Carol H., ‘What America’s Leaders Read’, The Public Opinion Quarterly, 38:1 (1974), pp. 1–22.

West, H. G. and T. Sanders (eds), Transparency and Conspiracy: Ethnographies of Suspicion in the New World Order (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003).

White, Stephen K. and J. Donald Moon (eds), What is Political Theory? (London: Sage, 2004).

Woodward, Bob, State of Denial: Bush at War, Part III (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006).

Woodward, Bob and Karl Bernstein, All the President’s Men (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974).

Wright, L., The Looming Towers: Al Qaeda’s Road to 9/11 (London: Penguin, 2006).

Zonis, Marvin and Craig M. Joseph, ‘Conspiracy Thinking in the Middle East’, Political Psychology, 15:3 (1994), pp. 433–459.

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